A synonym is a word or phrase that means or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are synonymous in one particular sense: for example and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field; the former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have the same meaning because etymology, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat.
Synonyms are a source of euphemisms. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U. S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym; the analysis of synonymy, polysemy and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation; the word comes from ónoma. Synonyms can be any part of speech. Examples: noun drink and beverage verb buy and purchase adjective big and large adverb and speedily preposition on and uponSynonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student; such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. In English, many synonyms emerged after the Norman conquest of England.
While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English. As Old English became more developed, more words would be borrowed from a variety of languages, resulting in more synonyms. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people and archer, the Saxon-derived folk and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English. A thesaurus lists related words; the word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, car is a hyponym of vehicle. Homophones are words that have different meanings.
For example and which are homophones in most accents. Homographs are words that have different pronunciations. For example, one can keep a record of documents. Homonyms are words that have different meanings. For example and rose are homonyms. -onym Cognitive synonymy Elegant variation, the gratuitous use of a synonym in prose Synonym ring Synonymy in Japanese Thesauri and synonym dictionaries Tools which graph words relations: GraphWords – Online tool for visualization word relations Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day. Plain words synonyms finder: Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian and German Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions Classic Thesaurus – Crowdsourced synonym dictionary Power Thesaurus – Synonym dictionary with definitions and examples and other references Past Tenses Synonyms – Online synonym finding website
Snowden is a 2016 biographical thriller film directed by Oliver Stone and written by Stone and Kieran Fitzgerald. Based on the books The Snowden Files by Luke Harding and Time of the Octopus by Anatoly Kucherena, the film stars Joseph Gordon-Levitt as Edward Snowden, a Central Intelligence Agency subcontractor and whistleblower who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency beginning in 2013. In addition to Gordon-Levitt, the film features an ensemble cast including Shailene Woodley, Melissa Leo, Zachary Quinto, Tom Wilkinson, Scott Eastwood, Logan Marshall-Green, Timothy Olyphant, Ben Schnetzer, LaKeith Lee Stanfield, Rhys Ifans and Nicolas Cage. An international co-production of Germany and the United States, principal photography began on February 16, 2015 in Munich. Snowden screened at San Diego Comic-Con on July 21, 2016, before premiering at the 2016 Toronto International Film Festival on September 9, 2016; the film was theatrically released in the United States on September 16, 2016, by Open Road Films and on September 22 in Germany.
It received mixed-to-positive reviews from critics, who praised Gordon-Levitt's performance but criticized the screenplay. It was a box office disappointment, grossing $37.3 million worldwide against its $40 million budget. In 2013, Edward Snowden arranges a clandestine meeting in Hong Kong with documentarian Laura Poitras and journalist Glenn Greenwald, they discuss releasing the classified information in the former’s possession regarding illegal mass surveillance conducted by the National Security Agency. Poitras released a documentary about this meeting titled Citizenfour, this in turn was used in a scene within the film Snowden. In 2004, Snowden is undergoing basic training, having enlisted in the U. S. Army with intentions of matriculating to the Special Forces, he fractures his tibia, is informed that he will be receiving an administrative discharge and that he may serve his country in other ways. Snowden applies for a position at the Central Intelligence Agency and subsequently undergoes the screening process.
His answers to the screening questions are insufficient, but Deputy Director Corbin O'Brian decides to take a chance on him, given the demands of such extraordinary times. Snowden is brought to "The Farm" where he is educated and tested on cyberwarfare, he learns about the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which circumvents the Fourth Amendment rights of U. S. citizens by allowing warrant requests to be approved by a panel of judges that were appointed by the Chief Justice. Snowden and his peers are each tasked with building a covert communications network in their hometown, deleting it, rebuilding it in eight hours or less, with five hours being the average time taken. Snowden impresses O'Brian. Meanwhile, Snowden meets Lindsay Mills via a dating website; the two bond, despite contrasting political ideologies. Snowden acquires his first post abroad working with diplomatic cover in Geneva in 2007, taking Mills with him, he meets Gabriel Sol. Snowden begins questioning the ethical implications of their assignment.
After his superior decides to set up their target on a DUI charge in order to coerce information from him, Snowden resigns from the CIA. Snowden takes a position with the NSA in Japan under the pretense of building a program that would allow the government to back up all critical data from the Middle East in an emergency, a program which he names "Epic Shelter". Snowden learns of the practices the NSA and other U. S. government agencies are using not just in Japan, but in most countries which the U. S. is allied with, which include planting malware in different computers that manage government and financial sectors so that, in the event that any allies turn against the US, that country can be shut down in retaliation. The stress associated with the job results in the end of his relationship with Mills, who moves back with her family in Maryland. Three months Snowden has left his post with the NSA and returned to Maryland where he and Mills resume their relationship and he takes a position consulting for the CIA.
During a hunting trip, O'Brian reveals an operation in Oahu that revolves around counterattacking Chinese hackers. After Snowden is diagnosed with epilepsy, Mills agrees that he should join the operation for she believes the environment in Hawaii may be beneficial for his health. Upon beginning his new job in "The Tunnel", an underground World War II bunker, re-purposed for massive electronic surveillance and SIGINT operations, Snowden learns that Epic Shelter is providing real-time data that assists U. S. drone pilots in launching lethal strikes against terror suspects in Pakistan. Snowden becomes disillusioned with what he is a part of, it culminates in Snowden smuggling a microSD card into his office by way of a Rubik's Cube, loading all relevant data. He tells his colleagues he is feeling ill and departs, he advises Mills to fly home to Maryland, after which he contacts Poitras and Greenwald to schedule the meeting. With the help of journalist Ewen MacAskill, the information is disseminated to the press on June 5, 2013, with additional leaks published in the following days.
In the aftermath, with the help of MacAskill and Poitras, Snowden is smuggled out of Hong Kong on a flight bound for Latin America by way of Russia. However, the U. S. government revokes his passport. He is granted asylum for three years, with Mills joining him at a date. Snowden continues his activism; when Oliver Stone was first approached to helm
The 2013 Rolex Sports Car Series season was the fourteenth and final season of the Grand American Road Racing Association's premier series, before merging up with the American Le Mans Series in 2014. It began with the 51st running of the 24 Hours of Daytona; as the NASCAR Holdings acquisition of Panoz Motor Sports, IMSA, had taken place, this season is technically one of two series that formed the 43rd season of the IMSA GT Championship that dates to 1971. The schedule was released on September 28, 2012 and features the addition of three new circuits for the series; the August 10 event at Road America will be a combined weekend with the American Le Mans Series, showcasing the organizations' recent merger. Previous races at Homestead-Miami Speedway, New Jersey Motorsports Park, Watkins Glen Short Course and Circuit Gilles Villeneuve do not return. Lotus announced; the series introduced. The vehicles utilized new technologies not otherwise used in the series. Mazda announced. 2013 marked the first season since 2004 to feature three classes.
In September 2012, Grand Am tested Kansas Speedway in hopes of adding it to the 2013 schedule. The tests proved successful. Overall winners in bold. Championship points are awarded based on finishing positions; the exception is at the 24 Hours of Daytona, where a minimum of 15th place points are awarded so as not to excessively penalize a low finish when there are more entrants. Drivers denoted by † did not complete sufficient laps in order to score points. Drivers denoted by † did not complete sufficient laps in order to score points. Drivers denoted by † did not complete sufficient laps in order to score points