Japanese names in modern times consist of a family name, followed by a given name. More than one given name is not used. Japanese names are written in kanji, which are characters Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation; the kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, hence parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan; the three most common family names in Japan are Satō, Takahashi. This diversity is in stark contrast to the situation in other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere, which reflects a different history: while Chinese surnames have been in use for millennia and were reflective of an entire clan or adopted from nobles and were thence transferred to Korea and Vietnam via noble names, the vast majority of modern Japanese family names date only to the 19th century, following the Meiji restoration, were chosen at will.
The recent introduction of surnames has two additional effects: Japanese names became widespread when the country had a large population instead of dating to ancient times, since little time has passed, Japanese names have not experienced as significant a surname extinction as has occurred in the much longer history in China. Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape. While family names follow consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. While many common names can be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have become common, with this trend having increased since the 1990s. For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", "Masato" have all entered use.
Male names end in -rō -ta or -o, or contain ichi, kazu, ji, or dai. Female names end in -ko or -mi. Other popular endings for female names include -ka and -na; the majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – myōji, uji or sei – precedes the given name, called the "name" – or "lower name"; the given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names. Myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was the patrilineal surname, why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank; the lower form of the name sei being tei, a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name'Sei' came. There were few sei, most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei.
Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku, one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See Kabane. Multiple Japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns. Few names can serve either as surnames or as given names. Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and, the given name is apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in; this thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order.
However, due to the variety of pronuncia
Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock paintings of such subjects as female beauties; the term ukiyo-e translates as "picture of the floating world". Edo became the seat of government for the military dictatorship in the early 17th century; the merchant class at the bottom of the social order benefited most from the city's rapid economic growth. Many indulged in the entertainments of kabuki theatre and geisha of the pleasure districts; the term ukiyo came to describe this hedonistic lifestyle. Printed or painted ukiyo-e images of this environment emerged in the late 17th century and were popular with the merchant class, who had become wealthy enough to afford to decorate their homes with them; the earliest success was in the 1670s with Moronobu's paintings and monochromatic prints of beautiful women. Colour in prints came gradually—at first added by hand for special commissions. By the 1740s, artists such as Masanobu used multiple woodblocks to print areas of colour.
From the 1760s the success of Harunobu's "brocade prints" led to full-colour production becoming standard, each print made with numerous blocks. Specialists have prized the portraits of beauties and actors by masters such as Kiyonaga and Sharaku that came in the late 18th century. In the 19th century followed a pair of masters best remembered for their landscapes: the bold formalist Hokusai, whose Great Wave off Kanagawa is one of the best-known works of Japanese art. Following the deaths of these two masters, against the technological and social modernization that followed the Meiji Restoration of 1868, ukiyo-e production went into steep decline; some ukiyo-e artists specialized in making paintings. Artists carved their own woodblocks for printing; as printing was done by hand, printers were able to achieve effects impractical with machines, such as the blending or gradation of colours on the printing block. Ukiyo-e was central to forming the West's perception of Japanese art in the late 19th century–especially the landscapes of Hokusai and Hiroshige.
From the 1870s Japonism became a prominent trend and had a strong influence on the early Impressionists such as Degas and Monet, as well as Post-Impressionists such as van Gogh and Art Nouveau artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec. The 20th century saw a revival in Japanese printmaking: the shin-hanga genre capitalized on Western interest in prints of traditional Japanese scenes, the sōsaku-hanga movement promoted individualist works designed and printed by a single artist. Prints since the late 20th century have continued in an individualist vein made with techniques imported from the West. Japanese art since the Heian period had followed two principal paths: the nativist Yamato-e tradition, focusing on Japanese themes, best known by the works of the Tosa school; the Kanō school of painting incorporated features of both. Since antiquity, Japanese art had found patrons in the aristocracy, military governments, religious authorities; until the 16th century, the lives of the common people had not been a main subject of painting, when they were included, the works were luxury items made for the ruling samurai and rich merchant classes.
Works appeared by and for townspeople, including inexpensive monochromatic paintings of female beauties and scenes of the theatre and pleasure districts. The hand-produced nature of these shikomi-e limited the scale of their production, a limit, soon overcome by genres that turned to mass-produced woodblock printing. During a prolonged period of civil war in the 16th century, a class of politically powerful merchants had developed; these machishū had power over local communities. In the early 17th century Tokugawa Ieyasu unified the country and was appointed shōgun with supreme power over Japan, he consolidated his government in the village of Edo, required the territorial lords to assemble there in alternate years with their entourages. The demands of the growing capital drew many male labourers from the country, so that males came to make up nearly seventy percent of the population; the village grew during the Edo period from a population of 1800 to over a million in the 19th century. The centralized shogunate put an end to the power of the machishū and divided the population into four social classes, with the ruling samurai class at the top and the merchant class at the bottom.
While deprived of their political influence, those of the merchant class most benefited from the expanding economy of the Edo period, their improved lot allowed for leisure that many sought in the pleasure districts—in particular Yoshiwara in Edo—and collecting artworks to decorate their homes, which in earlier times had been well beyond their financial means. The experience of the pleasure quarters was open to those of sufficient wealth, manners, a
A demigod or demi-god is a minor deity, or a mortal or immortal, the offspring of a god and a human, or a figure who has attained divine status after death. The English term "demigod" is a calque of the Latin word semideus, "half-god"; the Roman poet Ovid coined semideus to refer to less important gods, such as dryads. Compare the Greek hemitheos. In the ancient Greek and Roman world, the word did not have a consistent definition and was used; the earliest recorded use of the term is by the archaic Greek poets Hesiod. Both describe dead heroes as hemitheoi, or "half gods". In these cases, the word did not mean that these figures had one parent, divine and one, mortal. Instead, those who demonstrated "strength, good family, good behavior" were termed heroes, after death they could be called hemitheoi, a process, referred to as "heroization". Pindar used the term as a synonym for hero. According to the Roman author Cassius Dio, Julius Caesar was declared a demigod by the Roman Senate after his victory at Thapsus.
However, Dio was writing in the third century — centuries after the death of Caesar — and modern critics have cast doubt on whether the Senate did this. The first Roman to employ the term demigod may have been the poet Ovid, who used the Latin semideus several times in reference to minor deities; the poet Lucan uses the term to speak of Pompey attaining divinity upon his death. In antiquity, the Roman writer Martianus Capella proposed a hierarchy of gods as follows: the gods proper, or major gods; the term demigod first appeared in English in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century, when it was used to render the Greek and Roman concepts of semideus and daemon. Since it has been applied figuratively to people of extraordinary ability. John Milton states in Paradise Lost. Demigods are important figures in Rick Riordan's Percy Jackson books, where many of the characters, including Percy Jackson himself, are demigods. In Riordan's work, a demigod is defined as an individual born of one divine parent.
In Hinduism, the term demigod is used to refer to deities who were once human and became devas. There are three notable demigods in Vedic Scriptures: Nandi, Garuda. Examples of demigods worshiped in South India are Karuppu Sami; the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, the five Pandava brothers, fit the Western definition of demigods though they are not referred to as such. Queen Kunti, the wife of King Pandu, was given a mantra that, when recited, meant that one of the Gods would give her his child; when her husband was cursed to die if he engaged in sexual relations, Kunti used this mantra to provide her husband with children fathered by various deities. These children were Yudhishthira and Arjuna, she taught this mantra to Madri, King Pandu's other wife, she immaculately conceived twin boys named Nakula and Sahadeva. Queen Kunti had conceived another son, when she had tested the mantra out. Despite her protests, Surya the sun god was compelled by the mantra to impregnate her. Bhishma is another figures who fits the western definition of demigod, as he was the son of king Shantanu and Goddess Ganga.
The Vaishnavites cite various verses. For example, the Rig Veda reads, "oṃ tad viṣṇoḥ paramam padam sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ", which translates to, "All the suras look always toward the feet of Lord Vishnu". In the Vishnu Sahasranama, the concluding verses, read, "The Rishis, the ancestors, the devas, the great elements, in fact, all things moving and unmoving constituting this universe, have originated from Narayana,", thus the Devas are stated to be subordinate to God. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness translates the Sanskrit word "deva" as "demigod" in his literature when the term referred to a God other than the Supreme Lord; this is because the ISKCON tradition teaches that there is only one Supreme Lord and that all others are but His servants. In an effort to emphasize their subservience, Prabhupada uses the word "demigod" as a translation of deva. However, there are at least three occurrences in the eleventh chapter of Bhagavad-Gita where the word deva, used in reference to Lord Krishna, is translated as "Lord".
The word deva can be used to refer to the Supreme Lord, celestial beings, saintly souls depending on the context. This is similar to the word Bhagavan, translated according to different contexts. Chinese demigods are demigods that are half half god in Chinese mythology, they were said to be the children of Chinese gods such as the Jade Emperor or Guan Di, god of war, for example. In some other Chinese folklore, Chinese demigods can be descendants of other important characters causing people/monsters to get confused of who they are, they were good at combat. Chinese demigods Greek mythology List of demigods
History of Japan
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times. The Jōmon period, named after its "cord-marked" pottery, was followed by the Yayoi in the first millennium BC when new technologies were introduced from continental Asia. During this period, the first known written reference to Japan was recorded in the Chinese Book of Han in the first century AD. Between the fourth century and the ninth century, Japan's many kingdoms and tribes came to be unified under a centralized government, nominally controlled by the Emperor; this imperial dynasty continues to reign over Japan. In 794, a new imperial capital was established at Heian-kyō, marking the beginning of the Heian period, which lasted until 1185; the Heian period is considered a golden age of classical Japanese culture. Japanese religious life from this time and onwards was a mix of native Shinto practices and Buddhism. Over the following centuries, the power of the Emperor and the imperial court declined and passed to the military clans and their armies of samurai warriors.
The Minamoto clan under Minamoto no Yoritomo emerged victorious from the Genpei War of 1180–85. After seizing power, Yoritomo took the title of shōgun. In 1274 and 1281, the Kamakura shogunate withstood two Mongol invasions, but in 1333 it was toppled by a rival claimant to the shogunate, ushering in the Muromachi period. During the Muromachi period regional warlords called daimyōs grew in power at the expense of the shōgun. Japan descended into a period of civil war. Over the course of the late sixteenth century, Japan was reunified under the leadership of the daimyō Oda Nobunaga and his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi. After Hideyoshi's death in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu came to power and was appointed shōgun by the Emperor; the Tokugawa shogunate, which governed from Edo, presided over a prosperous and peaceful era known as the Edo period. The Tokugawa shogunate imposed a strict class system on Japanese society and cut off all contact with the outside world. Portugal and Japan started their first affiliation in 1543, making the Portuguese the first Europeans to reach Japan by landing in the southern archipelago of Japan.
The Netherlands was the first to establish trade relations with Japan, Japan–Netherlands relations dating back to 1609. The American Perry Expedition in 1853–54 more ended Japan's seclusion; the new national leadership of the following Meiji period transformed the isolated feudal island country into an empire that followed Western models and became a great power. Although democracy developed and modern civilian culture prospered during the Taishō period, Japan's powerful military had great autonomy and overruled Japan's civilian leaders in the 1920s and 1930s; the military invaded Manchuria in 1931, from 1937 the conflict escalated into a prolonged war with China. Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to war with its allies. Japan's forces soon became overextended, but the military held out in spite of Allied air attacks that inflicted severe damage on population centers. Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's unconditional surrender on 15 August 1945, following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.
The Allies occupied Japan until 1952, during which a new constitution was enacted in 1947 that transformed Japan into a constitutional monarchy. After 1955, Japan enjoyed high economic growth, became a world economic powerhouse. Since the 1990s, economic stagnation has been a major issue. An earthquake, tsunami in 2011 caused massive economic dislocations and a serious nuclear power disaster; the mountainous Japanese archipelago stretches northeast to southwest 3,000 km off the east of the Asian continent at the convergence of four tectonic plates. The steep, craggy mountains that cover two-thirds of its surface are prone to quick erosion from fast-flowing rivers and to mudslides, they have hampered internal travel and communication and driven the population to rely on transportation along coastal waters. There is a great variety to its regions' geographical features and weather patterns, with a Wet season, in most parts in early summer. Volcanic soil that washes along the 13% of the area that makes up the coastal plains provides fertile land, the temperate climate allows long growing seasons, which with the diversity of flora and fauna provide rich resources able to support the density of the population.
A accepted periodization of Japanese history: Land bridges, during glacial periods when the world sea level is lower, have periodically linked the Japanese archipelago to the Asian continent via Sakhalin Island in the north and via the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan in the south since the beginning of the current Quaternary glaciation 2.58 million years ago. There may have been a land bridge to Korea in the southwest, though not in the 125,000 years or so since the start of the last interglacial; the Korea Strait was, quite narrow at the Last Glacial Maximum from 25,000 to 20,000 years BP. The earliest firm evidence of human habitation is of early Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers from 40,000 years ago, when Japan was separated from the continent. Edge-ground axes dating to 32–38,000 years ago found in 224 sites in Honshu and Kyushu are unlike anything found in neighbouring areas of continental Asia, have been proposed as evidence for the first Homo sapiens in Japan. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the earliest fossils in
Teito Monogatari is an epic historical dark fantasy/science fiction work. It began circulation in a literary magazine owned by Kadokawa Shoten in 1983, was published in 10 volumes over the course of 1985–1987; the novel is a romanticized retelling of the 20th-century history of Tokyo from an occultist perspective. Regarded as the first novel to popularize onmyōdō and fūsui mythology in modern Japanese fiction, the work was a major success in its native country, it won the 1987 Nihon SF Taisho Award, sold over 5 million copies in Japan alone, inspired several adaptations as well as a long running literary franchise. Its influence can still be felt to this day; the work is a re-imagining of the 20th century of Tokyo. Most of the subject matter builds upon references to classic Japanese and Chinese folklore, although the centerpiece of the mythology is the legend of Taira no Masakado, a 10th-century warlord and ferocious onryo, placated into a guardian kami through centuries of worship; the plot features many characters, both fictional.
Most of the narrative revolves around the cryptohistorical actions of Yasunori Katō, a mysterious former lieutenant of the Imperial Japanese Army, himself a vengeful oni. With an incredible knowledge of the supernatural and allies in China and Taiwan, his ruinous ambitions bring him into conflict with some of 20th century Japan's greatest minds including industrialist Eiichi Shibusawa, onmyoji Abe no Seimei's descendant Yasumasa Hirai, authors Koda Rohan and Izumi Kyoka. The resulting conflict, involving science and politics; the story ranges through the rest of the century. It reinvents major events such as the Great Kantō earthquake, the founding of Japan's first subway, the February 26 Incident, the firebombing raids, the signing of the 1960 US Security Pact, the ritual suicide of Yukio Mishima; the narrative reaches its climax in 1998, the 73rd year of a fictional Shōwa period. The historical characters who play primary or supporting roles in the story include: Taira no Masakado Tachibana no Hayanari Aterui Tōyama Kagemoto Hirata Atsutane Hijikata Toshizō Ichimura Tetsunosuke Enomoto Takeaki Edward and Henry Schnell Prince Sawara Sugawara no Michizane Thomas Blakiston Kōda Rohan Satō Nobuhiro Joseph Needham Mori Ōgai Torahiko Terada Hantaro Nagaoka Karl Haushofer Shoma Morita Makoto Nishimura Gakutensoku Shibusawa Eiichi Kyōka Izumi Akiko Yosano Masatoshi Ōkōchi Noritsugu Hayakawa Wajiro Kon Goto Shinpei Korekiyo Takahashi Kanji Nakajima Ikki Kita Puyi Kanji Ishiwara Hideki Tojo Ōtani Kōzui Franklin D. Roosevelt Shūmei Ōkawa Masahiko Amakasu Hisaya Morishige Yukio Mishima George Gurdjieff Fusako Shigenobu Kadokawa Gen'yoshi Haruki Kadokawa The tenth volume of the novel, published in 1987, was intended to be the final volume.
However, when the novel was republished in 1987-1989, additional eleventh and twelfth volumes were written to supplement more of the story around 1945, the end of World War II. When the novel was republished in 1995, volumes 11 and 12 were inserted in the chronologically appropriate spot between volumes 5 and 6. Vol. 1: Great Spirit of Tokyo Vol. 2: Supernatural Babylon Vol. 3: The Great earthquake Vol. 4: Movement of the Dragon Vol. 5: Advent of the Devil Vol. 6: Great War in the Capital Vol. 7: Greater East Asia Vol. 8: The Phoenix Vol. 9: Rampant Evil Vol. 10: Shrine of the Future Vol. 11: Power of the Mourning Spirit Vol. 12: Resurrection 10 volumes, 1985–1987, cover art by Suehiro Maruo 12 volumes, 1987–1989, cover art by Yoshitaka Amano 6 volumes, 1995, cover art by Shou Tajima The novel served as a minor side project for Hiroshi Aramata who, at the time, was focused on gathering materials for an upcoming natural history book he planned to publish. He was asked by the editor in chief of Kadokawa Shoten, Hiroshi Morinaga, to produce a fantasy themed work for their periodical Monthly King Novel.
At that time, Aramata had never written a fictional novel before. The initial idea for the story came from the legend of Taira no Masakado. Aramata was fascinated by its superstitious impact on modern Japan. In addition, while participating in the creation of Heibonsha World Encyclopedia, Hiroshi Aramata was inspired by discussions with anthropologist Komatsu Kazuhiko about sources of the strange and the mysterious in Japanese folklore. Around the same time, Aramata read Murayama Shinichi's non fiction history of onmyodo Nihon Onmyodoshi Sosetsu. Teito Monogatari is credited with establishing many esoteric topics in Japanese popular culture such as onmyodo, kodoku, gohō dōji and Kimon Tonkou. Many of these topics are taken for granted in contemporary fantasy media; the novel contributed to a surge of mainstream interest in feng shui across Japan. Baku Yumemakura regarded author of the bestselling Onmyoji novel and manga series, has cited Teito Monogatari as a significant inspiration and credits it with the beginning of the Abe no Seimei/onmyoji boom in popular media.
Other themed franchises which emerged in the wake of the novel's success include Clamp's Tokyo Babylon manga series, Natsuhiko Kyogoku's Kyōgok
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. branded as Wiley in recent years, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, educational materials for undergraduate and continuing education students. Founded in 1807, Wiley is known for publishing the For Dummies book series. In 2017, the company had a revenue of $1.7 billion. Wiley was established in 1807; the company was the publisher of such 19th century American literary figures as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal and other non-fiction titles. Wiley worked in partnership with Cornelius Van Winkle, George Long, George Palmer Putnam, Robert Halsted; the firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley shifted its focus to scientific and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests. Charles Wiley's son John took over the business when his father died in 1826.
The firm was successively named Wiley, Lane & Co. Wiley & Putnam, John Wiley; the company acquired its present name in 1876, when John's second son William H. Wiley joined his brother Charles in the business. Through the 20th century, the company expanded its publishing activities, the sciences, higher education. Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize in 1901, Wiley and its acquired companies have published the works of more than 450 Nobel Laureates, in every category in which the prize is awarded. One of the world's oldest independent publishing companies, Wiley marked its bicentennial in 2007 with a year-long celebration, hosting festivities that spanned four continents and ten countries and included such highlights as ringing the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange on May 1. In conjunction with the anniversary, the company published Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807-2007, depicting Wiley's pivotal role in the evolution of publishing against a social and economic backdrop.
Wiley has created an online community called Wiley Living History, offering excerpts from Knowledge for Generations and a forum for visitors and Wiley employees to post their comments and anecdotes. In December 2010, Wiley opened an office in Dubai; the company has had an office in Beijing, since 2001, China is now its sixth-largest market for STEM content. Wiley established publishing operations in India in 2006, has established a presence in North Africa through sales contracts with academic institutions in Tunisia and Egypt. On April 16, 2012, the company announced the establishment of Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA in São Paulo, effective May 1, 2012. Wiley's scientific and medical business was expanded by the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007; the combined business, named Scientific, Technical and Scholarly, publishes, in print and online, 1,400 scholarly peer-reviewed journals and an extensive collection of books, major reference works and laboratory manuals in the life and physical sciences and allied health, the humanities, the social sciences.
Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799. Wiley-Blackwell publishes on behalf of about 700 professional and scholarly societies. Other major journals published include Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, International Finance and Liver Transplantation. Launched commercially in 1999, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, major reference works, books, including backfile content. Journals from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. On February 17, 2012, Wiley announced the acquisition of Inscape Holdings Inc. which provides DISC assessments and training for interpersonal business skills. Wiley described the acquisition as complementary to the workplace learning products published under its Pfeiffer imprint, one that would help Wiley advance its digital delivery strategy and extend its global reach through Inscape's international distributor network.
On March 7, 2012, Wiley announced its intention to divest assets in the areas of travel, general interest, nautical and crafts, as well as the Webster's New World and CliffsNotes brands. The planned divestiture was aligned with Wiley's "increased strategic focus on content and services for research and professional practices, on lifelong learning through digital technology". On August 13, 2012, Wiley announced it entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of its travel assets, including all of its interests in the Frommer's brand, to Google Inc. On November 6, 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt acquired Wiley's cookbooks and study guides. In 2013, Wiley sold its pets and general interest lines to Turner Publishing Company and its nautical line to Fernhurst Books. H
Historical fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy that encompasses the Middle Ages as well as sometimes and represents fictitious versions of historic events. This sub-genre is common among high fantasy literature, it can include various elements of medieval European culture and society, including a monarchical government, feudal social structure, medieval warfare, mythical entities common in European folklore. Works of this genre may have plots set in classical antiquity, they have plots based loosely on mythology or legends of Greek-Roman history, or the surrounding cultures of the same era. Historical fantasy takes one of four common approaches: Magic, mythical creatures or other supernatural elements co-exist invisibly with the mundane world, with the majority of people being unaware of it. In this, it has a close similarity to contemporary fantasy; this overlaps with the secret history trope. Alternatively, the author's narrative shows or implies that by the present day, magic will have retreated from the world so as to allow history to revert to the familiar version we know.
An example of this can be found in Lord Dunsany's The Charwoman's Shadow, which takes place in Spain, but which ends with the magician in it removing himself, all creatures of romance, from the world, thereby ending the Golden Age. It can include an alternative history where the past or present has been changed when an actual historical event turned out differently; the story takes place in a secondary world with specific and recognizable parallels to a known place and a definite historical period, rather than taking the geographic and historical "mix and match" favoured by other works of secondary world fantasy. However, many, if not most, works by fantasy authors derive ideas and inspiration from real events, making the borders of this approach unclear. Historical Fantasy may be set in a fictional world which resembles a period from history but is not that actual history. All four approaches have overlapped in the sub-genre of steampunk associated with science fiction literature. However, not all steampunk fantasy belongs to the historical fantasy sub-genre.
After Antoine Galland's translation of One Thousand and One Nights became enormously popular in Europe, many writers wrote fantasy based on Galland's romantic image of the Middle East and North Africa. Early examples included the satirical tales of Anthony Hamilton, Zadig by Voltaire. English-language work in the Arabian fantasy genre includes Rasselas by Samuel Johnson, The Tales of the Genii by James Ridley, Vathek by William Thomas Beckford, George Meredith's The Shaving of Shagpat, Khaled by F. Marion Crawford, James Elroy Flecker's Hassan. In the late 1970s, interest in the sub-genre revived with Hasan by Piers Anthony; this was followed by several other novels reworking Arabian legend: the metafictional The Arabian Nightmare by Robert Irwin, Diana Wynne Jones' children's novel Castle in the Air, Tom Holt's humorous Djinn Rummy and Hilari Bell's Fall of a Kingdom. Celtic fantasy has links to Celtic historical fiction. Celtic historical fantasy includes such works as Katharine Kerr's Deverry series, or Teresa Edgerton's Green Lion trilogy.
These works are based on ancient Celtic cultures. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been used indiscriminately, sometimes with great effect,as in Paul Hazel's Finnbranch trilogy, Yearwood and Winterking. Notable works inspired by Irish mythology included James Stephens' The Crock of Gold, Lord Dunsany's The Curse of the Wise Woman, Flann O'Brien's humorous At Swim-Two-Birds, Pat O'Shea's The Hounds of the Morrigan and novels by Peter Tremayne, Morgan Llywelyn and Gregory Frost; the Welsh tradition has been influential, which has its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton: The Island of the Mighty, The Children of Llyr, The Song of Rhiannon, Prince of Annwn. A notable amount of fiction has been written in the Welsh area of Celtic fantasy. Scottish Celtic fantasy is less common, but James Hogg, John Francis Campbell, Fiona MacLeod, William Sharp, George Mackay Brown and Deborah Turner Harris all wrote material based on Scottish myths and legends.
Fantasy based on the Breton folklore branch of Celtic mythology does not appear in the English language. However, several noted writers have utilized such material. Merritt in Creep, Shadow! both drew on the Breton legend of the lost city of Ys, while "The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun" by J. R. R. Tolkien is a narrative poem based on the Breton legend of the Corrigan. Classical fantasy is a sub-genre fantasy based on the Greek and Roman myths. Symbolism from classical mythology is enormously influential on Western culture, but it was not until the 19th century that it was used in the context of literary fantasy. Richard Garnett and John Kendrick Bangs used the Greek myths for satirical purposes.20th century writers who made extensive use of the sub-genre included John Erksine, who continued the satirical tradition of classical fantasy in such works as The Private Life of Helen of Troy and Venus, the Lon