The TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator. The SNCF started working on a high-speed rail network in 1966 and presented the project to President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing who approved it. Designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. In 1976 the SNCF ordered 87 high-speed trains from GEC-Alsthom. Following the inaugural service between Paris and Lyon in 1981 on the LGV Sud-Est, the network, centered on Paris, has expanded to connect major cities across France and in neighbouring countries on a combination of high-speed and conventional lines; the TGV network in France carries about 110 million passengers a year. Like the Shinkansen in Japan, the TGV has never experienced a fatal accident during its operational history; the high-speed tracks, maintained by SNCF Réseau, are subject to heavy regulation. Confronted with the fact that train drivers would not be able to see signals along the track-side when trains reach full speed, engineers developed the TVM cab-signalling technology, which would be exported worldwide.

It allows for a train engaging in an emergency braking to request within seconds all following trains to reduce their speed. The TVM safety mechanism enables TGVs using the same line to depart every three minutes. A TGV test train set the world record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h on 3 April 2007. Conventional TGV services operate up to 320 km/h on the LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône and LGV Méditerranée. In 2007, the world's fastest scheduled rail journey was a start-to-stop average speed of 279.4 km/h between the Gare de Champagne-Ardenne and Gare de Lorraine on the LGV Est, not surpassed until the 2013 reported average of 283.7 km/h express service on the Shijiazhuang to Zhengzhou segment of China's Shijiazhuang–Wuhan high-speed railway. The TGV was conceived at the same period as other technological projects sponsored by the Government of France, including the Ariane 1 rocket and Concorde supersonic airliner; the commercial success of the first high-speed line led to a rapid development of services to the south, west and east.

Eager to emulate the TGV's success, neighbouring countries Italy and Germany developed their own high-speed rail services. The TGV system itself extends to neighbouring countries, either directly or through TGV-derivative networks linking France to Switzerland, to Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as to the United Kingdom. Several future lines are planned, including extensions to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours and Le Mans have become part of a "TGV commuter belt" around Paris. A visitor attraction in itself, it stops at Disneyland Paris and in tourist cities such as Avignon and Aix-en-Provence as well. Brest, Chambéry, Nice and Biarritz are reachable by TGVs running on a mix of LGVs and modernised lines. In 2007, SNCF generated profits of €1.1 billion driven by higher margins on the TGV network. The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen in 1959. At the time the Government of France favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle.

The SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks. In 1976, the administration agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF President Louis Gallois declared that the TGV was "the train that saved French railways", it was planned that the TGV standing for très grande vitesse or turbine grande vitesse, would be propelled by gas turbines, selected for their small size, good power-to-weight ratio and ability to deliver high power over an extended period. The first prototype, TGV 001, was the only gas-turbine TGV: following the increase in the price of oil during the 1973 energy crisis, gas turbines were deemed uneconomic and the project turned to electricity from overhead lines, generated by new nuclear power stations. TGV 001 was not a wasted prototype: its gas turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel, it tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, high-speed aerodynamics, signalling.

It was articulated, comprising two adjacent carriages sharing a bogie, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another. It reached 318 km/h, its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV designs, including the distinctive nose shape of the first power cars. Changing the TGV to electric traction required a significant design o

Chaïbia Talal

Chaïbia Talal was a Moroccan painter. Chaïbia was born in a small village near El Jadida, Morocco, she was married at the age of 13, before having a son, becoming a widow at 15. When her husband died, she worked as a maid to earn money to support her son. One day she said she had a dream which inspired her to teach herself to paint and become a painter, which she did, she was influenced by works of artists from the CoBrA painting movement. Her work is considered by some people, such as journalist Ahmed El Fassi, to be an example of naïve art. There was a 2015 Moroccan biographical movie created about Chaïbia Talal, called Chaïbia, directed by Youssef Britel, written by David Villemin and Youssef Britel, starring Saadia Azgoun as Chaïbia Talal. 1966 - Goethe-Institut, Casablanca - Morocco 1966 - Solstice gallery, Paris - France 1966 - Salon des Surindépendants, Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris - France 1969 - "Ecole marocaine", Copenhagen - Denmark 1969 - "Kunstkabinett", FrankfurtGermany 1970 - "Les Halles aux Idées", Paris – France 1971 - "Dar America", Rabat, Fes, Tangier – Morocco 1972 - Ventes aux enchères, Paris – France 1973 - "L’œil de Bœuf" gallery, Paris – France 1974 - "Ivan Spence" gallery, IbizaSpain 1974 - "Salon des Réalités Nouvelles", Paris – France 1976 - "Biennale d’Art", Menton – France 1977 - "Salon de Mai", Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris – France 1977 - "Salon des Réalités Nouvelles", Paris – France 1980 - "Engel gallery", Rotterdam - Netherlands 1980 - "Fondation Joan Miró", Barcelona – Spain Gold medal of the French Academic Society for Education and Encouragement.

- March 2003. The artist's voice - by Chaibia Talal Flamand, Alain. Regard sur la peinture contemporaine au Maroc. 221pp

Gabe Martin

Gabe Martin is a former American football inside linebacker. He played college football at Bowling Green. A three-year starter at Bowling Green, Martin played in 45 games and finished his career with 246 tackles, 30 tackles for loss, 10 sacks, three interceptions, 13 passes defensed, four forced fumbles, a fumble recovery. Martin signed with the Cardinals as an undrafted free agent following the 2015 NFL Draft, he was signed to Cardinals practice squad two days later. He was elevated to active roster on January 12, 2016. On November 18, 2016, Martin was placed on injured reserve with a knee injury. On February 27, 2017, Martin signed a one-year contract extension with the Cardinals. On August 5, 2017, he was placed on injured reserve, he was waived from IR on August 9, 2017. On October 3, 2017, Martin was signed by the New Orleans Saints, but was released a week and re-signed to the practice squad. On November 28, 2017, Martin was signed by the Cardinals off the Saints' practice squad, he was waived/injured on May 1, 2018, after suffering a torn Achilles in the offseason and was placed on injured reserve.

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