click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tahmasp I

Tahmasp I was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I, he came to the throne aged ten in 1524 and came under the control of the Qizilbash who formed the backbone of the Safavid Empire. The Qizilbash leaders fought among themselves for the right to be regents over Tahmasp, by doing so held most of the effective power in the empire. Upon adulthood, Tahmasp was able to reassert the power of the Shah and control the tribesmen with the start of the introduction of large amounts of Caucasian elements and purposefully creating a new layer in Iranian society composed of ethnic Caucasians; this new layer called the third force in some of the modern day sources, would be composed of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Circassians and Armenians, they would continue to play a crucial role in Persia's royal household, harems and military administration, as well as in all other thinkable and available positions for centuries after Tahmasp, they would fully eliminate the effective power of the Qizilbash in most of the functioning posts of the empire, by which they would become the most dominant class in the meritocratic Safavid kingdom as well.

One of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I would implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society. Tahmasp's reign was marked by foreign threats from the Safavid's arch rival, the Ottomans, the Uzbeks in the far east. In 1555, however, he regularized relations with the Ottoman Empire through the Peace of Amasya. By this treaty historical Armenia and Georgia were divided between the two, the Ottoman Empire obtained most of Iraq, including Baghdad, which gave them access to the Persian Gulf, while the Persians retained their former capital Tabriz and all their other north-western territories in the Caucasus and as they were prior to the wars; the frontier thus established ran across the mountains dividing eastern and western Georgia, through Armenia, via the western slopes of the Zagros down to the Persian Gulf. The Ottomans, gave permission for Persian pilgrims to go to the holy places of Mecca and Medina as well as to the Shia sites of pilgrimages in Iraq.

This peace lasted for 30 years. Tahmasp is known for the reception he gave to the fugitive Mughal Emperor Humayun as well as Suleiman the Magnificent's son Bayezid, depicted in a painting on the walls of the Safavid palace of Chehel Sotoon. One of Shah Tahmasp's more lasting achievements was his encouragement of the Persian rug industry on a national scale a response to the economic effects of the interruption of the Silk Road carrying trade during the Ottoman wars. Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail Shah-Begi Khanum of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe, he was only 10 years old when he succeeded his father Shah Ismail, the founder of Safavid rule in Iran. Too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of the Qizilbash; some of the tribes recognised a Qizilbash leader, Div Sultan Rumlu, as regent to the shah, but others dissented and in 1526 a bloody civil war broke out among the differing factions. Div Sultan emerged victorious but his ally, Chuha Sultan Takkalu, turned against him and urged the shah to get rid of him.

On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. When it failed to kill him, the shah's supporters finished him off. Chuha Sultan now became regent. Iran's enemies, the Uzbeks, had taken advantage of the civil war to invade the north-eastern province of Khorasan. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to reassert control of the region. Although they defeated the Uzbeks in a battle near Jam, Tahmasp was disgusted at the cowardice Chuha Sultan had displayed during the combat. In 1530/1, a quarrel broke out between members of the Takkalu and Shamlu Qizilbash factions and the Shamlus succeeded in killing Chuha Sultan; the Takkalus regained the advantage and some of them tried to kidnap the shah. Tahmasp ordered a general massacre of the Takkalu tribe, they never regained their influence in Iran. The leader of the Shamlu faction, Husayn Khan, now assumed the regency but, in 1533, Tahmasp suspected Husayn Khan was plotting to overthrow him and had him put to death.

Tahmasb was now confident enough to rule in his own right. On 18 February 1529, Charles V alarmed by the Ottoman progression towards Vienna, again sent a letter from Toledo to king Ismail, who had died in 1524 and had been replaced by Tahmasp I, pleading for a military diversion, thus continuing the earlier commenced Habsburg-Persian alliance, his ambassador to the Shah was the knight of Saint John de Balbi, an alliance was made with the objective of making an attack on the Ottoman Empire in the west and the east within the following year. Tahmasp responded by expressing his friendship to the Emperor. A decision was thus taken to attack the Ottoman Empire on both fronts, but Balbi took more than one year to return to the Iranian Empire, by that time the situation had changed in Safavid Iran, as Iran was forced to make peace with the Ottoman Empire because of an insurrection of the Shaybanid Uzbeks. About the same time, envoys were sent to Iran by King Ferdinand, in the person of Pietro da Negro and Simon de Lillis, without success.

Other legations were sent in 1532 and 1533. These

Mireia Belmonte

Mireia Belmonte García is a Spanish Olympic and European champion swimmer. She is the first female Olympic champion in the history of Spanish swimming and is considered to be the greatest Spanish swimmer of all time. At the Olympic Games in 2016 Rio became Olympic champion in the 200-metre butterfly, won the bronze medal in the 400-metre individual medley, she participated at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, where she debuted at 17 years old, at 2012 London, where she won two silver medals in the 200-metre butterfly with 2:05.25 and in the 800-metre freestyle with 8:18.76, improving the national record by four seconds. Mireia's parents, José Belmonte and Paqui García, moved to Catalonia and the family has always lived in the La Salud quarter of Badalona, she was advised to swim at the age of 5 by her doctor. Club Natació Badalona was the first swimming club. In 2003, she obtained a scholarship from Federación Catalana de Natación to train at the Centro de Alto Rendimiento of San Cugat del Vallés.

Her coach was Jordi Murio. After 6 years in this Club, she was signed in the 2007/08 season by Club Natación Sabadell, she continued training in CAR with her new coach Carles Subirana. In 2009 she left the CAR trainings and moved to the Club Natación Sabadell to with Michael Piper and Fred Vernoux. At the 2006 FINA Youth World Championships, she was the Junior World Champion in the 400-metre freestyle and in the 400-metre individual medley, the Junior European Champion in the 200-metre freestyle and in the 400-metre individual medley; the following year training with Carles Subirana she reached the 2nd place in the 400-metre medley at the 2007 European Short Course Swimming Championships with 4:31.06, just behind the Italian Alessia Filippi. She was classified to participate at the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics. On 21 March 2008, at the 2008 European LC Championships held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, Belmonte won the women's 200-metre individual medley breaking the European Championships record with the time of 2:11.16.

She reached the 8th place in the 400-metre individual medley. The European Short Course Swimming Championships 2008 took place in Rijeka, where she won the gold medal; the previous record was held by the American swimmer Julia Smit, with 4:25.87, since 28 November 2008 in Toronto, Canada. In 2011 she obtained, at the XII Championship of Spain, the best worldwide mark of the year in the 400-metre medley and a new record with 4:24.91. She reached a record in the 200-metre butterfly with 2:06:25, obtaining the minimum marks for the World Championships in Shanghai at three different distances. In 2011 she was at the head in the Holland competition of the 800-metre freestyle, beating the record of Spain with 8:22.78. Although the season 2009–2010 was not good, she recovered her best form and appeared strengthened to 2010 FINA World Swimming Championships, where she achieved a remarkable performance, winning three gold medals: the 200-metre butterfly, the 200-metre medley and the 400-metre medley and a silver medal in the 800-metre freestyle, in which she was only surpassed by her teammate Érika Villaécija.

In August 2012 Belmonte won two silver medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London: one in 200m butterfly and another one in 800m freestyle. She became the first Spanish swimmer to win two Olympic medals. After four months without training, she was presented as a member of the team of the Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia on 21 January, with a federative license for the UCAM Club Natación Fuensanta. Thus, she could combine her studies in Business Management through a blended learning program with her training in Sabadell; that year, the World Swimming Championship was held in a special city: it took place in Barcelona. Mireia would compete in 6 events during the 8 days of the competition. On 29 July, she won the bronze medal in the 200-metre medley. On 1 August, she won the silver medal in the 200-metre butterfly. On 4 August, the last day of the championship, she won her second silver medal in the 400-metre medley. On 5 August, she was honored in her birthplace, where she was received by hundreds of fans and decorated by the Mayor Xavier García Albiol in an institutional act.

On 10 August, she broke the world record of the 800 in short course, becoming the first woman to get off the 8 minutes. The next day she broke the world record for the 400-metre freestyle in short course with a time of 3:54.52.17 On 29 November, she broke the record again. On 12 December, at the European Short Course Swimming Championship held in Herning, Mireia won the gold medal in the 200-metre butterfly, beating the continental record in 2:01.52.19 The next day, she won another gold medal in the 800-metre freestyle with a time of 8:05.18. She defeated the local heroine Lotte Friis in that final. Belmonte won four individual gold medals and broke two world records: On December 3, she won two gold medals in the 200-metre butterfly and in the 400-metre medley, and at the same time she achieved the world record with substantial time improvements, making her the first swimmer to go under 2 minutes in the 200-metre butterfly. In both races, of great parallelism, she had to compete with her main rival, the Hungarian Katinka Hosszú, who topped the duels during the majority of the competitions, at times reaching top marks, and, surpassed twice by Mireia in the finals.

In Russia, Mireia was unable to participate because of a chronic shoulder injury that led to months without competing at a high level. Mireia Belmonte said that her goal was to prepare

HŽ series 1061

The HŽ series 1061 is a 6-axle articulated electric locomotive series, used by Croatian Railways. In Slovenia it is known as SŽ series 362; this locomotive, built by Ansaldo-Breda, is derived from Italian FS Class E636 and was donated by the Italian government. It was known as JŽ series 362 in SFRJ. A locomotive was needed which could operate on a mountain railway line with hilly terrain; the steam and diesel locomotives at that time could not fulfil the request, as they could not generate sufficient power. Therefore, the line was electrified, at the common voltage of 3 kV DC; these locomotives were deployed on this line between 1960 and 1964 and and between 1968 and 1969. The locomotives are split in two series: JŽ 362.001-040: 40 locomotives built between 1960 and 1967, 35 within 1964 only 5 in the following 2 years due to indecisions about modifications to adopt on seconds series. JŽ 362.101-110: 10 locomotives built in 1968. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, Slovenian Railways got 18 of those locomotives and Croatian Railways the others.

Most of the electrified lines in Croatia were re-electrified to 25 kV AC, the HŽ series 1061, which used 3 kV DC, was since only deployed on the Šapjane-Rijeka-Moravice Line. This line has been re-electrified to the standard voltage as well, in December 2012 all of the locomotives have been withdrawn. In Slovenia, where 3 kV DC is still the standard voltage, Slovenian Railways started replacing series 362 with series 541 in 2005, in July 2009 the last locomotive had a farewell drive. A couple of the locomotives were sold to other countries, one was acquired by the Slovenian Railway Museum, the rest were scrapped; the electrical part is similar and derived from FS Class E636, in some parts from FS Class E646. Like E636, JŽ 362 has six motors, each providing 440 kW and 472,5 kW, rheostatic regulation. On 1st series two La TA 241 Westinghouse compressors provide air for pneumatic systems. On 2nd series compressors and battery recharge systems are identical, but fans are 3 kW "Aeroto" type and are activated by alternators, providing a 380 V AC three-phase voltage.

Rheostatic type braking is possible, on a similar way used on experimental unit E636.082. 1061 RailfanEurope.net

Two Lines Oblique Down, Variation III

Two Lines Oblique Down, Variation III is a kinetic artwork by American artist George Rickey and located at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, near downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. The sculpture was made in 1970, it is constructed from stainless steel; the pendulum-inspired design of Two Lines Oblique Down, Variation III is typical of Rickey’s geometric, kinetic artwork. Measuring by the greatest extension of the sculpture's "arms," its size is 31' x 42' x 8', it is constructed from at least five primary, stainless steel components which have been welded and bolted together to form linear shapes. The overall form is a Y-shaped stationary piece with two wind-powered moving pieces; the stationary piece is square at the base and tapers up to the split of the Y. The ends of the Y are equipped with rotating joints by which the smaller moving pieces are attached to the sculpture; each moving piece is a triangular, tapering beam, connected at a point one fourth of its length away from the wider end of the beam.

Small greased bearings keep the sculpture moving freely. Rickey relies on random wind currents to introduce movement into his sculptures to other kinetic artists such as Alexander Calder. In contrast to the biomorphic forms of Calder's mobiles, Rickey's linear, oscillating forms trace paths in space that reject organic motifs in favor of geometry; the large scale of Two Lines combined with the gracefulness of the sculpture's movements emphasize the relationship between space and time. George Rickey made several editions of this sculpture during the years 1969 and 1970, they can be found at various institutions across the United States. Two Lines Oblique Down, Variation III was first displayed on the IMA's main terrace. A more protected arrangement for the artwork was desired, it was moved to accommodate for extra surrounding space; the sculpture is positioned prominently next to the Efroymson Pavilion, the main entrance of the IMA, encircled by an area of decorative landscaping. The Indianapolis edition of Two Lines was accessioned by the Indianapolis Museum of Art in 1975 through The Orville A. and Elma D. Wilkinson Fund.

List of Indianapolis Museum of Art artworks Save Outdoor Sculpture

Siege of Petra (550–551)

A Siege of Petra was conducted by the Byzantines under general Bessas against the Sasanian garrison at Petra, during the Lazic War. Sasanian reinforcements failed to arrive in time and Petra fell after a lengthy siege, its fortifications were dismantled to ensure that this strategic stronghold was never going to be used by the Sasanians again. After the failure of Dagisthaeus in Petra against the Sasanians, Justinian I replaced him by Bessas as the magister militum per Armeniam, a decision, criticized by the Byzantines due to the latter's old age and "inglorious" record during the sack of Rome; the Byzantines under Bessas, allied with Sabirs, numbering 6,000 in total, started a siege against Petra in 550. The Sasanian garrison, numbering 2,600, was "brave and resolute", lengthening the siege more than a year; the Sasanians used fire pots containing bitumen. Mihr-Mihroe and his army of cavalry and eight elephants were on their way to yet again relieve the siege on Petra, but he was too late this time.

Bessas managed to capture Petra in spring of 551. According to Procopius, he attacked the walls in an act of courage despite his old age. A small remaining Sasanian force in the acropolis refused his offer of surrender, were burned alive there. A large amount of Sasanian supplies and equipment were captured, showing that the Sasanians intended to maintain the city in their hands. Bessas dismantled the city walls, as ordered by Emperor Justinian I. After Petra's fall, Mihr-Mihroe directed his force against the Byzantine forts in the area, capturing Sarapanis and Scanda. Allied with 4,000 Sabir Huns, he tried to capture the major stronghold of Archaeopolis, although the Dailamite fighters and the war elephants were tactically effective, the assault was unsuccessful, as many of his forces died due to lack of supplies

Tom Plunkett

Thomas Flood "Tom" Plunkett CBE was a dairy farmer and member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Plunkett was born at Queensland, to parents Thomas Plunkett and his wife Maria, he went to Tamborine and Beaudesert State Schools before attending St Joseph's College, Gregory Terrace at Spring Hill, Brisbane. He was a good sportsman, represented the district in cricket and football. Around 1898 he moved to a family property on the Albert River, at Kerry, near Beaudesert and it into one of the leading dairy farms in the area, he was a founding director of Albert Co-operative Dairy Co.. Ltd in 1904 and chairman of the co-operative for over forty years, he was a member and director of many dairy based groups at local and national levels. Plunkett went on several trips to Europe and New Zealand to investigate the latest marketing techniques and the information he bought back was of great benefit to the industry across the nation, he was a made a Justice of the Peace and in 1957 appointed a CBE for his contributions to the dairy industry.

On 12 October 1915 he married Margaret Ellen Higgins at St Mary's Catholic Church and together had 3 sons and two daughters. He was buried at Gleneagle Catholic Cemetery, Beaudesert. Plunkett was a member of the Beaudesert Shire Council from 1914 until 1932 including its chairman in 1915–1916, he followed in his father's footsteps and in 1929 won the seat of Albert in the Queensland Legislative Assembly for the CPNP. When Albert was abolished for the 1950 state election Plunkett, by now representing the Country Party, moved to the new seat of Darlington and held the seat until his retirement from politics in 1957, his retirement was short as he died less than five months later