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Systema Naturae

Systema Naturae is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist and physician Carl Linnaeus and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was developed by the Bauhin brothers and Johann, 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was first to use it throughout his book; the first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition, the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, genera, cum characteribus, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders and species, with characters, synonyms, places"; the tenth edition of this book is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In 1766 -- 1768 Linnaeus published the last under his authorship. Another again enhanced work in the same style and titled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin between 1788 and 1793. Since at least the early 1900s zoologists recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series.

It was officially regarded by the ICZN in Opinion 296 as the 13th edition of Systema Naturae. Linnaeus published the first edition of Systema Naturae in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands; as was customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. In it, he outlined his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom, the plant kingdom, the "mineral kingdom". Linnaeus's Systema Naturae lists only about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals. According to the historian of botany William T. Stearn, "Even in 1753 he believed that the number of species of plants in the whole world would hardly reach 10,000, his sexual system, where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group, was convenient but in his view artificial. Linnaeus believed in God's creation, that there were no deeper relationships to be expressed, he is quoted to have said: "God created, Linnaeus organized".

The classification of animals was more natural. For instance, humans were for the first time placed together as Anthropomorpha; as a result of the popularity of the work, the number of new specimens sent to him from around the world, Linnaeus kept publishing new and ever-expanding editions of his work. It grew from eleven large pages in the first edition to 2,400 pages in the 12th edition; as the work progressed, he made changes: in the first edition, whales were classified as fishes, following the work of Linnaeus' friend and "father of ichthyology" Peter Artedi. In this same edition, he introduced two-part names for animal species, something that he had done for plant species in the 1753 publication of Species Plantarum; the system developed into modern Linnaean taxonomy, a hierarchically organized biological classification. After Linnaeus' health declined in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae went in two directions. Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium, rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition.

Meanwhile, a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. It was as the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus' work became known in England following translation from the Latin by the Lichfield Botanical Society, as A System of Vegetables. In his Imperium Naturæ, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum; this approach, the Animal and Mineral Kingdoms, survives until today in the popular mind, notably in the form of parlour games: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The classification was based on five levels: kingdom, order and species. While species and genus was seen as God-given, the three higher levels were seen by Linnaeus as constructs; the concept behind the set ranks being applied to all groups was to make a system, easy to remember and navigate, a task which most say he succeeded in. Linnaeus's work had a huge impact on science. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum for plants and the 10th edition of the Systema Naturæ, are accepted among the starting points of nomenclature.

Most of his names for species and genera were published at early dates, thus take priority over those of other authors. In zoology there is one exception, a monograph on Swedish spiders, Svenska Spindlar, published by Carl Clerck in 1757, so the names established there take priority over the Linnean names. However, his impact on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy, his talent for attracting skillful young students and sending them abroad to collect specimens made his work far more influential than that of his contemporaries. At the close of the 18th ce

Michael Folk

Michael Craig Folk is an American politician from West Virginia. A Republican, he was a member of the West Virginia House of Delegates, representing District 63. Folk is a graduate of Hedgesville High School, he earned his bachelor of science degree in economics from Shepherd College and his master of business administration from West Virginia University. 2012: Folk ran in the May 8, 2012 Republican Primary and won by 17 votes with 485 votes, won the November 6, 2012 General election with 3,096 votes against Democratic nominee Donn Marshall, who had run for a seat in 2010. 2014: Folk won re-election to the 63rd District, defeating Heather Marshall — wife of his 2012 opponent — by receiving 60.99% of the vote. 2016: Folk won a third term in the House by defeating Democratic challenger Kenneth Lemaster, receiving 58.5% of the vote. 2018: Folk sought election to the West Virginia Senate in the 16th district, but was defeated by incumbent John Unger. On February 5, 2019, Folk announced he would challenge West Virginia Governor Jim Justice in the state's 2020 primary elections.

On July 15, 2016, Folk tweeted that Hillary Clinton should be "hung on the Mall in Washington, DC" in response to her email controversy. He stated that he regretted the comment, but reiterated his belief that Clinton should be tried for treason. Two days Folk was suspended from his job as a pilot for United Airlines over the comment. Official page at the West Virginia Legislature Campaign site Profile on Project VoteSmart Michael Folk at Ballotpedia Michael Folk at the National Institute on Money in State Politics

Christopher, Duke of Lolland

Christopher, Duke of Lolland, was the son of King Valdemar IV of Denmark and his wife Helvig of Schleswig. Christopher was appointed duke in 1359 and was selected to succeed as king, he was first mentioned in 1354-55, in 1358 was sent by his father to Nyborg to negotiate with representatives of the rebellious Jutes. He became involved in government decisions, was appointed Duke of Lolland, he entitled himself as the True Heir of Danes and Slavs. Christopher participated in the war for reconquest of Scania which his father had initiated. Christopher was injured during the Battle of Helsingborg in 1362. German chronicles are not clear about what weapon inflicted the prince's mortal wound, but according to Swedish Henrik Smith's chronicle from the early 16th century Christopher was hit by a rock while fighting at sea. According to Nordisk familjebok, Christopher was shot in the head with a rock and subsequently suffered from a mental disorder. Christopher died from an illness the following year in Copenhagen.

Although his death is attributed to his war wounds it is unknown to what extent his injuries contributed to the illness. Instead being buried at Sorø Abbey with his father and mother, he was buried in Roskilde Cathedral with his sister Margaret I of Denmark, his tomb was commissioned in Central Europe, depicts the alabaster effigy of a young knight in full armor studded with jewels and surrounded by the heraldic shields of Denmark and Lolland. The tomb is empty as the prince is buried beneath the church floor; the alabaster tomb visible today was restored in 1879 by sculptor Vilhelm Bissen from fragmentary pieces after being destroyed during the Reformation. Jörgensen Ellen: Valdemar Atterdag. Utvalg af kilder. Copenhagen 1911. Gottfrid Carlsson. Medeltidens nordiska unionstanke. Stockholm: Gebers. Pp. 33–34. Nordisk familjebok, band 14, s. 1453–1454