Tagalog language

Tagalog Tagalog pronunciation: ) is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. Its standardized form named Filipino, is the national language of the Philippines, is one of two official languages alongside English, it is related to other Philippine languages, such as the Bikol languages, the Visayan languages and Pangasinan, more distantly to other Austronesian languages, such as the Formosan languages of Taiwan, Hawaiian, Māori, Malagasy. The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-ilog, composed of tagá- and ilog. Linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-linguistic groups originated in Northeastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas. Possible words of Old Tagalog origin are attested in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription from the tenth century, written in Old Malay; the first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana, printed in 1593.

The Doctrina was written in Spanish and two transcriptions of Tagalog. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish rule, various grammars and dictionaries were written by Spanish clergymen. In 1610, the Dominican priest Francisco Blancas de San Jose published the “Arte y reglas de la Lengua Tagala” in Bataan. In 1613, the Franciscan priest Pedro de San Buenaventura published the first Tagalog dictionary, his "Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala" in Pila, Laguna; the first substantial dictionary of the Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it in several of his books, he prepared the dictionary, which he passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. Further compilation of his substantial work was prepared by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar and published as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala in Manila in 1754 and repeatedly reedited, with the last edition being in 2013 in Manila. Among others, Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos in addition to early studies of the language.

The indigenous poet Francisco Baltazar is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century epic Florante at Laura. Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə. In most Bikol and Visayan languages, this sound merged with /u/ and. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine * dəkət is Visayan & Bikol dukot. Proto-Philippine *r, *j, *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine * ŋajan and * hajək became Tagalog halík. Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR and *zuRuʔ became Tagalog tubig and dugô. Tagalog was declared the official language by the first revolutionary constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897. In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages.

After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. President Manuel L. Quezon on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as Wikang Pambansâ. Under the Japanese puppet government during World War II, Tagalog as a national language was promoted. In 1959, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino". Along with English, the national language has had official status under the 1973 constitution and the present 1987 constitution; the adoption of Tagalog in 1937 as basis for a national language is not without its own controversies. Instead of specifying Tagalog, the national language was designated as Wikang Pambansâ in 1939.

Twenty years in 1959, it was renamed by Secretary of Education, José Romero, as Pilipino to give it a national rather than ethnic label and connotation. The changing of the name did not, result in acceptance among non-Tagalogs Cebuanos who had not accepted the selection; the national language issue was revived once more during the 1971 Constitutional Convention. Majority of the delegates were in favor of scrapping the idea of a "national language" altogether. A compromise solution was worked out—a "universalist" approach to the national language, to be called Filipino rather than Pilipino; the 1973 constitution makes no mention of Tagalog. When a new constitution was drawn up in 1987, it named Filipino as the national language; the constitution specified that as the Filipino language evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. However, more than two decades after the institution of the "univers

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