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Tagus

The Tagus is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. It is 1,007 km long, 716 km in Spain, 47 km along the border between Portugal and Spain and 275 km in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Lisbon, it drains an area of 80,100 square kilometers. The Tagus is utilized for most of its course. Several dams and diversions supply drinking water to places of central Spain and Portugal, while dozens of hydroelectric stations create power. Between dams it follows a constricted course, but after Almourol it enters a wide alluvial valley, prone to flooding, its mouth is a large estuary near the port city of Lisbon. The source of the Tagus is the Fuente de García in the Frías de Albarracín municipal term, Montes Universales, Sistema Ibérico, Sierra de Albarracín Comarca. All its major tributaries enter the Tagus from the right bank; the main cities it passes through are Aranjuez, Talavera de la Reina and Alcántara in Spain, Abrantes, Santarém, Almada and Lisbon in Portugal. The first notable city on the Tagus is Sacedón.

Below Aranjuez it receives the combined flow of the Jarama, Henares and Tajuña. Below Toledo it receives the Guadarrama River. Above Talavera de la Reina it receives the Alberche. At Valdeverdeja is the upper end of the long upper reservoir, the Embalse de Valdecañas, beyond which are the Embalse de Torrejon, into which flow the Tiétar, the lower reservoir, the Alcántara Dam into which flows the Alagón at the lower end. There is the Segura, the Tagus-Segura Water Transfer. After forming the border it enters Portugal, passing Vila Velha de Ródão, Constância, Santarém and Vila Franca de Xira at the head of the long narrow estuary, which has Lisbon at its mouth; the estuary is protected by the Tagus Estuary Natural Reserve. There is a large bridge across the river, the Vasco da Gama Bridge, which with a total length of 17.2 km is the second longest bridge in Europe. The Port of Lisbon, located at its mouth, is one of Europe's busiest; the Portuguese Alentejo region and former Ribatejo Province take their names from the river.

In Spanish Riba shore along of a river. Ribatejo should mean "The land beside the Tejo" or "The shore of the Tejo". One can see many examples of towns in Spain with this prefix; the river's Latin name Tagus is believed to derive from the Vulgar Latin verb taliāre, "to cut through", due to the way the river "cuts through" the Iberian terrain. In the languages of Iberia: Basque: Tajo Catalan: Tajo Extremaduran: Taju Galician: Río Texo Mirandese: Riu Teijo Occitan: Tage Portuguese: Tejo Spanish: Tajo, it is known in Italian as Tago and Greek as Τάγος. The lower Tagus is on a fault line. Slippage along it has caused numerous earthquakes, the major ones being those of 1309, 1531 and 1755; the Pepper Wreck, properly the wreck of the Nossa Senhora dos Mártires, is a shipwreck located and excavated at the mouth of the Tagus between 1996 and 2001. The river had strategic value to the Spanish and Portuguese empires, as it guarded the approach to Lisbon. For example, in 1587, Francis Drake approached the river after his successful raid at Cadiz.

A major river, the Tagus is brought to mind in the stories of the Portuguese. A popular fado song in Lisbon notes; the author, Fernando Pessoa, wrote a poem that begins: "The Tagus is more beautiful than the river that flows through my village. But the Tagus is not more beautiful than the river that flows through my village..."Richard Crashaw's poem "Saint Mary Magdalene, or the Weeper" refers to the "Golden" Tagus as wanting Mary Magdalene's silver tears. In classical poetry the Tagus was famous for its gold-bearing sands. List of rivers of Spain List of rivers of Portugal

Binnya Ran I

Binnya Ran I was king of Hanthawaddy Pegu from 1424 to 1446. As crown prince, he ended the Forty Years' War with the rival Ava Kingdom in 1423, he came to the throne after poisoning his brother King Binnya Dhammaraza in 1424. As king, Binnya Ran kept his kingdom at peace for much of his 20-year reign when Ava was struggling to keep its territories intact, he pursued an opportunistic policy to keep Ava weak, helping Toungoo's rebellion against Ava between 1437 and 1442 during which he placed his son as the viceroy of Toungoo. When Ava reconquered Toungoo in 1442, he did not resume a large-scale war against Ava. Binnya Ran was born to King Razadarit. After Razadarit's death, Binnya Dhammaraza became king. Binnya Ran and Binnya Kyan revolted against their elder brother. Binnya Dhammaraza pacified Binnya Ran for a time by making him the heir-apparent and governor of Pathein and the entire Irrawaddy delta. Binnya Dhammaraza pacified Binnya Kyan by making him governor of Martaban, but Binnya Ran was not satisfied.

He soon extended his territory, occupied Dagon in 1423. When Ava forces came to occupy Dala opposite Dagon, Binnya Ran presented his elder sister Shin Sawbu to Thihathu, bought peace. Ava forces withdrew, ending the Forty Years' War between Hanthawaddy Pegu. In 1424, Binnya Ran became the eleventh king of Hanthawaddy, his reign name, as reported in Mon language inscriptions, was Rama Razadarit. As king, Binnya Ran allowed Binnya Kyan to remain as governor of Martaban where the latter exercised independent authority, he soon became involved with the dynastic intrigues of Ava Kingdom. In 1426, Mohnyin Thado ascended the Ava throne. In 1429, his sister Shin Sawbu fled secretly from Ava back to Pegu. Binnya Ran received his elder sister with great honor. In the same year, Thinkhaya III, the governor of Toungoo sought Binnya Ran's alliance against Ava by presenting a daughter. Binnya Ran attacked Prome together with Toungoo governor's forces. Mohnyin Thado broke up the alliance by giving Soe Min Wimala Dewi, to Binnya Ran.

The Pegu king accepted. The alliance was one of convenience for Binnya Ran, he was happy to see that Mohnyin Thado was having trouble with Shan raids into Avan territory throughout the 1430s. When Toungoo revolted again in 1437, Binnya Ran provided assistance for Toungoo. With his help, Toungoo defeated Ava, Binnya Ran's son Minsaw became the viceroy of Toungoo. However, King Minye Kyawswa I of Ava reconquered Toungoo in 1440, appointed Tarabya, a Shan chief. For the remainder of his reign, he was content to see Ava had its hands full with Ming Chinese invasions and Shan raids. Binnya Ran died after a reign of 22 years, was succeeded by nephew and adopted son Binnya Waru, a son of Shin Sawbu. Various Burmese chronicles do not agree on the key dates of the king's life. Athwa, Sayadaw. Translated by P. W. Schmidt. "Slapat des Ragawan der Königsgeschichte". Die äthiopischen Handschriften der K. K. Hofbibliothek zu Wien. Vienna: Alfred Hölder. 151. Fernquest, Jon. "Crucible of War: Burma and the Ming in the Tai Frontier Zone".

SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. 4. Harvey, G. E.. History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. Kala, U. Maha Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. Maha Sithu. Myint Swe. Yazawin Thit. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. Pan Hla, Nai. Razadarit Ayedawbon. Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay. Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P.. History of Burma. London: Susil Gupta. Royal Historical Commission of Burma. Hmannan Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. Shwe Naw, ed.. Mon Yazawin. Translated by Shwe Naw. Yangon: Burma Publishing Workers Association Press. Than Tun; the Royal Orders of Burma, A. D. 1598–1885. 2. Kyoto University

1940 United States presidential election in Michigan

The 1940 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 5, 1940, as part of the 1940 United States presidential election. Voters chose nineteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Michigan was narrowly won by the Republican candidate Wendell Willkie over Democratic incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt by 6,926 votes in the closest race in any statewide presidential election since 1916 when Woodrow Wilson’s won by 56 votes in New Hampshire and opponent Charles Evans Hughes won in Minnesota by 392 votes. Willkie received 49.85% of ballots cast, while Roosevelt received 49.52%. This was the only election where Michigan supported Roosevelt's opponent