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A tachometer is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device displays the revolutions per minute on a calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are common; the word comes from Greek τάχος and μέτρον. The words tachometer and speedometer have identical meaning: a device that measures speed, it is by arbitrary convention that in the automotive world one is used for engine and the other for vehicle speed. In formal engineering nomenclature, more precise terms are used to distinguish the two; the first mechanical tachometers were based on measuring the centrifugal force, similar to the operation of a centrifugal governor. The inventor is assumed to be the German engineer Dietrich Uhlhorn. Since 1840, it has been used to measure the speed of locomotives. Tachometers or revolution counters on cars and other vehicles show the rate of rotation of the engine's crankshaft, have markings indicating a safe range of rotation speeds; this can assist the driver in selecting appropriate throttle and gear settings for the driving conditions.

Prolonged use at high speeds may cause inadequate lubrication, exceeding speed capability of sub-parts of the engine thus causing excessive wear or permanent damage or failure of engines. This is more applicable to manual transmissions than to automatics. On analogue tachometers, speeds above maximum safe operating speed are indicated by an area of the gauge marked in red, giving rise to the expression of "redlining" an engine — revving the engine up to the maximum safe limit. Most modern cars have a revolution limiter which electronically limits engine speed to prevent damage. Diesel engines with traditional mechanical injector systems have an integral governor which prevents over-speeding the engine, so the tachometers in vehicles and machinery fitted with such engines sometimes lack a redline. In vehicles such as tractors and trucks, the tachometer has other markings a green arc showing the speed range in which the engine produces maximum torque, of prime interest to operators of such vehicles.

Tractors fitted with a power take-off system have tachometers showing the engine speed needed to rotate the PTO at the standardized speed required by most PTO-driven implements. In many countries, tractors are required to have a speedometer for use on a road. To save fitting a second dial, the vehicle's tachometer is marked with a second scale in units of speed; this scale is only accurate in a certain gear, but since many tractors only have one gear, practical for use on-road, this is sufficient. Tractors with multiple'road gears' have tachometers with more than one speed scale. Aircraft tachometers have a green arc showing. In older vehicles, the tachometer is driven by the RMS voltage waves from the low tension side of the ignition coil, while on others engine speed is determined by the frequency from the alternator tachometer output; this is from a special connection called an "AC tap", a connection to one of the stator's coil output, before the rectifier. Tachometers driven by a rotating cable from a drive unit fitted to the engine exist - on simple diesel-engined machinery with basic or no electrical systems.

On recent EMS found on modern vehicles, the signal for the tachometer is generated from an ECU which derives the information from either the crankshaft or camshaft speed sensor. Tachometers are used to estimate traffic volume. A vehicle conducts "tach runs" which record the traffic data; these data are a complement to loop detector data. To get statistically significant results requires a high number of runs, bias is introduced by the time of day, day of week, the season. However, because of the expense and low reliability of loop detectors, tach runs remain a common practice. Speed sensing devices, termed variously "wheel impulse generators", speed probes, or tachometers are used extensively in rail vehicles. Common types include Hall effect sensors. Hall effect sensors use a rotating target attached to a wheel, gearbox or motor; this target may contain magnets. The teeth on the wheel vary the flux density of a magnet inside the sensor head; the probe is mounted with its head a precise distance from the target wheel and detects the teeth or magnets passing its face.

One problem with this system is that the necessary air gap between the target wheel and the sensor allows ferrous dust from the vehicle's underframe to build up on the probe or target, inhibiting its function. Opto-isolator sensors are encased to prevent ingress from the outside environment; the only exposed parts are a sealed plug connector and a drive fork, attached to a slotted disk internally through a bearing and seal. The slotted disk is sandwiched between two circuit boards containing a photo-diode, photo-transistor and filtering circuits which produce a square wave pulse train output customized to the customers voltage and pulses per revolution requirements; these types of sensors provide 2 to 8 independent channels of output that can be sampled by othe

Nogent Nuclear Power Plant

The Nogent Nuclear Power Plant is located in the French commune of Nogent-sur-Seine, on the right bank of the Seine, in the west of the Aube department. It is located 60 kilometres to 120 kilometres south-east of Paris; the plant houses two reactors each of 1300 MWe and the site has a total area of 100 hectares. Each reactor has its own cooling tower 165 metres high, it produces about a third of the yearly electricity consumption of Île-de-France and employs around 700 regular workers. A fire drill on October 2, 2001 by the Nuclear Safety Authority of France confirmed that it took about 50 minutes between the time of the drill the time the second team responded. On September 30, 2005, water was accidentally sprayed on electrical cabinets. Nobody was injured and there were no radiation releases, it was classified as level 1 on the INES scale. On December 5, 2011, nine Greenpeace anti-nuclear activists cut through a fence at the Nogent Nuclear Power Plant, they scaled the roof of the domed reactor building and unfurled a "Safe Nuclear Doesn't Exist" banner before attracting the attention of security guards.

Two activists remained at large for four hours

Cloud atlas

A cloud atlas is a pictorial key to the nomenclature of clouds. Early cloud atlases were an important element in the training of meteorologists and in weather forecasting, the author of a 1923 atlas stated that "increasing use of the air as a means of transportation will require and lead to a detailed knowledge of all the secrets of cloud building." Throughout the 19th century nomenclatures and classifications of cloud types were developed, followed late in the century by cloud atlases. The first nomenclature of clouds in English, by Luke Howard, was published in 1802, it followed a similar effort in French by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1801. Howard's nomenclature defined four fundamental types of clouds: cirrus or thread-cloud, cumulus or heap-cloud, stratus or flat cloud, nimbus or rain-cloud. There followed a long period of development of the field of meteorology and the classification of clouds, leading up to 1896, the International Year of Clouds; the history of this period is the subject of The Invention of Clouds.

During that time, the Englishmen Rev. Clement Ley and Hon. Ralph Abercromby, were influential. Both men died. Ley wrote a book, well known to meteorologists. Abercromby contributed a number of papers on the subject, stressing the most important fact that clouds are the same everywhere in the world, he wrote in collaboration with Hugo Hildebrand Hildebrandsson a detailed classification of clouds. This was adopted in Hildebrandsson's 1890 Cloud Atlas. In 1891 the International Meteorological Conference at Munich recommended the classification of Abercromby and Hildebrandsson. In 1896 another International Meteorological Conference was held, in conjunction with it was published the first International Cloud Atlas, it was a political and technical triumph, an immediate de facto standard. The scientific photography of clouds required several technical advances, including faster films and sufficient contrast between cloud and sky, it was Albert Riggenbach who worked out how to increase the contrast by using a Nicol prism to filter polarized light.

Others learned to achieve similar results using mirrors or lake surfaces, selectively photographing in certain parts of the sky. Many subsequent editions of International Cloud Atlas were published, including editions in 1906 and 1911. In this interval several other cloud atlases appeared, including M. J. Vincent's Atlas des Nuages in 1908 in the Annales of the Royal Observatory, Volume 20, it was based on the 1906 International Cloud Atlas, but with additions, it classified the clouds into three group by height of the cloud base above ground: lower, upper. The 1890 Cloud Atlas is the first known cloud atlas and book of this title, by Hildebrandsson, Wladimir Köppen, Georg von Neumayer, it was an expensive quarto book of chromolithographs reproducing 10 color oil paintings and 12 photographs for comparison, was designed to explore the advantages and disadvantages of photography for the scientific illustration of cloud forms. Its printing was limited but as a proof of concept it was a great success, leading directly to the International Cloud Atlas.

The first International Cloud Atlas was published in 1896. This was prepared by Hildebrandsson and Leon Teisserenc de Bort, members of the Clouds Commission of the International Meteorological Committee, it consists of color plates of clouds photographs but some paintings, text in French and German. The plates were selected from among 300 of the best color photographs of clouds provided by members of the commission; the atlas has remained in print since in multiple editions. Classification List of cloud types Timeline of meteorology WMO International Cloud Atlas 2017 Cloud Atlas at Cloud Atlas at Pennsylvania State University Houze'sCloud Atlas at University of Washington Online Cloud Atlas at University of Missouri-Columbia Cloudman's Mini Cloud Atlas: The 12 Basic Cloud Classifications Cloud Atlas For In-Flight Spotters

California Coast Conference

The California Coast Conference was a short-lived intercollegiate athletic football conference that existed from 1922 to 1928. The league had members in California. All of the two-year schools that were in the conference are now members of a conference within the California Community College Athletic Association. Of the four-year schools, Fresno State Normal, State Teachers College at San Jose, Chico State Teachers College, College of the Pacific left the conference and joined the Far Western Conference. Cal Poly did not become a 4-year school until 1941, played as an independent after leaving the CCC. Loyola joined the West Coast Conference, while Santa Barbara State Teachers College joined the California Collegiate Athletic Association. List of defunct college football conferences

Woodlawn Cemetery (Saskatoon)

Woodlawn Cemetery is a cemetery located in Saskatoon, Canada. Located in the cemetery is the Next of Kin Memorial Avenue, a National Historic Site of Canada, dedicated to all those who served with Canada's armed forces; the cemetery was established in 1905 as the St. Paul's Roman Catholic Cemetery, with the city taking over responsibility in 1918. Prior to that point in time either the Nutana Pioneer Cemetery in Nutana or the Summerdale Cemetery in the town of Smithville was used; the cemetery has been divided into the following sections to specific customs and religious traditions or special affiliations: Children Infants Cremated Remains University of Saskatchewan Field of Honour Flat Marker Upright Monument Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'i Catholic Chinese Greek Orthodox Islamic Ismalian Jewish Non-DenominationalBlock 55 contains the war graves of 107 Commonwealth service personnel of the First and Second World Wars. William Harvey Clare, mayor of Saskatoon James Clinkskill, mayor of Saskatoon Gerry Couture, NHL hockey player Norman James Boswell Fowler, NHL hockey player John W. Hair, mayor of Saskatoon William Hopkins, mayor of Saskatoon Malcolm Scarth Halsetter Isbister, mayor of Saskatoon James Lloyd Klein, NHL hockey player Frank MacMillan, Conservative Politician Angus W. MacPherson, mayor of Saskatoon Charlie Mason, NHL hockey player John Sproule Mills, mayor of Saskatoon George Wesley Norman, mayor of Saskatoon Robert Pitford Pinder, mayor of Saskatoon Herbert Sidney Sears, mayor of Saskatoon Richard St. Barbe Baker, environmentalist Joseph Edwin Underwood, mayor of Saskatoon James Robert Wilson, mayor of Saskatoon Russell Wilson, mayor of Saskatoon Alexander MacGillivray Young, mayor of Saskatoon, Member of the House of Commons of Canada Percy Klaehn, mayor of Saskatoon Find-A-Grave profile


Nahnebahwequa or Catherine Bunch was an Ojibwa spokeswoman and Christian Missionary. Born in the early fall of 1824 at the Credit River, now called Port Credit, Nah ne bah wee qua was the daughter of Bunch Sunego and Mary Polly Crane, her paternal grandfather was Osunego, a Mississauga Tribal Chief from the Eagle doodem, her maternal grandfather was, a War Chief from the Otter Clan who fought for the British Crown in the American Revolutionary War. She was baptized Catherine Bunch by Rev. Thomas Madden in 1825, but took the name Catherine Brown, after a revered Christian Cherokee convert. Catherine was unofficially adopted by her uncle, Rev. Peter Jones and his English wife, Eliza Field with whom she lived at the Credit Mission from about 1837 until her marriage in 1839. Aunt Eliza Jones took Catherine to England in 1837 where she furthered her education while Peter, known as Kahkewaquonaby, a Chief of the Credit Band, delivered a Petition and Wampum Belt to Queen Victoria; the petition expressed the desire of the Mississauga Band to acquire titled deeds and ownership to their lands, as they felt that this was the only way to prevent the encroachment of European settlers at the Credit River.

In Upper Canada, Lieutenant Governor Francis Bond Head had developed a scheme to put all the natives living in Southern Ontario on Manitoulin Island. However, the Mississaugas knew Manitoulin Island was not fit for farming as it was rock with animals and grasses being scarce due to lack of fertile soil and viewed the scheme as yet another violation of their rights; the Mississaugas had cleared and built a thriving community at the Credit Mission as they had been promised retention of the land for future generations. In response to Bond Head's scheme, the Mississauga Band decided to send Catherine's uncle, Rev. Peter Jones, the Chief of the Mississaugas to Great Britain to present their grievances to Queen Victoria; the Colonial Secretary, Lord Glenelg, sympathetic to the Canadian Native people's plight, recommended to Her Majesty the Queen, that the Credit River Mississaugas should be granted title deeds. Meanwhile, having been ill-equipped to deal with European settlers, Lieutenant Governor Bond Head had resigned.

His successor George Arthur, was no better and in 1840, he told the Native people that he was not in favor of them receiving deeds "for fear they would sell them". On top of this, S. P. Jarvis, Chief Superintendent of Indian Affairs since 1837 was dismissed in disgrace in 1845 after an investigation by the Bagot Commission found him guilty of misappropriating the Mississauga's funds. Shortly after, the Saugeen and Nawash Band invited the Mississaugas to settle on the Bruce Peninsula. Oral history of the Saugeen people serves to remind people that Saugeen Territory never included a "Nawash Band." The traditional territory of the Saugeen people covered most of Southern Ontario, from around what is now known as Orangeville to Tobermory and to Grand Bend/Goderich. Some people were relocated to Cape Croker from the Owen Sound area around 1860. According to oral history, Saugeen allowed people to settle in the part of their traditional territory at Cape Croker. Descendants of Peter Jones are still alive at Saugeen.

Peter Jones converted Chief Kegedonce of the Sable River and he took his Christian name to become Peter Kegedonce Jones. Descendants of Kegedonce Jones still live at Nawash Cape Croker, but Sable River no longer exists as an Aboriginal community. On January 9, 1839, Catherine's adopted father and uncle, Rev. Peter Jones, performed the marriage of Catherine to William Sutton at the Credit Mission. William and Catherine Sutton continued to live at the Credit Mission with their three children, Catherine Brown Sutton, Joseph Sunego Sutton and Sophia Anne Sutton, they were all were members of the tribe until 1845 when they accepted the invitation of the Nawash Tribe and traveled north to Georgian Bay. After their adoption into the Nawash Band, they were given 200 acres of land by the tribe, now known as, Lot 34 and Lot 35, Concession 3, Sarawak on the beautiful shore of Georgian Bay. Catherine and William cleared 35 acres of the 200 acres and built a house and enclosed garden on lot 34. Oral history of the Saugeen notes.

In fact, a footpath from Saugeen to Owen Sound became a highway. It was not until the late 1980s. Cape Croker was part of Saugeen Territory; those who chose to move to Cape Croker after being forced out of Owen Sound around 1858 were from the United States, from the Coldwater area or displaced from their homelands. According to Saugeen oral history land was cared for and used by the entire membership; the Creator provided for all Ojibway and land ownership by individuals was not believed possible. The people of Saugeen never agreed to give away individual parcels or lots to non natives such as William Sutton. Source Nov 7th 1845 gift of Two Hundred Acres to Catherine Sutton and her heirs The letter reads: Nawash Owen Sound November 7 th 1845 We the undersigned Chiefs agree to give Catherine Sutton the daughter of Bunch Sunego the native of the River Credit the Chippewa Tribe, her lawfull Heirs,a parcel of land containing Two Hundred Acres situated near the bay about seven or eight miles below the Indian Village, which situated will be known from a clearing, now commenced on i