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Tadpole

A tadpole is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian that of a frog or toad. They are wholly aquatic, though some species have tadpoles that are terrestrial; when first hatched from the egg they have a more or less globular body, a laterally compressed tail and internal or external gills. As they grow they undergo metamorphosis, during which process they grow limbs, develop lungs and reabsorb the tail. Most tadpoles are herbivorous and during metamorphosis the mouth and internal organs are rearranged to prepare for an adult carnivorous lifestyle. Having no hard parts, it might be expected. However, traces of biofilms have been preserved and fossil tadpoles have been found dating back to the Miocene. Tadpoles are eaten in some parts of the world and are mentioned in folk tales and used as a symbol in ancient Egyptian numerals; the name "tadpole" is from Middle English taddepol, made up of the elements tadde, "toad", pol, "head". "pollywog" / "polliwog" is from Middle English polwygle, made up of the same pol, "head", wiglen, "to wiggle".

Tadpoles are young amphibians that live in the water, though a few tadpoles are semi-terrestrial and terrestrial. During the tadpole stage of the amphibian life cycle, most respire by means of autonomous external or internal gills, they do not have arms or legs until the transition to adulthood, have a large, flattened tail with which they swim by lateral undulation, similar to most fish. As a tadpole matures, it most metamorphosizes by growing limbs and outwardly absorbing its tail by apoptosis. Lungs develop around the time of leg development, tadpoles late in development will be found near the surface of the water, where they breathe air. During the final stages of external metamorphosis, the tadpole's mouth changes from a small, enclosed mouth at the front of the head to a large mouth the same width as the head; the intestines shorten to accommodate the new diet. Most tadpoles are herbivorous; some species are omnivorous. Tadpoles vary in size, both during their development and between species.

For example, in a single family, length of late-stage tadpoles varies between 3.3 centimetres and 10.6 centimetres. The tadpoles of Pseudis paradoxa can reach up to the longest of any frog. Despite their soft-bodied nature and lack of mineralised hard parts, fossil tadpoles have been recovered from Upper Miocene strata, they are preserved with more robust structures preserved as a carbon film. In Miocene fossils from Libros, the brain case is preserved in calcium carbonate, the nerve cord in calcium phosphate. Other parts of the tadpoles' bodies exist as organic remains and bacterial biofilms, with sedimentary detritus present in the gut. Tadpole remains with telltale external gills are known from several labyrinthodont groups; some tadpoles are used as food. Tadpoles of megophryid frog Oreolalax rhodostigmatus are large, more than 10 cm in length, are collected for human consumption in China. In India, Clinotarsus curtipes are collected for food, in Peru at least Telmatobius mayoloi tadpoles are collected for food and medicine.

According to Sir George Scott, in the origin myths of the Wa people in China and Myanmar, the first Wa originated from two female ancestors Ya Htawm and Ya Htai, who spent their early phase as tadpoles in a lake in the Wa country known as Nawng Hkaeo. In the Ancient Egyptian numerals, a hieroglyphic representing a tadpole was used to denote the value of 100,000. McDiarmid, Roy W.. Tadpoles: the Biology of Anuran Larvae. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226557634

Prove You Wrong

Prove You Wrong is the third album by the metal band Prong. It is their only album with Troy Gregory on bass guitar; the album includes a cover of " Grip" by The Stranglers. "Irrelevant Thoughts" – 2:37 "Unconditional" – 4:45 "Positively Blind" – 2:43 "Prove You Wrong" – 3:31 "Hell If I Could" – 4:00 "Pointless" – 3:07 "Contradictions" – 4:10 "Torn Between" – 3:11 "Brainwave" – 3:01 "Territorial Rites" – 3:31 " Grip" – 3:05 "Shouldn't Have Bothered" – 2:39 "No Way to Deny It" – 4:41 Tommy Victor – lead vocals and rhythm guitars Troy Gregory – bass guitar, backing vocals Ted Parsonsdrums, backing vocals Mark Dodson – additional vocals Prong – arrangers, producers Mark Dodson – arranger, engineer, mixing Brooke Hendricks – engineer, assistant engineer Brian Stover – assistant engineer Greg Calbimastering Roger Lomas – mastering

John Rivett-Carnac

Admiral John Rivett-Carnac or John Rivett Carnac was an officer in the Royal Navy who became an early explorer in Western Australia. He attained the rank of admiral. John Rivett-Carnac was born in Bombay, India on 27 June 1796, he was the seventh and youngest son of the eleven children of James Rivett of the East India Company by his wife Henrietta Fisher, daughter of James Fisher, of Bombay. His eldest brother was James Rivett-Carnac who would become the Sir James Rivett-Carnac, 1st Bt. and a Governor of Bombay. His father assumed the name of Rivett-Carnac by Sign Manual on 17 July 1801 in compliance with the last will and testament of General John Carnac. General Carnac had married his father's sister Elizabeth and in 1776 his father went to live with them in Bombay, where he remained until his death in 1802. John Rivett-Carnac emigrated to England two years after his father's death, he entered the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth in 1810, in 1813 was appointed midshipman on the 38-gun Junon.

He saw action in the War of 1812, taking part in operations under Sir George Cockburn and Lieutenant Philip Westphal. In October 1814 he joined the 38-gun Sybille, with whom he went to Greenland to search for the American Commodore John Rodgers, he transferred to the 74-gun Berwick the 98-gun Boyne, the 100-gun Queen Charlotte. After passing his Navy examinations in May 1816, he was involved in the Bombardment of Algiers. From 1816 to 1818, Rivett-Carnac served as an admiralty-midshipman on the Inconstant, on the Vengeur. On 1 October 1818 he was promoted to lieutenant in the Albion. In January 1819 he joined the Racehorse, in November 1821 transferred to the Rochfort, he served on that ship until August 1825. On 23 January 1826, John Rivett-Carnac joined Success under Captain James Stirling as First Lieutenant. Three months he married Maria Jane Davis, daughter of EIC director and orientalist Samuel Davis at St. Marylebone, London. Rivett-Carnac was on board the Success in March 1827 when the Success arrived at the Swan River in what is now Western Australia, to undertake the Swan River expedition of 1827, an exploring expedition for the purpose of assessing the area's suitability for establishing a British colony there.

The Success explored the coastal waters off the Swan, during which time Stirling renamed the island named "Isle Berthelot" by the French in 1801 to Carnac Island in honour of Rivett-Carnac. Stirling formed a party to explore up the Swan River, leaving the Success under Rivett-Carnac's command. In April 1827, Rivett-Carnac was promoted to Commander; that year, the Success spent two months in Penang, during which time sickness hit the crew. Rivett-Carnac was so ill. In September 1830 he was appointed Second-Captain on the Wellesley. After leaving the ship in January 1832 he did not go to sea again. Rivett-Carnac was promoted to Captain on 1 October 1837, Rear-Admiral on 18 June 1857, Vice-Admiral on the Reserved List on 30 November 1863, he was promoted to full Admiral on 8 April 1868, but died eight months on 1 January 1869. Although referred to in Western Australian sources as "John Rivett Carnac", sources relating to his career refer to him as "John Rivett-Carnac", it is known that some of his brothers adopted "Carnac" as a surname, treating the "Rivett" as an extra forename, it is probable that John did the same in his early career, but reverted to the hyphenated surname in life.

Statham-Drew, Pamela. James Stirling: Admiral and Founding Governor of Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 1-876268-94-8. "The Usher Family of Scotland Admiral John Rivett-Carnac". Retrieved 9 March 2006. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Rivett-Carnac, John". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource