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The city of Székesfehérvár, known colloquially as Fehérvár, located in central Hungary, is the ninth largest city of the country. The area is an important road junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence. Székesfehérvár, a royal residence, as capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, held a central role in the Middle Ages; as required by the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, the first kings of Hungary were crowned and buried here. Significant trade routes led to the Balkans and Italy, to Buda and Vienna; the city has come under Ottoman and Habsburg control, was known in many languages by translations of "white castle": The place has been inhabited since the 5th century BC. In Roman times the settlements were called Herculia. After the Migration Period Fejér County was the part of the Avar Khaganate, while the Slavic and Great Moravian presence is disputed. In the Middle Ages its Latin name was Alba Regalis/Alba Regia; the town was an important traffic junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence, several trade routes led from here to the Balkans and Italy, to Buda and Vienna.

Although the origin and exact location of the town is still disputed, according to the most accepted view Grand Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes but in reality ruled only part of the united territory. He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models. Géza founded the Hungarian town in 972 on four moorland islands between the Gaja stream and its tributary, the Sárvíz, one of the most important Hungarian tributaries of the Danube, he had a small stone castle built. Székesfehérvár was first mentioned in a document by the Bishopric of Veszprém, 1009, as Alba Civitas. Stephen I of Hungary granted town rights to the settlement, surrounded the town with a plank wall, founded a school and a monastery. Under his rule the construction of the Romanesque Székesfehérvár Basilica began; the settlement had about 3,500 inhabitants at this time and was the royal seat for hundreds of years.

43 kings were crowned in Székesfehérvár and 15 kings were buried here. In the 12th century, the town prospered, churches and houses were built, it was an important station on the pilgrim route to the Holy Land. András II issued the Golden Bull here in 1222; the Bull included the rights of nobles and the duties of the king, the Constitution of Hungary was based on it until 1848. It is compared to England's Magna Charta. During the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, the invaders could not get close to the castle: Kadan ruled Mongol warriors could not get through the surrounding marshes because of flooding caused by melting snow. In the 13th–15th centuries, the town prospered, several palaces were built. In the 14th century, Székesfehérvár was surrounded by city walls. After the death of King Mátyás, the German army of 20,000 men of Maximilian invaded Hungary, they advanced into the heart of Hungary and captured the city of Székesfehérvár, which he sacked, as well as the tomb of King Mátyás, kept there. His Landsknechts were still refused to go for taking Buda.

He returned to the Empire in late December and the Hungarian troops liberated Székesfehérvár in the next year. The Ottomans conquered the city after a long siege in 1543 and only after a sally ended in most of the defenders including the commander, György Varkoch, being locked out by wealthy citizens fearing they might incur the wrath of the Ottomans by a lengthy siege, they discovered after surrendering, that the Ottomans were not without a sense for chivalry and those responsible for shutting the defenders out were put to death. Except for a short period in 1601 when Székesfehérvár was reconquered by an army led by Lawrence of Brindisi, the city remained under Ottoman administration for 145 years, until 1688, with the Ottomans being preoccupied with the Morean War; the Ottomans destroyed most of the city, they demolished the cathedral and the royal palace, they pillaged the graves of kings in the cathedral. They built mosques. In the 16th–17th centuries it looked like a Muslim city. Most of the original population fled.

It was a sanjak centre in Budin Province as "İstolni Belgrad" during Ottoman rule. The city began to prosper again only in the 18th century, it had a mixed population: Hungarians, Serbs and Moravians. By 1702, the cathedral of Nagyboldogasszony was blown up, thus destroying the largest cathedral in Hungary at that time, the coronation temple. By the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, all kings of Hungary were obliged to be crowned in this cathedral, to take part in coronation ceremony in the surroundings of the cathedral; the coronations after that time were held in Pozsony. In 1703, Székesfehérvár regained the status of a free royal town. In the middle of the century, several new buildings were erected. Maria Theresa made the city an episcopal seat in 1777. By the early 19th century, the German population was assimilated. On 15 March 1848, the citizens joined the revolution. After the revolution and war for independence

Ministers of State of the 32nd Dáil

This is a list of Ministers of State of the 32nd Dáil. On 6 May 2016, the 30th Government of Ireland was nominated by Dáil Éireann on the advice of the Taoiseach, appointed by the President; the Fine Gael–Independent coalition was led by the Taoiseach, Enda Kenny. At this time, Kenny announced to the Dáil that he would appoint Regina Doherty, TD to the post of Minister of State at the Department of the Taoiseach with special responsibility as Government Chief Whip, Paul Kehoe as Minister of State at the Department of Defence and Finian McGrath, TD to the position of Minister of State for Disability. On 19 May 2016, the appointment of 15 other ministers of state were announced. At this time, Varadker announced to the Dáil that he would appoint Joe McHugh, as Government Chief Whip and Minister of State at the Department of Arts and the Gaeltacht with responsibility for Gaeilge and the Islands, Mary Mitchell O'Connor as Minister of State at the Department of Education and Skills with responsibility for higher education, Paul Kehoe as Minister of State at the Department of the Taoiseach and the Department of Defence with special responsibility for defence, Finian McGrath as Minister of State at the Department of Social Protection, the Department of Justice and Equality, the Department of Health with special responsibility for disability issues.

On 20 June 2017, the appointment other ministers of state were announced. Minister of State Members of the 32nd Dáil Government of the 32nd Dáil Government Ministers – Government of Ireland

Catholic Sentinel

The Catholic Sentinel is the "Oldest Catholic Newspaper on the West Coast". Published twice a month, it is the official newspaper of the Archdiocese of Portland, it is published by Oregon Catholic Press, which publishes El Centinela, a Spanish-language newspaper for Oregon Catholics. It has published an online edition since 1996; the Catholic Sentinel was started in response to anti-Catholicism in 1869 by grocer Henry Herman and printer J. F. Atkinson. After the Whitman massacre in 1847, a Protestant minister had falsely accused local Catholics of inciting a band of Cayuse Indians to killing 10 Protestant missionaries; the first run of the Catholic Sentinel was 500 copies, a year's subscription cost $4. The Sentinel now sends out 8,000 of El Centinela; the Sentinel has fought anti-Catholic prejudice. In 1879, editor Stephen McCormick stated,The need of a vigorous defender of the Faith in the Northwest is apparent to every Catholic who notices the numerous calumnies and slanders the Sentinel is called on to refute in the course of a single year.

We have to defend the truth against all attacks. In August 1895 Rev. Roland Grant of the American Protective Association spoke at the First Baptist Church in Portland. Among other claims, members of the A. P. A. Maintained that the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church had instigated the Civil War, during which they said Catholics made up large numbers of deserters, that both Grover Cleveland and William McKinley were controlled by the Church; the Sentinel covered Grant's speech in which he spoke of an A. P. A riot in Boston a month earlier on the 4th of July. In 1913, the editor of the Silverton Journal, J. E. Hosmer, published a pamphlet entitled, "The Escaped Nun from Mount Angel Convent or The Last Stand of Desperate Despotism". Hosmer was convicted of libel and recanted. In 1912, for several years thereafter, the Ku Klux Klan circulated a bogus oath taken by members of the Knights of Columbus; the spurious pledge contained, among other provisions those in which members purported pledged loyalty to the Pope and denounced Liberals and Protestants.

Editor John O'Hara found. The papers cover personalities and stories of interest to Oregon Catholics. In 2017, the Catholic Press Association of the United States named the Sentinel Newspaper of the Year in its category; the last time the paper won that honor was 1959. The Catholic Sentinel El Centinela


Kanižarica is a settlement southwest of the town of Črnomelj in the White Carniola area of southeastern Slovenia. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola and is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region. During the Second World War, on 19 July 1942, the Partisan White Carniola Detachment took 61 Roma from Kanižarica, they were marched to Mavrlen, emptied of its Gottschee German residents, held prisoner there for two days, murdered and buried in the Zagradec Mass Grave southeast of the abandoned settlement of Gradec, now part of the settlement of Rožič Vrh. A coal mine in the settlement that began in 1857 and was closed 1995 is preserved; the main mine shaft has been filled in, but the headframe and administrative buildings remain and some of the original mining equipment is displayed in a reconstructed shaft. Kanižarica on Geopedia

Kevin Izod O'Doherty

Kevin Izod O'Doherty was an Irish Australian politician. He was a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. O'Doherty was born in Dublin on 7 September 1823, although other sources including the Dictionary of Australasian Biography indicate he was born in June 1824. Charles Gavan Duffy, in his My Life in Two Hemispheres, states that O'Doherty was still under age when he was arrested in July 1848. O'Doherty received a good education and studied medicine, but before he was qualified, joined the Young Ireland party and in June 1848, together with Thomas Antisell and Richard D'Alton Williams, established The Irish Tribune. Only five editions were issued, the first being on 10 June 1848. On 10 July 1848, when the fifth edition was issued, O'Doherty was arrested and charged with treason-felony. At the first and second trials the juries disagreed, but at the third trial he was found guilty and sentenced to transportation for 10 years. O'Doherty arrived in Tasmania in November 1849, was at once released on parole to reside at Oatlands, his professional services were utilised at St. Mary's Hospital, Hobart.

The other Irish prisoners nicknamed him'St Kevin'.. In 1854 received a pardon with the condition that he must not reside in Great Britain or Ireland, he went to Paris and carried on his medical studies, making one secret visit to Ireland to marry Mary Eva Kelly, to whom he was affianced before leaving Ireland. He received an unconditional pardon in 1856, completed his studies in Dublin, graduating FRCS in 1857, he practised in Dublin and in 1862 went to Brisbane and became well known as one of its leading physicians. O'Doherty was elected a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly in 1867, in 1872 was responsible for a health act being passed, was one of the early opponents of the traffic in kanakas. In 1877 he transferred to the Queensland Legislative Council, in 1885 resigned as he intended to settle in Europe. In Ireland O'Doherty was cordially welcomed, was returned unopposed as Irish Parliamentary Party MP for North Meath to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in the November 1885 general election.

He attempted to take up his medical practice again but was not successful, he died in poor circumstances on 15 July 1905. His wife and a daughter survived him. A fund was raised by public subscription to provide for his widow, Mary Anne, a poet, who in her early days was well known as the author of Irish patriotic verse in The Nation under the soubriqet "Eva". In Australia she contributed to Queensland journals, one of her poems is included in A Book of Queensland Verse, she died at Brisbane on 21 May 1910. List of convicts transported to Australia An Apology for the British Government in Ireland, John Mitchel, O'Donoghue & Company 1905, 96 pages Jail Journal: Commenced on Board the "Shearwater" Steamer, in Dublin Bay... John Mitchel, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd 1914, 463 pages Jail Journal: with continuation in New York & Paris, John Mitchel, M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd The Crusade of the Period, John Mitchel, Cole & Meehan 1873 History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present Time, John Mitchel, Cameron & Ferguson History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present Time, John Mitchel, James Duffy 1869 Life of Hugh O'Neil John Mitchel, P. M. Haverty 1868 The Last Conquest of Ireland, John Mitchel The Felon's Track, Michael Doheny, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd 1951 The Volunteers of 1782, Thomas Mac Nevin, James Duffy & Sons.

Centenary Edition Thomas Davis, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Kegan Paul, Trubner & Co, Ltd 1890 My Life In Two Hemispheres, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, T. Fisher Unwin. 1898 Young Ireland, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Petter, Galpin & Co 1880 Four Years of Irish History 1845–1849, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Petter, Galpin & Co. 1888 A Popular History of Ireland: From the Earliest Period to the Emancipation of the Catholics, Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Cameron & Ferguson The Patriot Parliament of 1689, Thomas Davis, T. Fisher Unwin, MDCCCXCIII Charles Gavan Duffy: Conversations with Carlyle Davis, Poem’s and Essays Complete, introduction by John Mitchel, P. M. Haverty, P. J. Kenedy, 9/5 Barclay St. New York, 1876; the Politics of Irish Literature: from Thomas Davis to W. B. Yeats, Malcolm Brown, Allen & Unwin, 1973 John Mitchel, A Cause Too Many, Aidan Hegarty, Camlane Press. Thomas Davis, The Thinker and Teacher, Arthur Griffith, M. H. Gill & Sons Ltd. 1922. Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher: His Political and Military Career, W. F. Lyons, Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd. 1869 Young Ireland and 1848, Denis Gwynn, Cork University Press, 1949'Repeal and Revolution.

1848 in Ireland', Christine Kinealy, Manchester, 2009 Daniel O'Connell – The Irish Liberator, Denis Gwynn, Hutchinson & Co, Ltd. O'Connell and the Colleges Bill, Denis Gwynn, Cork University Press, 1948 Smith O’Brien And The "Secession", Denis Gwynn, Cork University Press Meagher of The Sword, Edited By Arthur Griffith, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd. 1916 Young Irelander Abroad – The Diary of Charles Hart, Edited by Brendan O'Cathaoir, University Press. John Mitchel – First Felon for Ireland, Edited By Brian O'Higgins, 1947 Rossa's Recollections – 1838 to 1898, The Lyons Press, 2004 Labour in Ireland, James Connolly, Fleet Street, 1910 The Re-Conquest of Ireland, James Connolly, Fleet Street

Caravan (novel)

Caravan is a melodramatic novel by the British writer Lady Eleanor Smith first published in 1942. A young Englishman James Darrell goes on the road living with the Romany people in England while trying to make enough money as a writer to marry his sweetheart Oriana. However, she marries a wealthy young Englishman. James undertakes a mission to Spain for a business friend, while there he is attacked and robbed, he is rescued by a gypsy woman but he has lost his memory. Having lost his memory, he marries the gypsy girl, without knowing of his former life in Britain; when his memory returns he resents the gypsy girl for deceiving him but stays with her and works as a secretary for a famous bullfighter. When Rosal is accidentally killed by the bullfighter the hero goes to Morocco. Upon his return to England his book on his journeys in Spain make him a wealthy man, he reunites with his first love, trapped in a loveless marriage. The book is written as a young reporter is sent to interview James Darrell on the occasion of his 70th birthday, is written as a "flashback" by the old author.

In 1946 the novel was adapted into a film Caravan by Gainsborough Pictures as part of the Gainsborough melodramas sequence of films. The film was directed by Arthur Crabtree and starred Stewart Granger, Jean Kent, Anne Crawford and Dennis Price. Murphy, Robert. Realism and Tinsel: Cinema and Society in Britain 1939-48. Routledge, 1992