Basra is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012. Basra is Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, handled at the port of Umm Qasr; the city is one of the ports. It played an important role in early Islamic history and was built in 636. Basra is one of the hottest cities in Iraq, with summer temperatures exceeding 50 °C. In April 2017, the Iraqi Parliament recognized Basra as Iraq's economic capital; the city was called by many names throughout Basrah being the most common. In Arabic the word baṣrah means "the overwatcher", which might have been an allusion to the city's origin as an Arab military base against the Sassanids. Others have argued that the name is derived from the Aramaic word basratha, meaning "place of huts, settlement"; the city was founded at the beginning of the Islamic era in 636 and began as a garrison encampment for Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph Umar.
A tell a few kilometres south of the present city, still marks the original site, a military site. While defeating the forces of the Sassanid Empire there, the Muslim commander Utbah ibn Ghazwan erected his camp on the site of an old Persian military settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, destroyed by the Arabs; the name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means "the over watching" or "the seeing everything", was given to it because of its role as a military base against the Sassanid Empire. However, other sources claim the name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together". In 639 Umar established this encampment as a city with five districts, appointed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as its first governor; the city was built in a circular plan according to the Partho-Sasanian architecture. Abu Musa led the conquest of Khuzestan from 639 to 642 and was ordered by Umar to aid Uthman ibn Abu al-ʿAs fighting Iran from a new, more easterly miṣr at Tawwaj. In 650, the Rashidun Caliph Uthman reorganised the Persian frontier, installed ʿAbdullah ibn Amir as Basra's governor, put the military's southern wing under Basra's control.
Ibn Amir led his forces to their final victory over the Sassanid King of Kings. In 656, Uthman was murdered and Ali was appointed Caliph. Ali first installed Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, followed by ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas; these men held the city for Ali until the latter's death in 661. The Sufyanids held Basra until Yazid I's death in 683; the Sufyanids' first governor was Umayyad ʿAbdullah, a renowned military leader, commanding fealty and financial demands from Karballah, but poor governor. In 664, Muʿawiyah I replaced him with Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan called "ibn Abihi", who became infamous for his draconian rules regarding public order. On Ziyad's death in 673, his son ʿUbaydullah. In 680, Yazid I ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to Hussein ibn Ali's popularity as the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ʿUbaydullah took over the control of Kufa. Hussein sent his cousin as an ambassador to the people of Kufa, but ʿUbaydullah executed Hussein's cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel amid fears of an uprising.
ʿUbaydullah amassed an army of thousands of soldiers and fought Hussein's army of 70 in a place called Karbala near Kufa. ʿUbaydullah's army was victorious. Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan. In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr, requiring a practical ruler, appointed Umar ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar Finally, Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus'ab. In 686, the revolutionary al-Mukhtar led an insurrection at Kufa, put an end to ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad near Mosul. In 687, Musʿab defeated al-Mukhtar with the help of Kufans. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan reconquered Basra in 691, Basra remained loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ashʿath's mutiny. However, Basra did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab against Yazid II during the 720s. In the 740s, Basra fell to as-Saffah of the Abbasid Caliphate. During the time of the Abbasids, Basra became an intellectual centre and home to the elite Basra School of Grammar, the rival and sister school of the Kufa School of Grammar.
Several outstanding intellectuals of the age were Basrans. The Zanj Rebellion by the agricultural slaves of the lowlands affected the area. In 871, the Zanj sacked Basra. In 923, the Qarmatians, an extremist Muslim sect and devastated Basra. From 945 to 1055, a Buyid dynasty ruled most of Iraq. Abu al Qasim al-Baridis, who still controlled Basra and Wasit, were defeated and their lands taken by the Buyids in 947. Adud al-Dawla and his sons Diya' al-Dawla and Samsam al-Dawla were the Buyid rulers of Basra during the 970s, 980s and 990s. Sanad al-Dawla al-Habashi, the brother of the Emir of Iraq Izz al-Dawla, was governor of Basra and built a library of 15,000 books; the Oghuz Turk Tughril Beg was the leader of the Seljuks. He was the first Seljuk ruler to style himself Protector of the Abbasid Caliphate; the Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra. In 1122, Imad ad-Din Zengi received Basra as a fief. In 1126, Zengi suppressed a revolt and in 1129, Dabis looted the Basra state treasury. A 1200 map "on the eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the Abbasid Caliphate as ruling lower Iraq and Basra.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī was an influential Persian scholar and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, who composed all his works in Arabic. Today, he is best known for his expertise in Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and world history, but he has been described as "an impressively prolific polymath, he wrote on such subjects as poetry, grammar, ethics and medicine."His most influential and best known works are his Qur'anic commentary known as Tafsir al-Tabari and his historical chronicle Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk referred to Tarikh al-Tabari. Although it became extinct, al-Tabari's madhhab flourished among Sunni ulama for two centuries after his death, it was designated by the name Jariri. Tabari was born in Amol, Tabaristan in the winter of 838–9, he memorized the Qur'an at seven, was a qualified prayer leader at eight and began to study the prophetic traditions at nine. He left home to study in 236AH, he retained close ties to his home town. He returned at least twice, the second time in 290AH when his outspokenness caused some uneasiness and led to his quick departure.
He first went to Rayy. A major teacher in Rayy was Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Humayd al-Razi, who had earlier taught in Baghdad but was now in his seventies. While in Ray, he studied Muslim jurisprudence according to the Hanafi school. Among other material, ibn Humayd taught Jarir Tabari the historical works of ibn Ishaq al-Sirah, his life of Muhammad. Tabari was thus introduced in youth to early Islamic history. Tabari quotes ibn Humayd but little is known about Tabari's other teachers in Rayy. Tabari travelled to study in Baghdad under ibn Hanbal, however, had died. Tabari made a pilgrimage prior to his first arrival in Baghdad, he left Baghdad in 242 A. H. to travel through the southern cities of Basra and Wasit. There, he met a number of venerable scholars. In addition to his previous study of Hanafi law, Tabari studied the Shafi'i, Maliki and Zahiri rites. Tabari's study of the latter school was with the founder, Dawud al-Zahiri, Tabari hand-copied and transmitted many of his teacher's works. Tabari was well-versed in four of the five remaining Sunni legal schools before founding his own independent, yet extinct, school.
His debates with his former teachers and classmates were known, served as a demonstration of said independence. Notably missing from this list is the Hanbali school, the fourth largest legal school within Sunni Islam in the present era. Tabari's view of Ibn Hanbal, the school's founder, became decidedly negative in life. Tabari did not give Ibn Hanbal's dissenting opinion any weight at all when considering the various views of jurists, stating that Ibn Hanbal had not been a jurist at all but a recorder of Hadith. On his return to Baghdad, he took a tutoring position from the vizier, Ubaydallah ibn Yahya ibn Khaqan; this would have been before A. H. 244 since the vizier was out of office and in exile from 244 to 248. There is an anecdote told that Tabari had agreed to tutor for ten dinars a month, but his teaching was so effective and the boy's writing so impressive that the teacher was offered a tray of dinars and dirhams; the ever-ethical Tabari declined the offer saying he had undertaken to do his work at the specified amount and could not honourably take more.
That is one of a number of stories about him declining gifts or giving gifts of equal or greater amount in return. In his late twenties, he travelled to Syria and Egypt. In Beirut, he made the significant connection of al-Abbas b. al-Walid b. Mazyad al-'Udhri al-Bayruti. Al-Abbas instructed Tabari in the Syrian school's variant readings of the Qur'an and transmitted through his father al-Walid the legal views of al-Awza'i, Beirut's prominent jurist from a century earlier. Tabari arrived in Egypt in 253AH, some time after 256/870, he returned to Baghdad making a pilgrimage on the way. If so, he did not stay long in the Hijaz. Tabari had a private income from his father while he was still living and the inheritance, he took money for teaching. Among Tabari's students was Ibn al-Mughallis, a student of Tabari's own teacher Muhammad bin Dawud al-Zahiri, he never took a judicial position. Tabari was some fifty years old, he was well past seventy in the year. During the intervening years, he was famous, if somewhat controversial, personality.
Among the figures of his age, he had access to sources of information equal to anyone, except those who were directly connected with decision making within the government. Most, if not all, the materials for the histories of al-Mu'tadid, al-Muktafi, the early years of al-Muqtadir were collected by him about the time the reported events took place, his accounts are as authentic. Tabari's final years were marked by conflict with the Hanbalite followers of Al-Hasan ibn'Ali al-Barbahari, a student of the students of Ibn Hanbal. Tabari was known for his view that Hanbalism was not a legitimate school of thought, as Ibn Hanbal was a compiler of traditions and not a proper jurist; the Hanbalites of Baghdad would stone Tabari's house, escalating the persecuti
A fatwā is a nonbinding legal opinion on a point of Islamic law given by a qualified jurist in response to a question posed by a private individual, judge or government. A jurist issuing fatwas is called a mufti and the act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ. Fatwas have played an important role throughout Islamic history, taking on new forms in the modern era. Resembling jus respondendi in Roman law and rabbinic responsa issued fatwas served to inform Muslim populations about Islam, advise courts on difficult points of Islamic law, elaborate substantive law. In times and political fatwas were issued to take a stand on doctrinal controversies, legitimize government policies or articulate grievances of the population. During the era of European colonialism, fatwas played a part in mobilizing resistance to foreign domination. Muftis acted as independent scholars in the classical legal system. Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were incorporated into state bureaucracies, while Shia jurists in Iran progressively asserted an autonomous authority starting from the early modern era.
In the modern era, fatwas have reflected changing political and economic circumstances, addressed concerns arising in varied Muslim communities. The spread of codified state laws and Western-style legal education in the modern Muslim world has displaced muftis from their traditional role of clarifying and elaborating the laws applied in courts. Instead, modern fatwas have served to advise the general public on other aspects of sharia questions regarding religious rituals and everyday life. Modern public fatwas have addressed and sometimes sparked controversies in the Muslim world, some fatwas in recent decades have gained worldwide notoriety; the legal methodology of modern ifta diverges from pre-modern practice so in the West. Emergence of modern media and universal education has transformed the traditional institution of ifta in various ways. While the proliferation of contemporary fatwas attests to the importance of Islamic authenticity to many Muslims, little research has been done to determine how much these fatwas affect the beliefs or behavior of the Muslim public.
The word fatwa comes from the Arabic root f-t-y, whose meanings include "youth, clarification, explanation." A number of terms related to fatwa derive from the same root. A jurist issuing fatwas is called a mufti; the person who asks for a fatwa is known as mustafti. The act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ; the term futyā refers to issuing fatwas. The origins of the fatwa can be traced back to the Quran. On a number of occasions, the Quranic text instructs the Islamic prophet Muhammad how to respond to questions from his followers regarding religious and social practices. Several of these verses begin with the phrase "When they ask you concerning... say..." In two cases this is expressed with verbal forms of the root f-t-y, which signify asking for or giving an authoritative answer. In the hadith literature, this three-way relationship between God and believers, is replaced by a two-way consultation, in which Muhammad replies directly to queries from his Companions. According to Islamic doctrine, with Muhammad's death in 632, God ceased to communicate with mankind through revelation and prophets.
At that point, the expanding Muslim community turned to Muhammad's Companions, as the most authoritative voices among them, for religious guidance, some of them are reported to have issued pronouncements on a wide range of subjects. The generation of Companions was in turn replaced in that role by the generation of Successors; the concept of fatwa thus developed in Islamic communities under a question-and-answer format for communicating religious knowledge, took on its definitive form with development of the classical theory of Islamic law. The legal theory of the fatwa was formulated in the classical texts of usul al-fiqh, while more practical guidelines for muftis were found in manuals called adab al-mufti or adab al-fatwa. Fatwas are issued in response to a query, they can range from a simple yes/no answer to a book-length treatise. A short fatwa may state a well-known point of law in response to a question from a lay person, while a "major" fatwa may give a judgment on an unprecedented case, detailing the legal reasoning behind the decision.
Queries to muftis were supposed to address real and not hypothetical situations and be formulated in general terms, leaving out names of places and people. Since a mufti was not supposed to inquire into the situation beyond the information included in the query, queries regarding contentious matters were carefully constructed to elicit the desired response. A mufti's understanding of the query depended on their grasp of local customs and colloquial expressions. In theory, if the query was unclear or not sufficiently detailed for a ruling, the mufti was supposed to state these caveats in their response. Fatwas were solicited by women from all social classes. A mufti could be an obscure scholar, who replied to queries arising in his neighborhood, or, at the other extreme, a famous jurist or a powerful state official; the level of technical detail supplied in a fatwa, such as citations of sources or specification of legal methodologies employed, depended on the technical level of the petitioner.
In theory, a petitioner was supposed to verify the mufti's scholarly reputation, but mufti manuals recognized that it would be difficult for a lay person to do so, advised the petitioner to trust their sense of the mufti's piety and ideally follow the advice o
Anwar al-Tanzil wa-Asrar al-Ta'wil, better known as Tafsir al-Baydawi, is one of the most popular classical Sunni Qur'anic interpretational works composed by the 13th-century Muslim scholar al-Baydawi, flourished among non-Arab Muslim regions. Tafsir al-Baydawi is considered containing the most concise analysis of the Qur'anic use of Arabic grammar and style to date and was hailed early on by Muslims as a foremost demonstration of the Qur'an’s essential and structural inimitability in Sunni literature. Thus, the work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and significant, because of its fame and influence, many commentaries have been written on Baydawi's work. According to the contemporary Islamic scholar Gibril Fouad Haddad, the work “became and remained for seven centuries the most studied of all tafsirs,” and it is to be regarded as “the most important commentary on the Qur'an in the history of Islam.”The work became one of the standard tafsirs in the Muslim world, receiving many supercommentaries and being studied in madrasa courses on Qur'anic interpretation, was one of the first Qur'an commentaries published in Europe.
The commentary begins with a short opening, in which the author praises the value of interpreting the verses of the Qurʼan and argues that Qurʼanic exegesis is at the head of all sciences. The author gives the name of his work, before launching into the explanation of al-Fatihah, the first chapter of the Qurʼan; this work is based on the earlier work of al-Zamakhshari's al-Kashshaf. Al-Kashshaf, which displays great learning, has Mu'tazilite views, some of which al-Baydawi has amended, some omitted. Tafsir al-Baydawi is based on al-Raghib al-Isfahani's Mufradat Alfaz al-Qur'an and his tafsir, as well as al-Tafsir al-Kabir by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi; the work enjoyed a solid reputation among Sunni theologians since its composition. More than 130 commentaries on Tafsir al-Baydawi have been written in Arabic. Brockelmann lists eighty-three of such works, with the most prominent being the multi-volume commentary by Shihab al-Din al-Khafaji and the gloss by Muhammad B. Muslim a-Din Mustafa al-Kuhi, which includes lengthy quotations from the commentary by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi.
Al-Baydawi's commentary has proven popular in regions of the non-Arab Muslim world, such as in the Indo-Pakistani region and Muslim Southeast Asia. It served as an important source for'Abd al-Ra'uf al-Singkili's Malay commentary upon the whole Qur'an, Tarjuman Almustafid, written around 1085/1675, it has served as a core text in Muslim seminaries in Pakistan's Northwest Frontier Province, Malaysia and other places, providing an introduction to Qur'anic exegesis. Al-Baydawi was an expert on Qurʼanic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, he was born near Shiraz, Persia. He was a judge, a Sufi and a Qur ` anic exegete. Al-Baydawi grew up to be a staunch Shafi'i in jurisprudence and Ash'ari in theology and was opposed to Shiites and Mu'tazilites, he wrote a number of other scholarly works in tenets of faith and Arabic, as well as history in Persian. He was the author of several theological treatises, his major work is the commentary on the Qur'an. After serving as a judge in Shiraz, he moved to Tabriz, where he died in 685 AH.
Al-Baydawi's father was the Chief Justice of the Fars province. His grandfather, Fakhr al-Din'Ali al-Baydawi served as the chief judge. Al-Baydawi was chiefly educated by his father, he believed that his teachers were taught by scholars who were in turn taught by scholars who received their education from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to him, his paternal grandfather came from the line of students of Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. Al-Baydawi has attracted some criticism for the brevity of his writings, for some inaccuracy, with some scholars accusing him of allowing some Mu'tazilite views held by al-Zamakhshari to ftlter through into Anwar al-Tanzil. Major translation work to English was conducted by Gibril Fouad Haddad. Haddad is a Senior Assistant Professor at SOASCIS in Applied Comparative Tafsir, he was born in Beirut and studied in the UK, US, France and Syria. He holds a doctorate from Kolej Universiti Insaniah, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia and a Ph. D. from Columbia University, New York, US where he was the recipient of several fellowships including one at the prestigious École Normale Supérieure in Paris, France.
He graduated summa cum laude from the New York University Latin and Greek Institute. Haddad spent nine years of study in Damascus and has received ijaza from over 150 shaykhs and has authored dozens of books and hundreds of articles in Islamic hermeneutics, hadith and heresiology, he has lectured on Qur'an, Prophetic biography and Sufism in many countries. He was described in the inaugural edition of The 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World as “one of the clearest voices of traditional Islam in the West.” Dedication to HM The Sultan of Brunei Darussalam. Epigraphs and Prayer. Title page of oldest known manuscript of Anwar al-Tanzil. Illustrations and Tables. Foreword by Prof. Dr. Osman bin Bakr. Acknowledgements. Abbreviations. Al-Baydawi and his Anwar al-Tanzil wa-Asrar al-Ta'wil in hermeneutical tradition. ---. Biobibliography & Raison D'etre of the Present Work. Baydawi's Chain of Transmission in shafi'i fiqh. Ba
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadith is the Arabic word for speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith.
A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam, the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadith is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative", its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.
Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Mohammed himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Mohammed himself."Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation. However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet." This means that in Shia Islam, the sunnah draws on the sayings and deeds of the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. the Imams.
The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad, used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars."
According to Schacht, in the first generations after the death of Muhammad, use of hadith from Sahabah and Tabi‘un "was the rule", while use of hadith of Muhammad himself by Muslims was "the exception". Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh — with establishing the principle of the use of the ahadith of the Muhammad for Islami
Companions of the Prophet
Companions of the Prophet or aṣ-ṣaḥābah were followers of Mohammed who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence". "Sahabah" is definite plural. Scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammed, the occasions on which the Quran was revealed and other various important matters of Islamic history and practice; the testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators, was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life, the code of conduct it requires, the jurisprudence by which Muslim communities should be regulated; the two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimonies, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the Sahabah. In Islām, followers of Muḥammad are classified to categories including The muhajirūn pursue the Prophet from Mecca to Medina, the anṣar referred to Muslims living in Medinese, the badriyun called to fighters at the Battle of Badr.
Two important groups among the companions are called the Muhajirun or "exiles"—those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca who fled with him when he was persecuted there—and the Ansar—people of Medina who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors. Lists of prominent companions run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most associated with Muhammad. However, there were many others who had some contact with Muhammad, their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's early Kitāb at-Tabāqat al-Kabīr; the book entitled Istî'âb fî ma'rifat-il-Ashâb by Hafidh Yusuf bin Muhammad bin Qurtubi consists of 2,770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female Sahabah. According to an observation in the book entitled Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, an untold number of persons had converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. There were 10,000 by the time Mecca was conquered and 70,000 during the Battle of Tabouk in 630.
Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed the Farewell Sermon Muhammad delivered after making his last pilgrimage to Mecca. The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who met Muhammad, believed in him and died as a Muslim; the Sunni scholar Al-Hâfidh Ibn Hajar said: “The most correct of what I have come across is that a Sahâbî is one who met the Prophet Muhammad - sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam - whilst believing in him, died as a Muslim. So, that includes the one who remained with him for a long or a short time, those who narrated from him and those who did not, those who saw him but did not sit with him and those who could not see him due to blindness". Anyone who died after rejecting Islam and becoming an apostate is not considered as a companion; those who saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered Sahaba but Tabi`in. Shia Muslims make no distinction between these. According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings.
If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just; some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions. As Shia Muslim believe as well as some sunni scholars like Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and Amin Ahsan Islahi state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered as a Companion. In their view, the Quran has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the Sahabah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing. In other words, Companion is called to followers of prophet who be in a long-term relationship with him and support him in essential event up to their death. In view of such admonitions, Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished, they do not accept that the testimony of nearly all Sahabah is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the Sahaba were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad.
Shias further argue that the righteousness of Sahabah can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Quran and the hadith of the Cloak. Shia Muslims believe that some companions are accountable for the loss of caliphate by
The Samanid Empire known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was centered in Transoxiana during its existence; the Samanid state was founded by four brothers. In 892, Isma'il ibn Ahmad united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids, it was under him that the Samanids became independent of Abbasid authority. The Samanid Empire is part of the Iranian Intermezzo, which saw the creation of a Persianate culture and identity that brought Iranian speech and traditions into the fold of the Islamic world; this would lead to the formation of the Turko-Persian culture. The Samanids promoted the arts, giving rise to the advancement of science and literature, thus attracted scholars such as Rudaki and Avicenna. While under Samanid control, Bukhara was a rival to Baghdad in its glory. Scholars note that the Samanids revived Persian language and culture more than the Buyids and the Saffarids, while continuing to patronize Arabic for sciences as well as the religious studies.
They considered themselves to be descendants of the Sasanian Empire. In a famous edict, Samanid authorities declared that "here, in this region, the language is Persian, the kings of this realm are Persian kings." The eponymous ancestor of the Samanid dynasty was Saman Khuda, a Persian noble who belonged to a dehqan family, a class of land-owning magnates. The original home of the Samanids is unclear, for some Arabic and Persian texts claim that the name was derived from a village near Samarkand, while others assert it was a village near Balkh or Tirmidh; the latter is more probable since the earliest appearance of the Samanid family appears to be in Khorasan rather than Transoxiana. In some sources the Samanids claimed to be descended from the noble Mihran family of Bahram Chobin, whereas one author claimed that they belonged to the Turkish Oghuz tribe, although this is most unlikely. A Zoroastrian, Saman Khuda converted to Islam during the governorship of Asad ibn Abdallah al-Qasri in Khorasan, named his oldest son as Asad in the governor's honour.
In 819, the governor of Khorasan, Ghassan ibn Abbad, rewarded the four sons of Asad for their aid against the rebel Rafi ibn al-Layth. This marked the beginning of the Samanid dynasty. Ilyas died in 856, was succeeded by his son Ibrahim ibn Ilyas—the Tahirid governor of Khorasan, Muhammad ibn Tahir, thereafter appointed him as the commander of his army, sent him on an expedition against the Saffarid ruler Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar in Sistan, he was defeated at a battle near Pushang in 857, fled to Nishapur, where he was captured by Ya'qub al-Saffar and sent to Sistan as a hostage. The Tahirids thereafter assumed direct control over Herat. In 839/40, Nuh seized Isfijab from the nomadic pagan Turks living in the steppe, he thereafter had a wall constructed around the city to protect it from their attacks. He died in 841/2—his two brothers Yahya and Ahmad, were appointed as the joint rulers of the city by the Tahirid governor of Khorasan. After Yahya's death in 855, Ahmad took control over Châch, thus becoming the ruler of most of Transoxiana.
He died in 864/5. Meanwhile, the Tahirids authority had weakened after suffering several defeats by the Saffarid ruler Ya'qub al-Saffar, thus losing their grip over the Samanids, who became more or less independent. Nasr I used this opportunity to strengthen his authority by sending his brother Isma'il to Bukhara, in an unstable condition after suffering from raids by the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarazm; when Isma'il reached the city, he was warmly received by its inhabitants, who saw him as one who could restore order. Although the Bukhar Khudahs continued to autonomously rule in Bukhara for a few more years. After not so long, disagreement over where tax money should be distributed, started a conflict between the brothers. Isma'il was victorious in the dynastic struggle, took control of the Samanid state. However, Nasr had been the one, invested with Transoxiana, the Abbasid caliphs continued to recognize him as the rightful ruler; because of this, Isma'il continued to recognize his brother as well, but Nasr was powerless, a situation that would continue until his death in August 892.
A few months Ya'qub al-Saffar died and was succeeded by his brother Amr ibn al-Layth, who saw himself as the heir of the Tahirids, thus claiming Transoxiana and other parts of Iran for himself. He thereafter forced the Abbasid caliph to recognize him as the ruler of those territories, which they did. In the spring of 900, he was defeated and taken to captivity. Isma'il thereafter sent him Baghdad. Isma'il was thereafter recognized as the ruler of all of Transoxiana by the caliph. Furthermore, he received the investiture over Tabaristan and Isfahan, it was during this period that the Afrighid dynasty was forced into submission. Before his major victory against the Saffarids, he had made various expeditions in Transoxiana.