Japanese mythology embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculturally-based folk religion. The Shinto pantheon comprises innumerable kami; this article will discuss only the typical elements present in Asian mythology, such as cosmogony, important deities, the best-known Japanese stories. Japanese myths, as recognized in the mainstream today, are based on the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, some complementary books; the Kojiki, or "Record of Ancient Matters", is the oldest surviving account of Japan's myths and history. The Shintōshū describes the origins of Japanese deities from a Buddhist perspective, while the Hotsuma Tsutae records a different version of the mythology. One notable feature of Japanese mythology is its explanation of the origin of the Imperial Family, used to assign godhood to the imperial line; the title of the Emperor of Japan, tennō, means "heavenly sovereign". Japanese is not transliterated across all sources, see: #Spelling of proper nouns In the Japanese creation myth, the first deities which came into existence, appearing at the time of the creation of the universe, are collectively called Kotoamatsukami.
The seven generations of kami, known as Kamiyonanayo, following the formation of heaven and earth. The first two generations are individual deities called hitorigami, while the five that followed came into being as male/female pairs of kami: brothers and sisters that were married couples. In this chronicle, the Kamiyonanayo comprise 12 deities in total. In contrast, the Nihon Shoki states that the Kamiyonanayo group was the first to appear after the creation of the universe, as opposed to the Kamiyonanayo appearing after the formation of heaven and earth, it states that the first three generations of deities are hitorigami and that the generations of deities are pairs of the opposite gender, as compared to the Kojiki's two generations of hitorigami. Japan's creation narrative can be divided into the birth of the land; the seventh and last generation of Kamiyonanayo were Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto, they would be responsible for the creation of the Japanese archipelago and would engender other deities.
To help them to achieve this and Izanami were given a naginata decorated with jewels, named Ame-no-nuboko. The two deities went to the bridge between heaven and earth and churned the sea below with the halberd. Drops of salty water formed Onogoro; the deities made their home on the island. They fell in love and wished to mate. So they built. Izanagi and Izanami circled the pillar in opposite directions, when they met on the other side, the female deity, spoke first in greeting. Izanagi didn't think that this was proper, they had two children and Awashima, but the children were badly formed and are not considered gods in their original form. The parents, who were dismayed at their misfortune, put the children into a boat and sent them to sea, petitioned the other gods for an answer about what they had done wrong, they were informed that Izanami's lack of manners was the reason for the defective births: a woman should never speak prior to a man. So Izanagi and Izanami went around the pillar again, this time, when they met, Izanagi spoke first.
Their next union was successful. From their union were born the Ōyashima, or the eight great islands of Japan: Awaji Iyo Oki Tsukushi Iki Tsushima Sado Yamato Note that Hokkaidō, Chishima and Okinawa were not part of Japan in ancient times. Izanami died giving birth to Kagutsuchi called Homusubi due to severe burns, she was buried on Mount Hiba, at the border of the old provinces of Izumo and Hoki, near modern-day Yasugi of Shimane Prefecture. In anger, Izanagi killed Kagutsuchi, his death created dozens of deities. The gods who were born from Izanagi and Izanami are symbolic aspects of culture. Izanagi undertook a journey to Yomi. Izanagi found little difference between Yomi and the land except for the eternal darkness. However, this suffocating darkness was enough to make him ache for life, he searched for Izanami and found her. At first, Izanagi could not see her, he asked her to return with him. Izanami informed him that he was too late, she had eaten the food of the underworld and now belonged to the land of the dead.
Izanagi was shocked at this news, but he refused to give in to her wishes to be left to the dark embrace of Yomi. Izanami first requested to have some time to rest, she instructed Izanagi to not come into her bedroom. After a long wait, Izanami did not come out of her bedroom, Izanagi was worried. While Izanami was sleeping, he took the comb that set it alight as a torch. Under the sudden burst of light, he saw the horrid form of the once graceful Izanami; the flesh of her ravaged body was rotting and was overrun with maggots and fou
Noragami is a Japanese manga series by Adachitoka. It began serialization in Kodansha's Monthly Shōnen Magazine in January 2011's issue; the series has been collected into nineteen tankōbon volumes as of August 2018. An anime television series adaptation by Bones aired in Japan beginning from January 5, 2014 to March 23, 2014, with a total of 12 episodes; the second season, entitled Noragami Aragoto, aired in Japan from October 2, 2015 to December 25, 2015, with a total of 13 episodes. Hiyori Iki is a normal middle school student until she was involved in a bus accident while trying to protect a stranger; this incident causes her soul to slip out of her body, she becomes aware of the existence of two parallel worlds: the Near Shore, where regular humans and creatures reside, the Far Shore, where demons and human souls linger. Through her soul, she meets the nameless god without a shrine, Yato. Yato is determined to make a name for himself out there by accepting any wishes for 5 yen, including Hiyori's to fix her body.
Along with Yato's Regalia — a weapon from a dead human’s soul, named by the god in question — Yukine, the trio go through many adventures struggling with their friendship and pasts. Noragami started as a manga series, published by Kodansha; the series premiered in Monthly Shōnen Magazine's January 2011 issue, released on December 6, 2010, has been compiled into seventeen tankōbon volumes between July 15, 2011 and July 15, 2016. The ninth volume was released with a limited edition, bundled with a drama CD. Volumes 10 and 11 were released with limited editions, each containing an anime episode on DVD. Extra chapters of the series have been published in the spin-off publication, Monthly Shōnen Magazine + since 2011 and as of November 15, 2013, they have been compiled into one volume under the title Noragami Shūishū. Both the main series and spin-off series have been licensed in North America by Kodansha USA, under the title Noragami: Stray God and Noragami: Stray Stories respectively; the first volume of Noragami: Stray God was released on September 2, 2014, with 17 volumes released as of October 25, 2016.
The first volume of Noragami: Stray Stories was released in December 2015. The Noragami television series adaptation is produced by Bones and directed by Kotaro Tamura with character designs by Toshihiro Kawamoto. Prior to the series' television premiere, its first episode was screened at 2013's Anime Festival Asia on November 10, 2013; the anime began airing in Japan on January 5, 2014, on Tokyo MX and on MBS, BS11 and TVA, running for 12 episodes. Besides the television series, two additional episodes were released on DVDs bundled with limited editions of the 10th and 11th manga volumes, published February 17 and July 17, 2014. Funimation licensed the anime for streaming in North America. Madman Entertainment licensed the anime for distribution in New Zealand; the opening theme song is "Goya no Machiawase", performed by Hello Sleepwalkers. The ending theme song is performed by Tia. Season two, Noragami Aragoto, has 13 episodes, began airing on October 2, 2015; the opening theme song is "Kyōran Hey Kids!!" by The Oral Cigarettes, the ending theme song is "Nirvana" by Tia.
The second season's finale aired on December 25, 2015. A mobile game titled Noragami ~Kami to Enishi~ was released by developer Sakura Soft for Android devices in October 2015. An iOS release became available on November 16, 2015. Noragami was the 14th top selling manga series in Japan during the first half of 2014. Official anime website Noragami Official website at Funimation Noragami at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Noragami at Sakura Soft
Namazu (Japanese mythology)
In Japanese mythology, the Namazu or Ōnamazu is a giant catfish who causes earthquakes. He lives in the mud under the islands of Japan, is guarded by the god Kashima who restrains the catfish with a stone; when Kashima lets his guard fall, Namazu thrashes about. Following an earthquake near Edo in 1855, the Namazu became worshiped as a yonaoshi daimyōjin. Namazu-e are a minor genre of ukiyo-e, they are unsigned and encompass a large variety of scenes such as a namazu forcing the wealthy to excrete coins for the poor, a namazu atoning for the earthquake he caused. It is believed by some that the origin of the story is the notion that catfish can sense the small tremors that happen before many earthquakes, are more active at such times; the sudden activity was observed in ancient times and people believed the quakes to be the result of a giant catfish. Catfish are depicted on pictures of emergency earthquake preparedness activities in Japan. For example, the Earthquake Early Warning logo by the Japan Meteorological Agency utilizes pictures of the catfish on devices capable of issuing an early warning.
The popular earthquake early warning mobile application Yurekuru Call has a catfish as their icon. Namazu is the name of a song on Danish singer Oh Land's first studio album Fauna, which features a large catfish on the album cover. In the Japanese version of Secret of Mana, the Earth Slide spell is a catfish icon in the ring menu. In The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, a catfish gives Link the Quake Medallion. A giant catfish mimicking Namazu's habits appears as a boss figure in the video game Lufia II; the Pokémon Whiscash named "Namazun", resembles a catfish and has an earthquake as its signature move. An episode of the Pokémon anime featuring Whiscash was banned when it was scheduled to air too soon after a quake; the Namazu was featured in the episode of River Monsters, "Cold-Blooded Horror". Nazamu appears in a crossover comic book featuring Stan Sakai's Usagi Yojimbo and IDW's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. A "Wind-up Namazu" minion can be obtained in Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn.
When idle it will flop on the ground briefly. Namazu are a race of non-playable characters in the Stormblood expansion. An image of a Namazu from a Tokyo site. Namazu-e: Earthquake catfish prints from the period after the Great Ansei Earthquake struck the city of Edo in November 1855
Izanagi is a deity born of the seven divine generations in Japanese mythology and Shinto, his name in the Kojiki is translated to as "he-who-invites". He is known as Izanagi-no-mikoto or Izanagi-no-Ōkami, he with his spouse and younger sister Izanami gave birth to the many islands of Japan, begat numerous deities of Shintoism. But she died after giving birth to the fire-god Kagu-tsuchi. Izanagi executed the fire god with the "ten-grasp sword". Afterwards, he paid his wife a visit in Yomi-no-kuni in the hopes of retrieving her, but she had partaken of food cooked in the furnace of the Underworld, rendering her return impossible. Izanagi betrayed his promise not to look at her, lit up a fire, only to behold her in her monstrous and hellish state. To avenge her shame, she dispatched the lightning god Yakusa no ikazuchi no kami and the horrible hag Yomotsu-shikome to chase after him. Izanagi escaped. Izanagi retorted that a five hundred will be born every day. In the cleansing right after his return, he beget Amaterasu from his left eye, Tsukuyomi from his right eye and Susanoo from his nose.
Izanagi's visit to his wife Izanami in Yomi-no-kuni somewhat parallels the Greek Orpheus's visit to Eurydice in the underworld, but a more striking resemblance is his wife's inability to return after eating the food in hell, matched by Persephone of Greek myth. Izanagi Plate Shinto in popular culture
An overlord in the English feudal system was a lord of a manor who had subinfeudated a particular manor, estate or fee, to a tenant. The tenant thenceforth owed to the overlord one of a variety of services military service or serjeanty, depending on which form of tenure the estate was held under; the highest overlord of all, or paramount lord, was the monarch, who due to his ancestor William the Conqueror's personal conquest of the Kingdom of England, owned by inheritance from him all the land in England under allodial title and had no superior overlord, "holding from God and his sword", although certain monarchs, notably King John purported to grant the Kingdom of England to the Pope, who would thus have become overlord to English monarchs. A paramount lord may thus be seen to occupy the apex of the feudal pyramid, or the root of the feudal tree, such allodial title is termed "radical title", "ultimate title" and "final title". William the Conqueror set about granting tenancies on his newly won lands, in accordance with feudal principles.
The monarch's immediate tenants were the tenants-in-chief military magnates, who held the highest status in feudal society below the monarch. The tenants-in-chief held multiple manors or other estates from the monarch as feudal barons who owed their royal overlord an enhanced and onerous form of military service, subinfeudated most to tenants their own knights or military followers, keeping only a few in demesne; this created a mesne lord - tenant relationship. The knights in turn subinfeudated to their own tenants, creating a further subsidiary mesne lord - tenant relationship. Over the centuries for any single estate the process was in practice repeated numerous times. In early times following the Norman Conquest of 1066 and the establishment of feudalism, land was transferred by subinfeudation by alienation, which latter in the case of tenants-in-chief required royal licence, the holder of an estate at any particular time, in order to gain secure tenure, if challenged by another claimant, needed to prove "devolution of title" evidenced by legal deeds or muniments back up the chain of subinfeudations to a holder whose title was beyond doubt, for example one who had received the estate as a grant by royal charter witnessed and sealed by substantial persons.
Although feudal land tenure in England was abolished by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660, in modern English conveyancing law the need to prove devolution of title persisted until recent times, due to a "legal fiction" that all land titles were held by the monarch's subjects as a result of a royal grant. Proving devolution of title is no longer necessary since the creation of the land registry and the requirement to compulsorily register all land transactions on this governmental record, which registration provides a unchallengeable and secure title of ownership. An overlordship came into existence by the process of the lord of the manor granting seizin of the fee concerned to his prospective tenant and receiving from him homage and fealty, the main elements of the infeudation and subinfeudation process. An overlord had various rights under the feudal system, including receipt of either feudal relief or heriot on the succession of the tenant's heir; the right of escheat, namely to receive back seizin of the estate on the death of the tenant without a legal heir.
The right to the loyalty of his tenant was central to the feudal contract and was enshrined in the infeudation process in which the tenant swore loyalty to the overlord. In the event of disloyalty the feudal contract would be broken and the estate would become forfeit and return to the overlord; this is most encountered in the case of treason where lands became forfeit to the monarch as paramount lord. The overlord was bound to protect his tenant, a valuable right for the latter in the days before the existence of police forces and universal access to royal justice, when armed bands of robbers roamed the countryside; this protection extended to sheltering his tenant from the arbitrary and predatory acts of other powerful local magnates. In the language of English law of landlord and tenant the concept of the feudal overlord persists. Furthermore, in England today in the case of a land-owner dying intestate and without legal heirs, just as in the feudal age, his estate escheats and reverts to the overlord, but in the form of the paramount lord, The Crown, is disposed of by the Crown Estate.
In Cornwall today land is still in theory held from the Duke of Cornwall as lord paramount. In the case of English land escheating situated within the Duchy of Lancaster or the Duchy of Cornwall, it reverts to the overlords the Duke of Lancaster and the Duke of Cornwall the only two surviving quasi-paramount feudal lords surviving in England other than the monarch. Brennan On The Doctrine Of Tenures, the legacy of feudal overlordship in Australia
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species alive, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores, to a tiny parasitic species called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance. Many of the smaller species the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal. Extant catfish species live in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at another. Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.
More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and New Guinea, they are found in freshwater environments. Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic. One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as "mud cat", "polliwogs", or "chuckleheads"; these nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname "chucklehead", while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and food resource. However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna.
Walking catfish have been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages. Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world. Most catfish are bottom feeders. In general, they are negatively buoyant, which means that they will sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder and a heavy, bony head. Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil; some contains no incisiform teeth. However, some families, notably Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, have a suckermouth that allows them to fasten themselves to objects in fast-moving water. Catfish have a maxilla reduced to a support for barbels. Catfish may have up to four pairs of barbels: nasal and two pairs of chin barbels though pairs of barbels may be absent depending on the species.
Catfish barbels always come as pairs. Many larger catfish have chemoreceptors across their entire bodies, which means they "taste" anything they touch and "smell" any chemicals in the water. "In catfish, gustation plays a primary role in the orientation and location of food". Because their barbels and chemoreception are more important in detecting food, the eyes on catfish are small. Like other ostariophysans, they are characterized by the presence of a Weberian apparatus, their well-developed Weberian apparatus and reduced gas bladder allow for improved hearing as well as sound production. Catfish do not have scales. In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin. In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras; these plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor.
By contrast, in the subfamily Doumeinae and in hoplomyzontines, the armor is formed by expanded vertebral processes that form plates. The lateral armor of doradids and hoplomyzontines consists of hypertrophied lateral line ossicles with dorsal and ventral lamina. All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae, possess a strong, bony leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins; as a defense, these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict severe wounds. In several species catfish can use these f
The Katori Shrine is a Shintō shrine in the city of Katori in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is the ichinomiya of former Shimōsa Province, is the head shrine of the 400 Katori shrines around the country; the main festival of the shrine is held annually on April 14, with a three-day Grand Festival held every 12 years. The primary kami of Katori Shrine is Futsunushi, the kami of swords and lightning, a general of Amaterasu; the foundation of Katori Shrine predates the historical period. Per the Hitachi Fudoki, an ancient record and per shrine tradition, it was established in 643 BC, the 18th year of the reign of Emperor Jimmu. During this period, the Ō clan migrated from Higo Province in Kyushu, conquering local emishi tribes, forming an alliance with the nearby Nakatomi clan, the progenitors of the Fujiwara clan at what is now Kashima Jingū. In the mid-Heian period Engishiki records, it is ranked alongside Ise Jingū and Kashima Jingū as one of three shrines with the Jingū designation; the Honden of Katori Shrine was traditionally reconstructed every 20 years, similar to the system used at Ise Shrine until the system fell apart during the Sengoku period.
The current structure is designated as Important Cultural Property. The Rōmon gate of Katori Shrine was constructed in 1700 and is designated an Important Cultural Property, it displays the shrine's name plaque written by Fleet Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō. Katori Shrine holds one National Treasure, the Kaijū Budō Kagami, a round cupronickel mirror with a diameter of 29.6 centimeters, weight of 4.56 kilograms. From Tang Dynasty China, the mirror is decorated with bas-relief flowers, insects and a variety of real and mythological animals, it is identical to a mirror held by the Shosoin Treasury in Nara. The mirror itself is preserved at the Nara National Museum. Furthermore, the shrine has a ceramic Koseto pair of komainu, standing 17.6 and 17.9 centimeters high. Dating from the Muromachi period, one of these statues was featured on a 250 Yen definitive stamp of Japan; the set of statues is designated as an Important Cultural Property. Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines List of Jingū List of Shinto shrines Iizasa Choisai Ienao Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū List of National Treasures of Japan Japanese cruiser Katori, the Imperial Japanese Navy light cruiser named after the shrine Clark, Timothy.
100 Views of Mount Fuji. Weatherhill Books. ISBN 0-8348-0492-1. Plutschow, Herbe. Matsuri: The Festivals of Japan. RoutledgeCurzon ISBN 1-873410-63-8 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 3994492 ____________.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Official site of the shrine