Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb", for the characteristic mausoleums relatively small, of Ottoman royalty and notables. It is related to the Arabic تُرْبَة turbah, which can mean a mausoleum, but more a funerary complex, or a plot in a cemetery. A typical türbe mausoleum is located in the grounds of a mosque or complex endowed by the deceased; however some are more integrated into surrounding buildings. They are relatively small buildings hexagonal or octagonal in shape, containing a single chamber, which may well be decorated with coloured tiles. A dome surmounts the building, they are kept closed, but the inside can be sometimes be glimpsed through metal grilles over the windows or door. The exterior is masonry with tiled decoration over the doorway, but the interior contains large areas of painted tilework, which may be of the highest quality. Inside, the body or bodies repose in plain stone sarcophagi with a simple inscription, which are, or were covered by rich cloth drapes. In general the sarcophagi are symbolic, the actual body lies below the floor.

At the head of the tomb in some examples a wooden pole was surmounted by a white cloth Ottoman turban, or the turban could be in stone. Earlier examples had two or more storeys, following the example of the Ilkhanate and Persian tombs on which the style was based; the Ottoman style is supposed to reflect the shape of the tents used by the earlier nomadic ottomans, their successors when on military campaigns. Sultans built their tombs during their lifetimes, although those of other family members, some sultans, were built after their deaths. Sultan Murad I, assassinated just after his victory at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, has his türbe there, with his vital organs, while the rest was carried back to his capital at Bursa, where he has another türbe. There are many famous türbes across Istanbul of the various sultans of the Ottoman Empire, as well as of other notables from Turkish history; the Süleymaniye Mosque complex has some of the most famous, including that of Suleiman himself the most splendid Ottoman türbe, that of his wife Hürrem Sultan, which has fine tilework.

Close by to the complex is the türbe of its famous architect Mimar Sinan, in what was his garden. Konya holds two earlier türbe, with conical roofs, of the Seljuk Rum dynasty in the Alâeddin Mosque, the türbe of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, a major shrine and pilgrimage point, just like the türbe of Gül Baba in Budapest, Hungary. Bursa, a capital of the earlier Ottomans before the conquest of Constantinople, holds the turbes of many of the earlier Ottoman Sultans including Osman I and his son, the Muradiye Complex containing Murad II and many princes, the Yeşil Türbe of Mehmed I; this is a large three-story tower, the sarcophagus itself is covered in tiles. Unusually, much of the exterior is covered with undecorated coloured tiles. In Bulgaria, the heptagonal türbes of dervish saints such as Kıdlemi Baba, Ak Yazılı Baba, Demir Baba and Otman Baba served as the centers of Bektashi tekkes before 1826; the türbe of Haji Bektash Veli is located in the original Bektashi tekke in the town that now bears his name and remains a site for Alevi pilgrims from throughout Turkey.

At the peak of the Ottoman empire, under Gazi Husrev-beg Sarajevo and Herzegovina, became the biggest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans after Istanbul, with largest marketplace, numerous mosques, which by the middle of the 16th century numbered more than 100. By 1660, the population of Sarajevo was estimated to be over 80,000. Husrev-beg shaped the physical city, as most of what is now the Old Town was built during his reign; the Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque, is a mosque in Sarajevo historic marketplace Baščaršija, it was built in 16th century. It is the largest historical mosque in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the most representative Ottoman structures in the Balkans. Gazi Husrev-beg's turbe is located in the mosque courtyard. Travnik, in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, became the capital of the Ottoman province of Bosnia and residence of the Bosnian viziers after 1699, when Sarajevo was set ablaze by Prince Eugene of Savoy; the Grand Viziers were sometimes buried in Travnik, türbe shrines were erected in their honour in the heart of Old town of Travnik, where they stand today.

The türbe of Idrisz Baba stands in Pécs, Hungary and was built in 1591. It features an octagonal base and domed sepulchre, with ogee-shaped lower windows and circular upper windows on the facade, it is one of only two surviving türbes of its kind in Hungary, plays an important role in the record of Ottoman architecture in Hungary. Not much is known about the Turkish person entombed in the türbe of Idrisz Baba, it was used as a storage facility for gunpowder. The türbe has been furnished with a mausoleum, embroidered sheet, prayer mat by the Turkish government. Both the türbe of Idrisz Baba and the türbe of Gül Baba are places of pilgrimage for Muslims. Gonbad and Kümbet and Seljuk equivalents. Gongbei Levey, Michael. "The Ottoman Architectural Patrimony in Bulgaria". EJOS. Utrecht. 30. ISSN 0928-6802. Meri, Josef F; the cult of saints among Muslims and Jews in medieval Sy

CBL (gene)

Cbl is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ubiquitination. Mutations to this gene have been implicated in a number of human cancers acute myeloid leukaemia. In 1989 a virally encoded portion of the chromosomal mouse Cbl gene was the first member of the Cbl family to be discovered and was named v-Cbl to distinguish it from normal mouse c-Cbl; the virus used in the experiment was a mouse-tropic strain of Murine leukemia virus isolated from the brain of a mouse captured at Lake Casitas, California known as Cas-Br-M, was found to have excised a third of the original c-Cbl gene from a mouse into which it was injected. Sequencing revealed that the portion carried by the retrovirus encoded a tyrosine kinase binding domain, that this was the oncogenic form as retroviruses carrying full-length c-Cbl did not induce tumor formation; the resultant transformed retrovirus was found to induce a type of pre-B lymphoma, known as Casitas B-lineage lymphoma, in infected mice.

Full length c-Cbl has been found to consist of several regions encoding for functionally distinct protein domains: N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain: determines the protein which it can bind to RING finger domain motif: recruits enzymes involved in ubiquitination Proline-rich region: the site of interaction between Cbl and cytosolic proteins involved in Cbl's adaptor functions C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain: the site of ubiquitin bindingThis domain structure and the tyrosine and serine-rich content of the protein product is typical of an "adaptor molecule" used in cell signalling pathways. Three mammalian homologues have been characterized, which all differ in their ability to function as adaptor proteins due to the differing lengths of their C-terminal UBA domains: c-Cbl: ubiquitously expressed, 906 and 913 amino acids in length in humans and mice Cbl-b: ubiquitously expressed, 982 amino acids long. Cbl-c: is therefore only 474 amino acids in length, it is expressed in epithelial cells however its function is poorly understood.

Both c-Cbl and Cbl-b have orthologues in D. melanogaster and C. elegans, hinting at a long evolutionary path for these proteins. Ubiquitination is the process of chemically attaching ubiquitin monomers to a protein, thereby targeting it for degradation; as this is a multi-step process, several different enzymes are involved, the final one being a member of the E3 family of ligases. Cbl functions as an E3 ligase, therefore is able to catalyse the formation of a covalent bond between ubiquitin and Cbl's protein substrate - a receptor tyrosine kinase; the RING-finger domain mediates this transfer, however like other E3 ligases of the RING type no intermediate covalent bond is formed between ubiquitin and the RING-finger domain. The stepwise attachment of ubiquitin to the substrate receptor tyrosine kinase can lead to its removal from the plasma membrane and subsequent trafficking to the lysosome for degradation. Cbl gene has been shown to interact with: Quips article describing CBL function at PDBe OMIM enteries on NOONAN SYNDROME-LIKE DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT JUVENILE MYELOMONOCYTIC LEUKEMIA and CBL Human CBL genome location and CBL gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser

Mike Foligno

Michael Anthony Foligno is a Canadian former professional ice hockey right winger who played in the National Hockey League for fifteen seasons from 1979–80 until 1993–94. He is a scout for the Vegas Golden Knights. Foligno was born in Sudbury, but spent his early years in Italy where he took up the sport of soccer, participating as a goalkeeper; when Foligno returned to Canada with his family at the age of 10, he was introduced to hockey. Foligno was drafted 3rd overall by the Detroit Red Wings in the 1979 NHL Entry Draft, he played 1018 career NHL games, scoring 355 goals and 372 assists for 727 points, while adding 2049 penalty minutes. His best offensive season was the 1985–86 season with the Buffalo Sabres, when he scored 41 goals and 80 points, both career highs. On December 21, 1991, while with the Maple Leafs, he broke his foot while playing against Buffalo, causing him to miss a majority of the season. Foligno is best known for his trademark jump, dubbed the "Foligno Leap", after scoring a goal.

Both of his two sons have carried on the tradition of the Foligno Leap. Foligno has worked as an assistant coach for the Toronto Maple Leafs, Colorado Avalanche, Anaheim Ducks, New Jersey Devils, he was the general manager of the Sudbury Wolves, was the head coach of the club, including the time when both of his sons and Marcus, played prior to playing in the NHL. On September 21, 2016, it was announced that Foligno was hired as a scout for the expansion Vegas Golden Knights. December 2, 1981: Traded to the Buffalo Sabres along with Dale McCourt and Brent Peterson in exchange for Danny Gare, Jim Schoenfeld and Derek Smith. December 17, 1990: Traded to the Toronto Maple Leafs along with Buffalo's 8th round pick in the 1991 Draft in exchange for Brian Curran and Lou Franceschetti. November 5, 1993: Traded to the Florida Panthers in exchange for cash. Foligno was married to wife Janis until her death in 2009 during his time as coach in Sudbury, they have four children, Cara (teacher in the Dufferin-Peel Catholic school board, Lisa and Marcus.

Nick was drafted in the first round of the 2006 NHL Entry Draft by the Ottawa Senators, made the 2007–08 Senators team and is the captain of the Columbus Blue Jackets. Marcus was drafted 104th overall in the 2009 NHL Entry Draft by the Buffalo Sabres. Marcus won a silver medal with Team Canada at the 2011 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships and joined the Sabres in the 2011–12 season, plays for the Minnesota Wild. List of NHL players with 1000 games played List of NHL players with 2000 career penalty minutes Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database