Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Toarangatira or Ngāti Toa Rangatira, is a Māori iwi in the lower North Island and upper South Island of New Zealand. Its rohe extends from Whanganui in the north, Palmerston North in the east, Kaikoura and Hokitika in the south. Ngāti Toa remains a small iwi with a population of only about 4500, it has four marae: Takapūwāhia and Hongoeka in Porirua, Whakatū and Wairau in the north of the South Island. Ngāti Toa's governing body has the name Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira; the iwi traces its descent from the eponymous ancestor Toarangatira. Ngāti Toa lived on the coastal west Waikato region until forced out by conflict with other Tainui iwi headed by Pōtatau Te Wherowhero. Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Rārua and Ngāti Koata led by Te Rauparaha, escaped south and invaded Taranaki and the Wellington regions together with three North Taranaki iwi, Te Āti Awa, Ngāti Tama and Ngāti Mutunga. Together they fought with and conquered the turangawaewae of Wellington, the Ngati Ira, wiping out their existence as an independent iwi.
After the 1820s the Ngāti Toa conquered region extended from Miria-te-kakara at Rangitikei to Wellington, across Cook Strait to Wairau and Nelson. A saying delineates the tribe's traditional boundaries: Mai i Miria-te-kakara ki Whitireia,Whakawhiti te moana Raukawa ki Wairau, ki Whakatū,Te Waka Tainui; however the tribe lives around Porirua and Nelson. An aphorism links tribal identity with ancestors and landmarks: Ko Whitireia te maungaKo Raukawa te moanaKo Tainui te wakaKo Ngāti Toarangatira te iwiKo Te Rauparaha te tangata Whitireia is the mountainRaukawa is the seaTainui is the wakaNgāti Toarangatira is the tribeTe Rauparaha is the man Tupahau, a descendant of Hoturoa, the captain of the Tainui canoe, received warning of an imminent attack by Tamure, a priest of Tainui, at once organised a plan of defence and attack. Tamure had an army of 2000 warriors whereas Tupahau had only 300. Tupahau and his followers won the battle, however Tupahau spared Tamure's life. Tamure responded to this by saying, Tēnā koe Tupahau, te toa rangatira!
Meaning "Hail Tupahau the chivalrous warrior!". Tupahau's daughter-in-law bore a son who received the name "Toarangatira" to commemorate both this event and the subsequent peace made between Tamure and Tupahau. Ngāti Toa trace their descent from Toarangatira. Parekowhatu of Ngāti Raukawa, the wife of Werawera of Ngāti Toa, gave birth to Te Rauparaha in about the 1760s. According to tribal tradition the birth took place at Pātangata near Kāwhia. Te Rauparaha became the foremost chief of Ngāti Toa, credited with leading Ngāti Toa forces against the Waikato and Ngāti Maniapoto iwi and after his defeat, with piloting the migration to, the conquest and settlement of, the Cook Strait region in the 1820s, he crossed Cook Strait to attack the Rangitane people in the Wairau valley. His attempt to conquer the southern South Island iwi was thwarted by an outbreak of measles which killed many of his warriors. Te Rauparaha signed the Treaty of Waitangi twice in May and June 1840: first at Kapiti Island and again at Wairau.
Te Rauparaha resisted European settlement in those areas. Disputes occurred over Porirua and the Hutt Valley, but the major clash came in 1843 when Te Rauparaha and his nephew Te Rangihaeata tried to prevent the survey of lands in the Wairau plains. These lands had been claimed by the New Zealand Company "on two grounds – alleged purchase by Captain Blenkinsop, master of a Sydney whaler in 1831-2. Te Rauparaha burnt down a whare; the Nelson magistrate deputised a number of citizens as police. Te Rauparaha resisted arrest and fighting broke out, resulting in the death of Te Rongo, the wife of Te Rangihaeata. Te Rangihaeata, known as a savage warrior killed the survey-party, who had surrendered, to avenge his wife's death in an act of utu; this became known as the Wairau Affray or until modern times, the Wairau massacre, as most of the Europeans were killed after the fighting had stopped. Following fighting in the Hutt Valley in 1846, Governor George Grey arrested Te Rauparaha after British troops discovered he was receiving and sending secret instructions to the local Maori who were attacking settlers.
In a surprise attack on his pa, Te Rauparaha, now quite elderly, was captured and taken prisoner of war. The government held him as a prisoner for 10 months and kept him under house arrest in Auckland on board a prison ship, the Driver. After his capture fighting stopped in the Wellington region. Te Rauparaha was released to attend a Maori peace conference at Kohimaramara in Auckland and given his liberty after giving up any claim to the Wairau valley. Te Rauparaha's last notable achievement came with the construction of Rangiātea Church in Ōtaki, he did not adopt Christianity. Te Rauparaha died on 27 November 1849, aged about 85, was buried near Rangiātea, in Otaki. Many remember him as the author of the haka "Ka mate, ka mate", which he composed after being hidden in a rua by a woman in the Taupo region after a defeat in battle. Ngāti Toa lived around the Kāwhia region for many generations until increasing conflicts with neighbouring Waikato–Maniapoto iwi forced a withdrawal from their homeland.
From the late eighteenth century Ngāti Toa and related tribes warred with the Waikato–Maniapoto tribes for control of the rich fertile land north of Kāwhia. The wars intensified
Waka Māori: ) are Māori watercraft canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes used for fishing and river travel, to large decorated war canoes up to 40 metres long. The earliest archaeological find of a canoe in New Zealand was reported in 2014, it was found near the Anaweka estuary in a remote part of Tasman and carbon dated to about 1400. The canoe was constructed in New Zealand, but was a sophisticated canoe, compatible with the style of other Polynesian voyaging canoes at that time. Since the 1970s about eight large double-hulled canoes of about 20 metres have been constructed for oceanic voyaging to other parts of the Pacific but they are made of a blend of modern and traditional materials incorporating features from both ancient Melanesia as well as Polynesia. Waka taua are large canoes are up to 40 metres in length. Large waka, such as Nga Toki Matawhaorua which are elaborately carved and decorated, consist of a main hull formed from a single hollowed-out log, along with a carved upright head and tailboard.
The gunwale is raised in some by a continuous plank which gives increased freeboard and prevents distortion of the main hull components when used in a rough seas. Sometimes the hull is further strengthened, as in the case of Te Winika, a 200-year-old design, by a batten or stringer running lengthwise both inside and outside the hull just above the loaded waterline; the resurgence of Māori culture has seen an increase in the numbers of waka taua built on behalf of a tribal group, for use on ceremonial occasions. Traditionally the war canoe was tapu. No cooked food was allowed in the craft and the waka had to be entered over the gunwales, not the bow or stern which were decorated with powerful symbols. Canoes were painted with black or white with black representing death; the main colour was red. Sometimes a waka would be placed upright as a marker for a dead chief with the curved bottom of the hull carved. Māori told missionaries during the Musket wars that battles between waka took place at sea with the aim being to ram an enemy's waka amidships at high speed.
The ramming vessel would ride up over the gunwale and either force it under water or cause it to roll over. The enemies were either killed, left to drown or captured to be used in cannibal feasts or as slaves if they were female; this description matches the attack on the ship's boat of Abel Tasman in Golden Bay in 1642 when a Māori catamaran rammed a cock boat and 4 Dutch sailors were killed. During the classic period a hapū would prepare it years ahead for felling. Totara is a lightweight wood with a high natural oil content; this would include the removal of bark from one side of the trunk and the clearing of the ground and the planting of food crops for workers. After chants and prayers the tree would be felled by a combination of fires around the base and chopping with hand adzes. On an large tree with aerial roots a stage about 3m high was built of wood. On this was built a framework on, suspended a giant upside down toki, about 2.5m long. The long axis of the toki was tied to the cross member of the upper frame work so that it could pivot back and forwards, like a swing.
Heavy rocks were tied to each side of the long axis at its lowest point to give momentum. The toki was pulled back and released so that the cutting edge bit into the wood, weakened by fire, it could take two to three weeks to cut down a large tree in this manner. The head of the tree and branches were removed the hull was shaped in situ using fire and hand adzes, under the guidance of the chief designer. A stone adze was used by gentle but regular and repeated blows; the head was soaked in water to hold the stone blade more firmly. Once the shaping was complete, the log of 3–4 tonnes was pulled by teams of men to a stream or river using multiple ropes made from raupō; some men pulled the waka forward. Accidents at this stage were common. Saplings were used as rollers over uneven ground; the final shaping was done closer to the papakainga to be nearer to food. A waka could take a year to make if the construction went smoothly, but it could be abandoned if there was an accident or a death of an important person.
Such abandoned, uncompleted waka have been found in post-contact times. Most large waka were built in several main interlocking sections and stitched together with flax rope. Small pegs were put in the holes which sealed when wet. Tree gum could seal the holes. A large finished waka could remain in use for many decades. All large waka were objects of pride and admiration; the image above shows a waka taua with unusually high freeboard. A noticeable feature of a loaded waka taua was its low freeboard of 400–500 mm which made the vessel unseaworthy in all but good weather, despite the presence of one or two young men on board dedicated to bailing; the normal timber used, Totara, is a lightweight native podocarp, which retains its natural oils when cut down. This splitting. Angela Ballara noted. One voyage across the stormy Cook Strait, was delayed for a week while the travellers waited for fine weather; the missionary William Williams, son of Henry Williams, noted that the voyage of a waka taua was a leisurely affair due to the requirements of foraging for food and waiting for fine weather.
Tasman noted that two of the waka which attacked his
Te Rapa is a mixed light industrial, large scale retail and semi-rural suburb to the northwest of central Hamilton, New Zealand, built on a flat area, the bed of an ancient river, the forerunner to the present Waikato River. Stretching in a long, thin north-south axis, Te Rapa is home to a large number of factories including Te Rapa Dairy Factory, one of the largest of its kind in the world. Te Rapa has locomotive depots on the North Island Main Trunk Railway. Te Rapa area unit had these census results - The median age is high at 74.5 and income low because 267 live in meshblock 0908100, where Metlifecare's Forest Lake Gardens Retirement Complex has been built since 2001 and the median age is 79 and income $23,300. In 2001 that meshblock had only 39 residents, with a median age of 34.5. There is a Te Rapa North area unit just outside the city boundary and including the dairy factory. There are two Post Shops in Te Rapa, at The Base and at Video Ezy, until 2018, was one of the last two in Hamilton renting DVDs, Play Station and videos.
It is said that until 2014 it was the last venue for original Sony PlayStation game rentals in Waikato. Before being given by the government to the Tainui tribe in a Raupatu land settlement in 1995, Te Rapa was the site of a Royal New Zealand Air Force base; the Te Rapa Air force Base was a major Air Force stores depot. The Te Rapa Air force Base closed in 1992. Te Rapa's shopping area includes The Base, a large scale retail development that opened in 2005 at the site of the former air force base; as of 2006, The Base contained the largest branch of The Warehouse in New Zealand. With the addition of the Te Awa building in 2010, The Base became New Zealand's largest shopping mall, still is, as of December 2011. Located in Te Rapa is Te Rapa Racecourse, Hamilton's only remaining horse racing course, the main racecourse for the Waikato region, it has a symmetrical left-handed track with a circumference of 1788 metres. Facilities and hospitalities include a members' facility and private suites. Waterworld is a Hamilton city council-owned pool complex in Te Rapa.
In addition to the main facilities, the venue includes a range of other options including a spa and steam rooms as well as an outdoor playground. Rides offered at Waterworld include The Python Hydroslide, the Twister Slide and The Screamer Speedslides; the complex was opened in late 1976, 15 years after Hamilton Jaycees suggested a new swimming pool complex in Fairfield Park. The suggestion led to an adopted proposal in 1964 to mark the city's centennial and in 1973 the decision was made to instead build the complex in Te Rapa. After the invasion of the Waikato, in 1864, there was just a track across the area linking Mangaharakeke Pā and Kirikiriroa Pā. By 1870 bridges had been built over the streams. An 1875 report said the bridges at Waitawhiriwhiri, Beere's Creek and Hall's Creek, between Ngāruawāhia and Hamilton on the Great South Road, had been replaced, or repaired; until Mangaharakeke Dr opened in 2012, much of the 1860s road, now known as Te Rapa Rd, was part of SH1. The North Island Main Trunk was extended through the area in 1877, when Te Rapa railway station opened.
Te Rapa is the northern end of the section to Palmerston North, electrified in 1988. A locomotive depot and marshalling yard incorporated the Racecourse station site. There is a concrete sleeper factory at Te Rapa. Te Rapa Racecourse opened near the south-west end of the course on 15 October 1924 and may have formally closed, except for transport of horses, on 7 July 1934, with final closure in late 1967. However, although the first excursion seems to have been advertised in October 1924, the last was in November 1943, when wartime restrictions closed racecourses, it seems to have been used only by excursion passenger trains on race days. Aerial photos show that the site of the station and an area to the north was used for the marshalling yard and the locomotive and freight depot. Fonterra's Crawford St depot is linked by rail to local dairy factories at Te Awamutu, Waitoa, Waharoa and Tirau, it sends about 33,000 containers of milk powder and cheese a year for export via the Port of Tauranga.
An automated cool store was added in 2009 to handle about 235,000 tonnes a year. The yard replaced Frankton goods yard and opened on 10 January 1971, it had a hump for shunting, which used 31 sidings. Te Rapa Primary School has been the local primary school since 1906; the Base official website Te Rapa Racecourse official website 1973 photo of retarder at railway marshalling yard
The South Island officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean; the South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres. It has a temperate climate, it has a 32 percent larger landmass than the North Island, as a result is nicknamed the "mainland" of New Zealand by South Island residents, but only 23 percent of New Zealand's 4.9 million inhabitants live there. In the early stages of European settlement of the country, the South Island had the majority of the European population and wealth due to the 1860s gold rushes; the North Island population overtook the South in the early 20th century, with 56 percent of the population living in the North in 1911, the drift north of people and businesses continued throughout the century. In the 19th century, some maps named the South Island as Middle Island or New Munster, the name South Island or New Leinster was used for today's Stewart Island/Rakiura.
In 1907 the Minister for Lands gave instructions to the Land and Survey Department that the name Middle Island was not to be used in future. "South Island will be adhered to in all cases". Although the island had been known as the South Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the North Island, the South Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island South Island or Te Waipounamu in October 2013. Said to mean "the Water of Greenstone", this name evolved from Te Wāhi Pounamu "the Place Of Greenstone"; the island is known as Te Waka a Māui which means "Māui's Canoe". In some Māori legends, the South Island existed first, as the boat of Maui, while the North Island was the fish that he caught. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Christchurch is in the South Island", "my mother lives in the South Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use South Island without "the". Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago; the drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, portray animals and fantastic creatures stylised reptiles. Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including Haast's eagles, they were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, local Māori did not know the origins of the drawings. Early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha, they were absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Māmoe in the 16th century. Kāti Māmoe were in turn absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century. While today there is no distinct Kāti Māmoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu have Kāti Māmoe links in their whakapapa and in the far south of the island. Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to Rekohu, where, in adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they evolved into a separate people known as the Moriori with its own distinct language — related to the parent culture and language in mainland New Zealand.
One notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu. Kāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Kāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Kāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter.
After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction. In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. Kaiapoi was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men sapped the pā, they attacked Kāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832-33 Kāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Kāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Kāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Kāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Kāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Kāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the first Europeans known to reach the South Island were the crew o
Sir George Grey, KCB was a British soldier, colonial administrator and writer. He served in a succession of governing positions: Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony, the 11th Premier of New Zealand. Grey was born in Lisbon, just a few days after his father, Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey was killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain, he was educated in England. After military service and two explorations in Western Australia, Grey became Governor of South Australia in 1841, he oversaw the colony during a difficult formative period. Despite being seen as less hands-on than his predecessor George Gawler, his fiscally responsible measures ensured the colony was in good shape by the time he departed for New Zealand in 1845, he was arguably the most influential figure during the European settlement of New Zealand during much of the 19th century. Governor of New Zealand from 1845 to 1853, he established peace and became a pioneer scholar of the Māori culture, writing a study of their mythology and oral history.
He was knighted in 1848. In 1854, Grey was appointed Governor of Cape Colony in South Africa, where his resolution of hostilities between the natives and European settlers was praised by both sides. Grey was again appointed Governor of New Zealand in 1861, following the granting of a degree of self-governance to New Zealand, serving until 1868, he was appointed as Premier in 1877, in which capacity he served until 1879. By political philosophy a Gladstonian liberal and Georgist, Grey eschewed the class system for the prosaic life of Auckland's new governance he helped to establish. Grey was born in Lisbon, the only son of Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey, of the 30th Regiment of Foot, killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain just a few days before, his mother, Elizabeth Anne née Vignoles, on the balcony of her hotel in Lisbon, overheard two officers speak of her husband's death and this brought on the premature birth of the child. She was the daughter of a retired soldier turned Irish clergyman, Major Rev. John Vignoles.
Grey's grandfather was Owen Wynne Gray. Grey's uncle was John Gray, Owen Wynne Gray's son from his second marriage. Grey was sent to the Royal Grammar School, Guildford in Surrey, was admitted to the Royal Military College in 1826. Early in 1830, he was gazetted ensign in the 83rd Regiment of Foot. In 1830, his regiment having been sent to Ireland, he developed much sympathy with the Irish peasantry whose misery made a great impression on him, he was promoted lieutenant in 1833 and obtained a first-class certificate at the examinations of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1836. In 1837, at the age of 25, Grey led an ill-prepared expedition. British settlers in Australia at the time knew little of the region and only one member of Grey's party had been there before, it was believed possible at that time that one of the world's largest rivers might drain into the Indian Ocean in North-West Australia. Grey, with Lieutenant Franklin Lushington, of the 9th Regiment of Foot, offered to explore the region.
On 5 July 1837, they sailed from Plymouth in command of a party of five, the others being Lushington. Others joined the party at Cape Town, early in December they landed at Hanover Bay. Traveling south, the party traced the course of the Glenelg River. After experiencing boat wrecks, near-drowning, becoming lost, Grey himself being speared in the hip during a skirmish with Aboriginal people, the party gave up. After being picked up by HMS Beagle and the schooner Lynher, they were taken to Mauritius to recover. Two years Grey returned to Western Australia and was again wrecked with his party, again including Surgeon Walker, at Kalbarri. At about this time, Grey learnt the Noongar language. In July 1839, Grey was promoted to captain and appointed temporary Resident Magistrate at King George Sound, Western Australia, following the death of Sir Richard Spencer RN KCH, the previous Resident Magistrate. On 2 November 1839 at King George Sound, Grey married Eliza Lucy Spencer, daughter of the late Government Resident.
Their only child, born in 1841 in South Australia, died aged 5 months. It was not a happy marriage. Grey, obstinate in his domestic affairs as in his first expedition, accused his wife unjustly of flirting with Rear Admiral Sir Henry Keppel on the voyage to Cape Town taken in 1860, she lived a life of misery until old age brought a formal reunion, but co-existed unhappily until 1897. Grey adopted Annie Maria Matthews in 1861, following the death of her father, his half-brother, Sir Godfrey Thomas, she married Seymour Thorne George on 3 December 1872 on Kawau Island. Grey was the third Governor of South Australia, from May 1841 to October 1845, as a replacement for George Gawler, under whose stewardship the colony had become bankrupt through massive spending on public infrastructure. Gawler was held responsible for the illegal retribution exacted by Major O'Halloran on an Aboriginal tribe, some of whose members had murdered all 25 survivors of the Maria shipwreck. G
New Zealand Parliament
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is represented by a governor-general. Before 1951, there was the New Zealand Legislative Council; the Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. The House of Representatives has met in the Parliament Buildings located in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, since 1865, it consists of 120 members of Parliament, though sometimes more due to overhang seats. There are 71 MPs elected directly in electorate seats and the remainder are filled by list MPs based on each party's share of the total party vote. Māori were represented in Parliament from 1867, in 1893 women gained the vote. Although elections can be called early, each three years the House is dissolved and goes up for reelection; the Parliament is linked to the executive. The New Zealand Government comprises other ministers.
In accordance with the principle of responsible government, these individuals are always drawn from the House of Representatives, are held accountable to it. Neither the monarch nor her governor-general participates in the legislative process, save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by the House, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law; the New Zealand Parliament is consciously modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary representation, developed in the United Kingdom. This system can be traced back to the "Model Parliament" of 1295 regarded as the first recognisable parliament. Over the centuries, parliaments progressively limited the power of the monarchy; the Bill of Rights 1688 established Parliament's role in law-making and supply. Among its provisions, the Bill confirmed absolute freedom of speech in Parliament; as early as 1846, the British settlers in New Zealand petitioned for self-government. The New Zealand Parliament was created by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, an Act of the British Parliament, which established a bicameral legislature called the "General Assembly", but referred to as Parliament.
It had a lower house, called the House of Representatives, an upper house, called the Legislative Council. The members of the House were elected under the first-past-the-post voting system, while those of the Council were appointed by the Governor; the first members were sworn in on 24 May 1854 in Auckland. Legislative Councillors were appointed for life, but their terms were fixed at seven years; this change, coupled with responsible government and party politics, meant that by the 20th century, the government controlled the Council as well as the House, the passage of bills through the Council became a formality. In 1951, the Council was abolished altogether. At the time of its abolition the Council had fifty-four members, including its own Speaker. Under the Constitution Act, legislative power was conferred on New Zealand's provinces, each of which had its own elected provincial council; these provincial councils were able to legislate for their provinces on most subjects. However, New Zealand was never a federation comparable to Australia.
Over a twenty-year period, political power was progressively centralised, the provinces were abolished altogether in 1876. Unlike other countries, New Zealand had representatives of the indigenous population in its parliament from an early date. Reserved Māori seats were created in 1867 during the term of the 4th Parliament; the Māori electorates have lasted far longer than the intended five years. In 2002, the seats increased in number to seven. One historical speciality of the New Zealand Parliament was the country quota, which gave greater representation to rural politics. From 1889 on, districts were weighted according to their urban/rural split; those districts which had large rural proportions received a greater number of nominal votes than they contained voters – as an example, in 1927, Waipawa, a district without any urban population at all, received an additional 4,153 nominal votes to its actual 14,838 – having the maximum factor of 28% extra representation. The country quota was in effect until it was abolished in 1945 by a urban-elected Labour government, which switched to a one-vote-per-person system.
The New Zealand Parliament remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire—although, in practice, Britain's role was minimal from the 1890s. The New Zealand Parliament received progressively more control over New Zealand affairs through the passage of Imperial laws such as the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865, constitutional amendments, an hands-off approach by the British government. In 1947, the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act gave Parliament full power over New Zealand law, the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947, an Act of the British
Bay of Plenty
The Bay of Plenty is a bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island. It stretches 260 km from the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east; the Bay of Plenty Region is situated around this body of water incorporating several large islands in the bay. The bay was named by James Cook after he noticed the abundant food supplies at several Māori villages there, in stark contrast to the earlier observations he had made in Poverty Bay. According to local Māori traditions, the Bay of Plenty was the landing point of several migration canoes that brought Māori settlers to New Zealand; these include the Mataatua, Nukutere, Tākitimu and Tainui canoes. Many of the descendent iwi maintain their traditional homelands in the region, including Te Whānau-ā-Apanui, Te Whakatōhea, Ngāi Tai, Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau, Te Arawa, Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga. Early Māori settlement gave rise to many of the city names used today; the first recorded European contact came when James Cook sailed through the Bay of Plenty in 1769.
Cook noted the abundance of food supplies, in comparison to Poverty Bay further back along the eastern coast of the North Island. Further reports of European contact are scarce prior to the arrival of missionary Samuel Marsden to the Tauranga area in 1820. During the 1820s and 1830s, northern iwi including Ngā Puhi invaded the Bay of Plenty during their campaign throughout the North Island, fighting local Māori tribes in what became known as the Musket Wars. However, the 1830s and 1840s saw increased contact between Bay of Plenty Māori and Europeans through trade, although few Europeans settled in the region. Missionary activity in the region increased during this time. In 1853, New Zealand was subdivided into provinces, with the Bay of Plenty incorporated into Auckland Province. Conflict returned to the Bay of Plenty during the 1860s with the New Zealand Land Wars; this stemmed from Tauranga iwi supporting the Waikato iwi in their conflict with the government. In retaliation, British Crown and government-allied Māori forces attacked the Tauranga iwi, including at the famous Battle of Gate Pā in 1864.
Further conflict with the government arose in 1865 when German missionary Carl Völkner and interpreter James Fulloon were killed by local Māori at Opotiki and Whakatane, respectively. The ensuing conflict resulted in the confiscation of considerable land from several Bay of Plenty iwi by the government. Confiscation of Māori land deprived local iwi of economic resources, provided land for expanding European settlement; the government established fortified positions, including at Tauranga and Opotiki. European settlers arrived throughout the latter half of the 19th century, establishing settlements in Katikati, Te Puke and the Rangitaiki area. In 1876, settlements were incorporated into counties following the nationwide dissolution of the provincial system. Initial settlements in the region struggled: the climate was ill-suited to sheep farming and the geography was inaccessible, further hindered by a lack of infrastructure. By the end of the century the population had started to dwindle, but after experimenting with different crops, settlers found success with dairy production.
Dairy factories sprang up across the Bay of Plenty in the 1900s, with butter and cheese feeding economic prosperity throughout the early 20th century. Timber became a major export in the 1950s, as kiwifruit did later; the present Bay of Plenty region was formed in 1989 after a nationwide review and shakeup of top-level local government in New Zealand. The new region incorporated the former counties of Tauranga, Rotorua and Opotiki. On 5 October 2011, the MV Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef in the bay causing a large oil spill, described as New Zealand's worst environmental disaster; the region is subdivided into territorial authorities, which include the Western Bay of Plenty District, Tauranga City, Whakatane District, Kawerau District and Opotiki District, as well as parts of Rotorua District and the town of Rangitaiki in Taupo District. The Bay of Plenty Regional Council, which used the brand name Environment Bay of Plenty for a number of years, is the administrative body responsible for overseeing regional land use, environmental management and civil defence in the region.
It oversees local-tier governing councils for each of the territorial authorities. In 1989, Whakatane was selected as the seat for the regional council, as a compromise between the two dominant cities of Tauranga and Rotorua. Public health in New Zealand is broken into regions; the Bay of Plenty and Lakes district health boards have public health provided by Toi Te Ora - Public Health. The Bay of Plenty region covers 9,500 km ² of coastal marine area, it extends along the eastern coast of the North Island, from the base of the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east. The region extends 12 nautical miles from the mainland coastline, extends from the coastlines of several islands in the bay, notably Mayor Island/Tuhua, Motiti Island, Whale Island and the active volcano of Whakaari/White Island, it extends inland to the sparsely populated forest lands around Murupara. The geographical bay is defined by 259 km of open coastline used for economic and cultural purposes; the coastline from Waihi Beach in the west to Opape is defined as sandy coast, while the coast from Opape to Cape Runaway is rocky shore.
Sizeable harbours are located at Tauranga and Ohiwa. Major estuaries include Maketu, Little Waihi, Whakatane and Waioeka/Otara. Eight major rivers empty into the bay from inland