Marcus Furius Camillus
Marcus Furius Camillus was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome. Camillus belonged to the lineage of the Furii Camilli, whose origin had been in the Latin city of Tusculum. Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both the Volsci and Aequi began to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. Soon, the Furii integrated into Roman society, thus the Furii had become an important Roman family by the 450s. The father of Camillus was a patrician tribune of consular powers. Camillus had more than three brothers: the eldest one was Lucius junior, both consul and tribune of consular powers; the Latin noun camillus denoted a child acolyte at religious rituals. During Camillus's infancy, his relative Quintus Furius Paculus was the Roman Pontifex Maximus. The'military tribunes with consular authority' or consular tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic.
Consular tribunes served in 444 BC and continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC. The office was created, along with the magistracy of the censor, in order to give the plebeian order access to higher levels of government without having to reform the office of consul. At that time in Rome's history, plebeians could not be elected to the highest magistracy of Consul, whereas they could be elected to the office of consular tribune. Camillus had been a noteworthy soldier in the wars with the Volsci. Subsequently, Camillus was a military tribune. In 403 BC, he was appointed censor with Marcus Postumius Albinus Regillensis and, by means of extensive taxation, took action to solve financial problems resulting from incessant military campaigns. In 406 BC, Rome declared war against the rival Etrurian city of Veii; the city of Veii was located on a well-fortified and elevated site. This required the Romans to commence a siege lasting several years. In 401 BC, as the war started to grow unpopular in Rome, Camillus was appointed consular tribune.
He assumed command of the Roman army, within a short time he stormed two allies of Veii and Capena, which resisted behind their walls. In 398 BC, Camillus received consular tribune powers and looted Capena; when Rome suffered severe defeats in 396 BC, the tenth year of this war, the Romans resorted again to Camillus, named dictator for the first time. After defeating both Falerii and Capena at Nepete, Camillus commanded the final strike against Veii, he dug the soft ground below the walls and the Romans infiltrated through the city's sewage system defeating the enemy. Not interested in capitulation terms, but in Veii's complete destruction, the Romans slaughtered the entire adult male population and made slaves of all the women and children; the plunder was large. For the battle, Camillus had invoked the protection of Mater Matuta extensively, he looted the statue of Juno for Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus paraded on a quadriga, a four-horse chariot, the popular celebrations lasted four days. Plutarch wrote of this: Camillus... assumed more to himself than became a civil and legal magistrate.
This alienated the hearts of his fellow-citizens, who were not accustomed to such display. Camillus opposed the plebeian plan to populate Veii with half of the Romans, it would have resolved the poverty issues. Deliberately, Camillus protracted the project until its abandonment. Camillus rendered himself controversial in not fulfilling his promise to dedicate a tenth of the plunder to Delphi for the god Apollo; the Roman soothsayers announced that the gods were displeased by this, so the Senate charged the citizens and the sought amounts of gold were retrieved. To finish Falerii, the last surviving enemy of this war, Camillus was made consular tribune again in 394 BC, he seized the opportunity to divert the bitter conflict between Roman social classes into a unifying external conflict. He besieged Falerii and, after he rejected as immoral the proposal of a local school teacher who had surrendered most of the local children to the Romans, the people of Falerii were moved to gratitude, made peace with Rome.
The entire Italian Peninsula was impressed by the Roman victories of Camillus. Aequi and Capena proposed peace treaties. Rome increased its territory by seventy percent and some of the land was distributed to needy citizens. Rome had become the most powerful nation of the central peninsula; the Romans were restive. Furthermore, Camillus rejected both the land redistribution and the uncontrolled Roman population of Veii, he was impeached by his political adversaries, by an accusation of embezzlement of the Etruscan plunder. To Camillus, his friends explained that, although the condemnation seemed unavoidable, they would help to pay the fine. Camillus spurned this, he abandoned Rome with his wife and Lucius, his surviving son, went to Ardea. In his absence, Camillus was condemned to pay 1,500 denarii; the Gauls, who had invaded most of Etruria, reached Clusium and its people turned to Rome for help. However, the Roma
The Villa Farnese known as Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy 50 kilometres north-west of Rome. This villa should not be confused both in Rome. A property of the Republic of Italy, Villa Farnese is run by the Polo Museale del Lazio; the Villa Farnese dominates its surroundings. It is a massive Renaissance and Mannerist construction, opening to the Monte Cimini, a range of densely wooded volcanic hills, it is built on a five-sided plan in reddish gold stone. As a centerpiece of the vast Farnese holdings, Caprarola has always been an expression of Farnese power, rather than a villa in the more usual agricultural or pleasure senses. In 1504, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the future Pope Paul III, acquired the estate at Caprarola, he had designs made for a fortified castle or rocca by the architects Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Baldassare Peruzzi. Surviving plan drawings by Peruzzi show a pentagonal arrangement with each face of the pentagon canted inwards towards its center, to permit raking fire upon a would-be scaling force, both from the center and from the projecting bastions that advance from each corner angle of the fortress.
Peruzzi's plan shows a central pentagonal courtyard and it is that the development of the circular central court was determined by the necessities of the pentagonal plan. The pentagonal fortress foundations, constructed between 1515 and 1530, became the base upon which the present villa sits. Subsequently, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, a grandson of Pope Paul III, a man, known for promoting his family's interests, planned to turn this constructed fortified edifice into a villa or country house. In 1556, he commissioned Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola as his architect, building work commenced in 1559 and Vignola continued to work on the villa at Caprarola until his death in 1573. Farnese was a courteous man of letters, he therefore selected Caprarola on the family holding of Ronciglione, being both near and yet far enough from Rome as the ideal place to build a country house. The villa is one of the finest examples of Renaissance architecture. Ornament is used sparingly to achieve harmony, thus while the villa dominates the surroundings, its severe design complements the site.
This particular style, known today as Mannerism, was a reaction to the ornate earlier High Renaissance designs of twenty years earlier. Vignola, the architect chosen for this difficult and inhospitable site, had proved his mettle in designing Villa Giulia on the outskirts of Rome for the preceding pope, Julius III. Vignola in his youth had been influenced by Michelangelo. For the villa at Caprarola, his plans as built were for a pentagon constructed around a circular colonnaded courtyard. In the galleried court, paired Ionic columns flank niches containing busts of the Roman Emperors, above a rusticated arcade, a reworking of Bramante's scheme for the "House of Raphael", in the Borgo rione, Rome. A further Bramantesque detail is the entablature that breaks forward over the columns, linking them above, while they stand on separate bases; the interior loggia formed by the arcade is frescoed with Raphaelesque grotesques, in the manner of the Vatican Logge. The gallery and upper floors were reached by five spiral staircases around the courtyard: the most important of these is the Scala Regia rising through the principal floors.
The approach to the Villa Farnese is from the town's main street, centred on the villa, to a piazza from which stairs ascend to a series of terraces beginning with the subterranean basement excavated from the tuff, surrounded by steep curving steps leading to the terrace above. This basement floor in the foundations, which functioned as a carriage entrance in inclement weather, features a massive central column with a series of buttresses and retaining walls; this in turn has a formal double staircase to the principal entrance on the Piano dei Prelati floor, accessed from the broad terrace. This bastion-like floor, which appears in the elevation as a second ground floor, is rusticated, the main door a severe arch flanked by three windows on each side; the facade at this level is terminated by massive solid corner projections. Above this is the double-height piano nobile, where five huge arched windows incongruously dominate the facade over the front door; the villa's interiors are arranged over each floor designed for a different function.
The main rooms are located on the first floor or piano nobile, where a large central loggia looks down over the town, its main street and the surrounding countryside. This hall is known as the Room of Hercules on account of its fresco decorations, was used as a summer dining hall, it has a grotto-like fountain with sculpture at one end. To either side of the loggia are two circular rooms: one is the chapel, the other accommodates the principal staircase or Scala Regia, a graceful spiral of steps supported by pairs
This page describes the building in Rome. For the museum itself see National Etruscan Museum. For the Villa Giulia in Naples or Palermo, see Villa Giulia or Villa Giulia; the Villa Giulia is a villa in Italy. It was built by Pope Julius III in 1551-1553 on what was the edge of the city. Today it is publicly owned, houses the Museo Nazionale Etrusco, a collection of Etruscan art and artifacts; the villa was built in an area of Rome known as the'Vigna Vecchia', lying on the slopes of Monte Parioli, as a'Villa Suburbana' and a place of repose. The pope, a literate connoisseur of the arts, assigned the initial design of the building to Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola in 1551-1553; the nymphaeum and other garden structures, were designed by Bartolomeo Ammanati, all under the supervision of Giorgio Vasari. Michelangelo worked there. Pope Julius took a direct interest in the villa's design and decor and spent vast amounts of money on enhancing its beauties. Villa Giulia became one of the most delicate examples of Mannerist architecture.
Only a small part of the original property has survived intact, comprising three vineyards which extended down to the Tiber, to which the pope traveled by boat. The villa, as was customary, had a formal but rural garden entrance; the villa itself was on the threshold between two worlds, that of the city and that of the country, an Roman concept. A medal struck in 1935 shows the villa as complete, but with a pair of cupolas which were never executed. Vignola's urban front of the building is a somber two story facade with each story being given equal value, it has at its centre the triple rhythm of a richly detailed rusticated triumphal arch flanked by symmetrical wings of two bays only. The facade is terminated at each end by Doric pilasters. In this facade of the Villa Giulia is the genesis of the seven-bay 18th century Georgian villa, reproduced as far away as the Tidewater region of Virginia; the rear of the building has Vignola's large hemispherical loggia overlooking the first of three courtyards, laid out as a simple parterre.
At its rear the visitor passes through the casina, which again has a hemispherical rear facade, enclosing paired flights of re-entrant marble steps that give access to the heart of the villa complex: a two-story Nympheum for alfresco dining during the heat of the summer. This three-levelled structure of covered loggias, decorated with marble statuary, reclining river gods in niches, balustrading, is constructed around a central fountain. Here in this cool environment, sheltered from the blazing sun, day-long picnics would be held; the central fountain, Fontana dell'Acqua Vergine, was designed and sculpted by Vasari and Ammannati: it depicts river gods and caryatids. The fountain's source, the Acqua Vergine supplies the Trevi Fountain in Rome; the Casino della Vigna, as it was sometimes known, its gardens were set in the midst of vineyards, which could be viewed from shaded arcades on the outsides of the garden walls. Papal parties embarked on boats at the gates of the Vatican and were transported up the Tiber to the villa's long-gone private landing stage.
Following Pope Julius' death, his successor Pope Paul IV confiscated all the properties he had assembled. The Villa was reserved for the use of the new pope's Borromeo nephews, it was restored in 1769 on the initiative of Pope Clement XIV, confiscated by the new state of Italy in 1870, given over to the National Etruscan Museum in the early 20th century. Valle Giulia Coolidge, John. Art Bulletin 25. David R. Coffin; the Villa in the Life of Renaissance Rome Official website Villa Giulia Villa Giulia plan
Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. Vasari was born on 30 July 1511 in Tuscany. Recommended at an early age by his cousin Luca Signorelli, he became a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Sent to Florence at the age of sixteen by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he joined the circle of Andrea del Sarto and his pupils Rosso Fiorentino and Jacopo Pontormo, where his humanist education was encouraged, he was befriended by Michelangelo. He died on 27 June 1574 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, aged 62. In 1529, he visited Rome where he studied the works of Raphael and other artists of the Roman High Renaissance. Vasari's own Mannerist paintings were more admired in his lifetime than afterwards. In 1547 he completed the hall of the chancery in Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome with frescoes that received the name Sala dei Cento Giorni.
He was employed by members of the Medici family in Florence and Rome, worked in Naples and other places. Many of his pictures still exist, the most important being the wall and ceiling paintings in the Sala di Cosimo I in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, where he and his assistants were at work from 1555, the frescoes begun by him inside the vast cupola of the Duomo were completed by Federico Zuccari and with the help of Giovanni Balducci, he helped to organize the decoration of the Studiolo, now reassembled in the Palazzo Vecchio. In Rome he painted frescos in the Sala Regia. Among his other pupils or followers are included Sebastiano Flori, Bartolomeo Carducci, Domenico Benci, Tommaso del Verrocchio, Federigo di Lamberto, Niccolo Betti, Vittor Casini, Mirabello Cavalori, Jacopo Coppi, Piero di Ridolfo, Stefano Veltroni of Monte San Savino, Orazio Porta of Monte San Savino, Alessandro Fortori of Arezzo, Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, Fra Salvatore Foschi of Arezzo, Andrea Aretino. Aside from his career as a painter, Vasari was successful as an architect.
His loggia of the Palazzo degli Uffizi by the Arno opens up the vista at the far end of its long narrow courtyard. It is a unique piece of urban planning that functions as a public piazza, which, if considered as a short street, is unique as a Renaissance street with a unified architectural treatment; the view of the Loggia from the Arno reveals that, with the Vasari Corridor, it is one of few structures that line the river which are open to the river itself and appear to embrace the riverside environment. In Florence, Vasari built the long passage, now called Vasari Corridor, which connects the Uffizi with the Palazzo Pitti on the other side of the river; the enclosed corridor passes alongside the River Arno on an arcade, crosses the Ponte Vecchio and winds around the exterior of several buildings. It was once the home of the Mercado de Vecchio, he renovated the medieval churches of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce. At both he removed the original rood screen and loft, remodelled the retro-choirs in the Mannerist taste of his time.
In Santa Croce, he was responsible for the painting of The Adoration of the Magi, commissioned by Pope Pius V in 1566 and completed in February 1567. It was restored, before being put on exhibition in 2011 in Rome and in Naples, it is planned to return it to the church of Santa Croce in Bosco Marengo. In 1562 Vasari built the octagonal dome on the Basilica of Our Lady of Humility in Pistoia, an important example of high Renaissance architecture. In Rome, Vasari worked with Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Bartolomeo Ammannati at Pope Julius III's Villa Giulia. Called "the first art historian", Vasari invented the genre of the encyclopedia of artistic biographies with his Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori, dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, first published in 1550, he was the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print, though an awareness of the ongoing "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air since the time of Alberti, he was responsible for our use of the term Gothic Art, though he only used the word Goth which he associated with the "barbaric" German style.
The Lives included a novel treatise on the technical methods employed in the arts. The book was rewritten and enlarged in 1568, with the addition of woodcut portraits of artists; the work has a consistent and notorious bias in favour of Florentines, tends to attribute to them all the developments in Renaissance art – for example, the invention of engraving. Venetian art in particular, is systematically ignored in the first edition. Between the first and second editions, Vasari visited Venice and while the second edition gave more attention to Venetian art, it did so without achieving a neutral point of view. There are many inaccuracies within his Lives. For example, Vasari writes that Andrea del Castagno killed Domenico Veneziano, not true, given Andrea died several years before Domenico. In another example, Vasari's biography of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, whom he calls "Il Soddoma," published only in the Lives' second edition after Bazzi's death, condemns the artist as being immoral and vain. Vasari dismisses Bazzi's work as being lazy and offensive, despite the artist's having been named a Cavaliere di Crist
Hampton Court Palace
Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, 12 miles south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames. Building of the palace began in 1515 for Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a favourite of King Henry VIII. In 1529, as Wolsey fell from favour, the cardinal gave the palace to the King to check his disgrace. Along with St James's Palace, it is one of only two surviving palaces out of the many owned by King Henry VIII. In the following century, King William III's massive rebuilding and expansion work, intended to rival Versailles, destroyed much of the Tudor palace. Work ceased in 1694, leaving the palace in two distinct contrasting architectural styles, domestic Tudor and Baroque. While the palace's styles are an accident of fate, a unity exists due to the use of pink bricks and a symmetrical, if vague, balancing of successive low wings. King George II was the last monarch to reside in the palace. Today, the palace is open to the public and a major tourist attraction reached by train from Waterloo station in central London and served by Hampton Court railway station in East Molesey, in Transport for London's Zone 6.
In addition, London Buses routes 111, 216, 411 and R68 stop outside the palace gates. The structure and grounds are cared for by an independent charity, Historic Royal Palaces, which receives no funding from the Government or the Crown. In addition the palace continues to display a large number of works of art from the Royal Collection. Apart from the Palace itself and its gardens, other points of interest for visitors include the celebrated maze, the historic real tennis court, the huge grape vine, the largest in the world as of 2005; the palace's Home Park is the site of the annual Hampton Court Palace Festival and Hampton Court Palace Flower Show. Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, chief minister to and favourite of Henry VIII, took over the site of Hampton Court Palace in 1514, it had been a property of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Over the following seven years, Wolsey spent lavishly to build the finest palace in England at Hampton Court. Today, little of Wolsey's building work remains unchanged.
The first courtyard, the Base Court, was his creation, as was the second, inner gatehouse which leads to the Clock Court which contained his private rooms. The Base Court contained forty-four lodgings reserved for guests, while the second court contained the best rooms – the state apartments – reserved for the King and his family. Henry VIII stayed in the state apartments as Wolsey's guest after their completion in 1525. In building his palace, Wolsey was attempting to create a Renaissance cardinal's palace of a rectilinear symmetrical plan with grand apartments on a raised piano nobile, all rendered with classical detailing; the historian Jonathan Foyle has suggested that it is that Wolsey had been inspired by Paolo Cortese's De Cardinalatu, a manual for cardinals that included advice on palatial architecture, published in 1510. The architectural historian Sir John Summerson asserts that the palace shows "the essence of Wolsey—the plain English churchman who made his sovereign the arbiter of Europe and who built and furnished Hampton Court to show foreign embassies that Henry VIII's chief minister knew how to live as graciously as any cardinal in Rome."
Whatever the concepts were, the architecture is an excellent and rare example of a thirty-year era when English architecture was in a harmonious transition from domestic Tudor influenced by perpendicular Gothic, to the Italian Renaissance classical style. Perpendicular Gothic owed nothing to the Renaissance style, yet harmonised well with it; this blending of styles was realised by a small group of Italian craftsmen working at the English court in the second and third decades of the sixteenth century. They specialised in the adding of Renaissance ornament to otherwise straightforward Tudor buildings, it was one of these, Giovanni da Maiano, responsible for the set of eight relief busts of Roman emperors which were set in the Tudor brickwork. Wolsey was only to enjoy his palace for a few years. In 1528, knowing that his enemies and the King were engineering his downfall, he passed the palace to the King as a gift. Wolsey died two years in 1530. Within six months of coming into ownership, the King began his own expansion.
Henry VIII's court consisted of over one thousand people, while the King owned over sixty houses and palaces. Few of these were large enough to hold the assembled court, thus one of the first of the King's building works was to build the vast kitchens; these were quadrupled in size in 1529, enabling the King to provide bouche of court for his entire court. The architecture of King Henry's new palace followed the design precedent set by Wolsey: perpendicular Gothic-inspired Tudor with restrained Renaissance ornament; this hybrid architecture was to remain unchanged for nearly a century, until Inigo Jones introduced strong classical influences from Italy to the London palaces of the first Stuart kings. Between 1532 and 1535 Henry added the Royal Tennis Court; the Great Hall has a carved hammer-beam roof. During Tudor times, this was the most important room of the palace; the hall took five years to complete.
The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus. It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and dedicated about 126 AD, its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening to the sky. Two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome; the height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are 43 metres. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda".
The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; the Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. It became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, has been copied many times by architects; the name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods":. Cassius Dio, a Roman senator who wrote in Greek, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of many gods placed around this building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens, his uncertainty suggests that "Pantheon" was a nickname, not the formal name of the building. In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable; the only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source.
Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods," which are not true panthea in the sense of a temple housing a cult that worships all the gods. Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses "Pantheum," not "Aedes Panthei", it seems significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. In fact, Livy wrote that it had been decreed that temple buildings should only be dedicated to single divinities, so that it would be clear who would be offended if, for example, the building were struck by lightning, because it was only appropriate to offer sacrifice to a specific deity. Godfrey and Hemsoll maintain that the word Pantheon "need not denote a particular group of gods, or, indeed all the gods, since it could well have had other meanings….
The word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities…. Bearing in mind that the Greek word θεῖος need not mean "of a god" but could mean "superhuman," or "excellent."Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium, Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, the Pantheon, it seems that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae. This less solemn designation would help explain how the building could have so lost its original name and purpose in such a short period of time.
It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with alterations undertaken, this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple which reads: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECITor in full, "M Agrippa L f cos tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made when consul for the third time." However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been destroyed except for the façade. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time, she reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, responsible for the maintained Hadrianic date, maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. Her argument is interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodoru
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012