Tlaloc is a member of the pantheon of gods in Aztec religion. As supreme god of the rain, Tlaloc is a god of earthly fertility and of water, he was worshipped as a beneficent giver of life and sustenance. However, he was feared for his ability to send hail and lightning, for being the lord of the powerful element of water. Tlaloc is associated with caves and mountains, most the sacred mountain in which he was believed to reside, his animal forms include herons and water-dwelling creatures such as amphibians and sea creatures shellfish. The Mexican marigold, Tagetes lucida, known to the Aztecs as yauhtli, was another important symbol of the god, was burned as a ritual incense in native religious ceremonies; the cult of Tlaloc is one of the most universal in ancient Mexico. Although the name Tlaloc is Aztec, worship of a storm god like Tlaloc, associated with mountaintop shrines and with life-giving rain, is as at least as old as Teotihuacan and was adopted from the Maya god Chaac or vice versa, or he was derived from an earlier Olmec precursor.
An underground Tlaloc shrine has been found at Teotihuacan. In Aztec iconography, Tlaloc is depicted with goggle eyes and fangs, he is most coupled with lightning and water in visual representations and artwork. Offerings dedicated to Tlaloc in Tenochtitlan were known to include several jaguar skulls and a complete jaguar skeleton. Jaguars were considered the ultimate sacrificial animal due to their value. Tlaloc's impersonators wore the distinctive mask and heron-feather headdress carrying a cornstalk or a symbolic lightning bolt wand. Along with this, Tlaloc is manifested in the form of boulders at shrine-sites, in the Valley of Mexico the primary shrine of this deity was located atop Mount Tlaloc. In Coatlinchan, a colossal statue weighing 168 tons was found, thought to represent Tlaloc. However, one scholar believes that the statue may not have been Tlaloc at all but his sister or some other female deity; this statue was relocated to the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City in 1964.
While pre-Hispanic cultures are thought to have become extinct once the Spanish had completed the colonization of Mexico, aspects of pre-Hispanic cultures continue to influence Mexican culture. Accordingly, Tlaloc has continued to be represented in Mexican culture after the Spanish were thought to have completed evangelizing in Mexico. In fact as the Spanish were begging to proselytize in Mexico, religious syncretism was occurring. Analyses of evangelization plays put on by the Spanish, in order to convert the indigenous peoples to Christianity, suggests that the Spanish might have unknowingly created connections between Christianity and indigenous religious figures, such as Tlaloc. Indigenous Mexicans viewing these plays might have made connections between the sacrifice Abraham was willing to make of Isaac, to the sacrifices that were made to Tlaloc and other deities; these connections may have allowed indigenous peoples to retain ideas about sacrifice as they were being forcibly converted to Christianity.
Early syncretism between indigenous religions and Christianity included more direct connections to Tlaloc. Some churches built during the sixteenth century, such as the Santiago Tlatelolco church had stones depicting Tlaloc within the interior of the church; as the Roman Catholic Church sought to eradicate indigenous religious traditions, depiction of Tlaloc still remained within worship spaces, suggesting that Tlaloc would still have been worshipped after Spanish colonization. It is clear that Tlaloc would have continued to have played a role in Mexican cultures after colonization. Despite the fact, has been nearly half a millennium since the conquest of Mexico, Tlaloc still plays a role in shaping Mexican culture. At Coatlinchan, a giant statue of Tlaloc continues to play a key role in shaping local culture after the statue was relocated to Mexico City. In Coatlinchan, people still celebrate the statue of Tlaloc, so much so that some local residents still seek to worship him, while the local municipality has erected a reproduction of the original statue.
Many residents of Coatlinchan, relate to the statue of Tlaloc in the way that they might associate themselves with a patron saint, linking their identity as a resident of the town with the image of Tlaloc. While Tlaloc plays an important role in the lives of the people of Coatlinchan, the god plays an important role in shaping the Mexican identity. Images of Tlaloc are found throughout Mexico from Tijuana to the Yucatán, images of the statue of Tlaloc found at Coatlinchan are deployed as a symbol of the Mexican nation. Tlaloc and other pre-Hispanic features are critical to creating a common Mexican identity that unites people throughout Mexico. Accordingly, people throughout Mexico, in Coatlinchan, refer to Tlaloc in anthropomorphized ways, referring to Tlaloc as a person. Furthermore, people continue to observe superstitions about Tlaloc. Despite centuries of colonial erasure, Tlaloc continues to be represented in Mexican culture. Evidence suggests that Tlaloc was represented in religions. Tlaloc is thought to be one of the most worshipped deities at Teotihuacan and it is here, in Teotihuacan, that representations of Tlaloc show him having jaguar teeth and features.
This differs from the Maya version of Tlaloc, as the Maya representation depicts no specific relation to jaguars. The inhabitants of Teotihuacan thought of thunder as the rumblings of the jaguar and associated
Ehecatl is a pre-Columbian deity associated with the wind, who features in Aztec mythology and the mythologies of other cultures from the central Mexico region of Mesoamerica. He is most interpreted as the aspect of the Feathered Serpent deity as a god of wind, is therefore known as Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl. Ehecatl figures prominently as one of the creator gods and culture heroes in the mythical creation accounts documented for pre-Columbian central Mexican cultures. Since the wind blows in all directions, Ehecatl was associated with all the cardinal directions, his temple was built as a cylinder in order to reduce the air resistance, was sometimes portrayed with two protruding masks through which the wind blew
In Aztec mythology, Huehuecóyotl is the auspicious god of music, dance and song of Pre-Columbian Mexico. He is the patron of uninhibited sexuality and rules over the day sign in the Aztec calendar named cuetzpallin and the fourth trecena Xochitl He is depicted in the Codex Borbonicus as a dancing coyote with human hands and feet, accompanied by a human drummer; the name "Very old coyote" conveyed positive meanings for the Aztec populace. The prefix "huehue" which in Nahuatl means "very old" was attached to gods in Aztec mythology that were revered for their old age, philosophical insights and connections to the divine. Although appearing in stories as male, Huehuecóyotl can be gender changing, as many of the offspring of Tezcatlipoca, he can be associated with male sexuality, good luck and story-telling. One of his prominent female lovers was Temazcalteci, the goddess of bathing and sweat baths known as Mexican sauna and Xochiquetzal, the goddess of love, female sexuality, prostitutes and young mothers.
As all Aztec deities, Huehuecóyotl was dualistic in his exercise of evil. He was perceived as a balanced god. In most depictions of Huehuecóyotl, he is followed by a human drummer or groups of humans that appear to be friendly to him, exceptional in Mesoamerican culture. Stories derived from the Codex Telleriano-Remensis make him a benign prankster, whose tricks are played on other gods or humans but tended to backfire and cause more trouble for himself than the intended victims. A great party-giver, he was alleged to foment wars between humans to relieve his boredom, he is a part of the Tezcatlipoca family of the Mexica gods, has their shapeshifting powers. Those who had indications of evil fates from other gods would sometimes appeal to Huehuecóyotl to mitigate or reverse their fate. Huehuecóyotl shares many characteristics with the trickster Coyote of the North American tribes, including storytelling and choral singing; the fourth day of the thirteen day Mexican week belonged to Huehuecóyotl.
He was the only friend to Xolotl, the god of twins and deformity and accompanies the dead to Mictlan. Their association is born from the canine nature of both gods. Karl Young, The Continuum of Life in Codex Borbonicus
In Aztec mythology, Tepēyōllōtl Nahuatl pronunciation: was the god of earthquakes and jaguars. He is the god of the Eighth Hour of the Night, is depicted as a jaguar leaping towards the sun. In the calendar, Tepeyollotl rules over both the third day and the third trecena, 1-Mazatl, he is the eighth Lord of the Night. The word is derived as a compound of the Nahuatl words tepētl, yōllōtl. Tepeyollotl is depicted as cross-eyed holding the typical white staff with green feathers. Sometimes Tezcatlipoca wore Tepeyollotl for an animal skin or disguise to trick other gods into not knowing who he was
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has the longest rotation period of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets, it does not have any natural satellites. It is named after the Roman goddess of beauty, it is the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6 – bright enough to cast shadows at night and visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Orbiting within Earth's orbit, Venus is an inferior planet and never appears to venture far from the Sun. Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, proximity to the Sun, bulk composition, it is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide; the atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth, or the pressure found 900 m underwater on Earth.
Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 735 K though Mercury is closer to the Sun. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light, it may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water has photodissociated, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field. Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and is periodically resurfaced by volcanism; as one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been a major fixture in human culture for as long as records have existed. It has been made sacred to gods of many cultures, has been a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the morning star and evening star. Venus was the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky, as early as the second millennium BC.
As the planet with the closest approach to Earth, Venus has been a prime target for early interplanetary exploration. It was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft, the first to be landed on. Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. Plans have been proposed for rovers or more complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus's hostile surface conditions. Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, meaning that it is a rocky body like Earth, it is similar to Earth in size and mass, is described as Earth's "sister" or "twin". The diameter of Venus is 12,103.6 km —only 638.4 km less than Earth's—and its mass is 81.5% of Earth's. Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth because its dense atmosphere is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% being nitrogen. The Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century.
Venera landers in 1975 and 1982 returned images of a surface covered in sediment and angular rocks. The surface was mapped in detail by Magellan in 1990–91; the ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism, the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been recent eruptions. About 80% of the Venusian surface is covered by smooth, volcanic plains, consisting of 70% plains with wrinkle ridges and 10% smooth or lobate plains. Two highland "continents" make up the rest of its surface area, one lying in the planet's northern hemisphere and the other just south of the equator; the northern continent is called Ishtar Terra after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, is about the size of Australia. Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra, its peak is 11 km above the Venusian average surface elevation. The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, is the larger of the two highland regions at the size of South America. A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area.
The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible calderas remains an enigma. The planet has few impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is young 300–600 million years old. Venus has some unique surface features in addition to the impact craters and valleys found on rocky planets. Among these are flat-topped volcanic features called "farra", which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20 to 50 km across, from 100 to 1,000 m high; these features are volcanic in origin. Most Venusian surface features are named after mythological women. Exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, highland regions Alpha Regio, Beta Regio, Ovda Regio; the latter three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union, the body which oversees planetary nomenclature. The longitudes of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian; the original prime meridian passed through the radar-bright spot at the centre o
A trecena is a 13-day period used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars. The 260-day calendar was divided into 20 trecenas. Trecena is derived from the Spanish chroniclers and translates to "a group of thirteen" in the same way that a dozen relates to the number twelve, it is associated with the Aztecs, but is called different names in the calendars of the Maya, Zapotec and others of the region. Many surviving Mesoamerican codices, such as Codex Borbonicus, are divinitory calendars, based on the 260-day year, with each page representing one trecena. Aztec calendar Maya calendar Tonalpohualli K'atun
In Aztec mythology, was the god of fire and heat. He was the lord of volcanoes, the personification of life after death, warmth in cold, light in darkness and food during famine, he was named Cuezaltzin and Ixcozauhqui, is sometimes considered to be the same as Huehueteotl, although Xiuhtecuhtli is shown as a young deity. His wife was Chalchiuhtlicue. Xiuhtecuhtli is sometimes considered to be a manifestation of Ometecuhtli, the Lord of Duality, according to the Florentine Codex Xiuhtecuhtli was considered to be the father of the Gods, who dwelled in the turquoise enclosure in the center of earth. Xiuhtecuhtli-Huehueteotl was one of the most revered of the indigenous pantheon; the cult of the God of Fire, of the Year, of Turquoise began as far back as the middle Preclassic period. Turquoise was the symbolic equivalent of fire for Aztec priests. A small fire was permanently kept alive at the sacred center of every Aztec home in honor of Xiuhtecuhtli; the Nahuatl word xihuitl means "year" as well as "turquoise" and "fire", Xiuhtecuhtli was the god of the year and of time.
The Lord of the Year concept came from the Aztec belief. In the 260-day ritual calendar, the deity was the patron of the day Atl and with the trecena 1 Coatl. Xiuhtecuhtli was one of the nine Lords of the Night and ruled the first hour of the night, named Cipactli. Scholars have long emphasized that this fire deity has aquatic qualities. Xiuhtecuhtli dwelt inside an enclosure of turquoise stones, fortifying himself with turquoise bird water, he is the god of fire in relation to the cardinal directions, just as the brazier for lighting fire is the center of the house or temple. Xiuhtecuhtli was the patron god of the Aztec emperors, who were regarded as his living embodiment at their enthronement; the deity was one of the patron gods of the pochteca merchant class. Stone sculptures of Xiuhtecuhtli were ritually buried as offerings, various statuettes have been recovered during excavations at the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan with which he was associated. Statuettes of the deity from the temple depict.
A sacred fire was always kept burning in the temples of Xiuhtecuhtli. In gratitude for the gift of fire, the first mouthful of food from each meal was flung into the hearth. Xiuhtecuhtli's face is painted with red pigment. Xiuhtecuhtli was depicted adorned with turquoise mosaic, wearing the turquoise xiuhuitzolli crown of rulership on his head and a turquoise butterfly pectoral on his chest, he wears a descending turquoise xiuhtototl bird on his forehead and the Xiuhcoatl fire serpent on his back, he owns fire serpent earplugs. On his head he has a paper crown painted with different motifs. On top of the crown there are sprays of green feathers, like flames from a fire, he has feather tufts to like pendants, toward his ears. On his back he has plumage resembling a dragon's head, made of yellow feathers with marine conch shells, he has copper bells tied to the insteps of his feet. In his left hand he holds a shield with five greenstones, called chalchihuites, placed in the form of a cross on a thin gold plate that covered all the shield.
In his right hand he has a kind of scepter, a round gold plate with a hole in the middle, topped by two globes, one larger than the other, the smaller one had a point. Xiuhtecuhtli is associated with youthful warriors and with rulership, was considered a solar god, his principal symbols are the tecpatl and the mamalhuatzin, the two sticks that were rubbed together to light ceremonial fires. A staff with a deer's head was an attribute of Xiuhtecuhtli, although not so as it could be associated with Xochiquetzal and other deities. Many of the attributes of Xiuhtecuhtli are found associated with Early Postclassic Toltec warriors but clear representations of the god are not common until the Late Postclassic; the nahual, or spirit form, of Xiuhtecuhtli is the Fire Serpent. Xiuhtecuhtli was embodied in the teotecuilli, the sacrificial brazier into which sacrificial victims were cast during the New Fire ceremony; this took place at the end of each cycle of the Aztec calendar round, when the gods were thought to be able to end their covenant with humanity.
Feasts were held in honor of Xiuhtecuhtli to keep his favors, human sacrifices were burned after removing their heart. The annual festival of Xiuhtecuhtli was celebrated in the 18th veintena of the year; the Nahuatl word izcalli means "stone house" and refers to the building where maize used to be dried and roasted between mid-January and mid-February. The whole month was therefore devoted to fire; the Izcalli rituals grew in importance every four years. A framework image of the deity was constructed from wood and was richly finished with clothing, feathers and an elaborate mask. Quails were sacrificed to the idol and their blood spilt before it and copal was burnt in his honour. On the day of the festival, the priests of Xiuhtecuhtli spent the day dancing and singing before their god. People caught animals, including mammals, snakes and fish, for ten days before the festival in order to throw them into the hearth on the night of the festival. On the tenth day of Izcalli, during a festival called huauhquiltamalcualiztli, the New Fire was lighted, signifying the change of the annual cycle and the rebirth of the fire deity.
During the night the image of the god was lit with using the mamalhuatzin. Food was consumed ritua