Greenwood LeFlore or Greenwood Le Fleur was elected Principal Chief of the Choctaw in 1830 before removal. Before that, the nation was governed by a council of chiefs. A wealthy and regionally influential Choctaw of mixed-race, who belonged to the Choctaw elite due to his mother's rank, LeFlore had many connections in state and federal government. In 1830 LeFlore led other chiefs in signing the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which ceded the remaining Choctaw lands in Mississippi to the US government and agreed to removal to Indian Territory, it provided that Choctaw who chose to stay in Mississippi would have reserved lands, but the United States government failed to follow through on this provision. While many of the leaders realized removal was inevitable, others opposed the treaty and made death threats against LeFlore, he stayed in Mississippi, where he accepted United States citizenship. He was elected to the state government as a senator in the 1840s. During the American Civil War, he sided with the Union.
LeFlore was the first son of Rebecca Cravatt, a high-ranking Choctaw daughter of the chief Pushmataha, Louis LeFleur, a French fur trader and explorer from French Canada who worked for Panton, Leslie & Company, based in Spanish Florida. Because the Choctaw had a matrilineal system for property and hereditary leadership, LeFlore gained elite status from his mother's family and clan. By the 1820s, as the historian Greg O'Brien notes, the Choctaw called such mixed-race children itibapishi toba, which emphasized the connection to Choctaw, or issish iklanna, which seemed to imitate Euro-American concepts. O'Brien notes the importance of their being first of part of the Choctaw elites. Choctaw chiefs recognized the advantage of using such mixed-race elite men as "trailblazers into an unprecedented universe of capitalist accumulation and renewable wealth." Some like LeFlore gained Euro-American educations that enabled them to negotiate the larger, changing world developing in the American South. When LeFlore was twelve, his father sent him to Nashville to be educated by Americans.
At age 17, LeFlore married Rosa Donly in Nashville, whom he met there and brought back with him to the Choctaw Nation when he returned in 1817. After her death, he married again, to a woman named Priscilla, he had ten children: William, Basil, Forbis, Jackson and three other daughters. According to other records his children included: Jane, John Donley LeFlore, Jackson LeFlore, Greenwood LeFlore by Rosa Donly. While LeFlore was not said to be popular among the full-blood tribal men, he became powerful and influential within the tribe at an early age because of his mother's clan and maternal uncle's position and his own skills. With other leaders, he struggled to resist European-American encroachment while adapting to some of the new ways and the increasing pressure from the United States government in support of removal; when Leflore was 22, he became a chief of the western division of the Choctaw Nation, when it was still in Mississippi. He is credited with abolishing the Choctaw "blood for blood" law, which dictated rounds of revenge for murders.
LeFlore supported the "civilization" program, which U. S. President George Washington and Henry Knox developed during the Washington administration. After Andrew Jackson's election as president in 1828, he encouraged the Choctaw to make permanent residences, cultivate the land in agriculture, convert to Christianity, send their children to United States schools for education. Wee are anxious to become sivillize Nation if our father lets us rest few years but wee have been pastered for land so much wee dont know what to do hartly, but I hope wee will rest now awhile. Despite being recognized as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", the Choctaw were under pressure from encroaching European-American settlers; the settlers kept entering the Choctaw Nation lands in great numbers. The US government wanted to remove the Choctaw to lands west of the Mississippi River. With the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, who supported Indian removal, many of the Choctaw recognized that removal was inevitable.
They had concluded. After passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the chiefs of the western and eastern districts resigned, on March 15, 1830, the council elected LeFlore as principal chief, the first time that power had been so centralized among the Choctaw, he drafted a treaty. United States representatives came out to the Choctaw for a treaty council, where LeFlore used his formidable personal political capital and position as head of a unified tribe to secure the largest and most desirable areas of what would be called Indian Territory. In addition, he believed that Article XIV would be honored and allow the Choctaw to keep some reserves in Mississippi, he regarded removal as inevitable, given his assessment of the politics and the sheer numbers of the growing European-American population. The treaty included provisions allowing those Choctaw who chose to do so, to remain in Mississippi and become a citizen of the United States. ART. XIV; each Choctaw head of a family being desirous to remain and become a citizen of the States, shall be permitted to do so, by signifying his intention to the Agent within six months from the ratification of this
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
The Mississippi Delta known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U. S. state of Mississippi which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. The region has been called "The Most Southern Place on Earth", because of its unique racial and economic history, it is 200 miles long and 87 miles across at its widest point, encompassing circa 4,415,000 acres, or, some 7,000 square miles of alluvial floodplain. Covered in hardwood forest across the bottomlands, it was developed as one of the richest cotton-growing areas in the nation before the American Civil War; the region attracted many speculators who developed land along the riverfronts for cotton plantations. As the riverfront areas were developed first and railroads were slow to be constructed, most of the bottomlands in the Delta were undeveloped after the Civil War. Both black and white migrants flowed into Mississippi, using their labor to clear land and sell timber in order to buy land. By the end of the 19th century, black farmers made up two-thirds of the independent farmers in the Mississippi Delta.
In 1890 the white-dominated state legislature passed a new state constitution disenfranchising most blacks in the state. In the next three decades, most blacks lost their lands due to tight credit and political oppression. African Americans had to resort to tenant farming to survive, their political exclusion was maintained by the whites until after the gains of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. African Americans developed the musical forms of jazz; the majority of residents in several counties in the region are still black, although more than 400,000 African Americans left the state during the Great Migration in the first half of the 20th century, moving to northern and western industrial cities. As the agricultural economy does not support many jobs or businesses, the region has had to work hard in order to diversify that economy. Lumbering is important and new crops such as soybeans have been cultivated in the area by the largest industrial farmers. At times, the region has suffered heavy flooding from the Mississippi River, notably in 1927 and 2011.
Despite the name, this region is not part of the delta of the Mississippi River. Rather, it is part of an alluvial plain, created by regular flooding of the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers over thousands of years; the land contains some of the most fertile soil in the world. It is two hundred miles long and seventy miles across at its widest point, encompassing 4,415,000 acres, or, some 7,000 square miles of alluvial floodplain. On the east, it is bounded by bluffs extending beyond the Yazoo River, it includes all or part of the following counties: Washington, Western DeSoto, Carroll, Western Panola, Bolivar, Leflore, Sharkey, Tunica, Western Holmes, Western Yazoo, Western Grenada and Warren. Lexington is part of the delta; the shifting river delta at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf Coast lies some 300 miles south of this area, is referred to as the Mississippi River Delta. The two should not be confused. From 1900 to 1930 planters recruited Chinese immigrants as field hands, although the earliest Chinese were recorded in Bolivar County in 1870.
Most Chinese immigrants worked becoming merchants in the small rural towns. As these have declined, along with other Delta residents ethnic Chinese have moved to cities or other states, their descendants represent most of the ethnic Asian residents of the Delta recorded in censuses. While many Chinese have left the Delta, their population has increased in the state. In the 21st century, about one-third of Mississippi's African-American population resides in the Delta, which has many black-majority state legislative districts. Much of the Delta is included in Mississippi's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Bennie Thompson. For more than two centuries, agriculture has been the mainstay of the Delta economy. Sugar cane and rice were introduced to the region by European settlers from the Caribbean in the 18th century. Sugar and rice production were centered in southern Louisiana, in the Arkansas Delta. Early agriculture included limited tobacco production in the Natchez area and indigo in the lower Mississippi.
Yeoman French farmers, supported by extensive families, had begun the back-breaking land clearing. Colonists tried to enslave the Native Americans. In the 18th century, the French and English ended Native American slavery, imported enslaved Africans instead. In the early years, African laborers brought critical knowledge and techniques for the cultivation and processing of both rice and indigo. Hundreds of thousands of Africans were captured and transported as slaves from West Africa to North America; the invention of the cotton gin in the late 18th century made profitable the cultivation of short-staple cotton. This type could be grown in the upland areas of the South, leading to the rapid development of King Cotton throughout what became known as the Deep South; the demand for labor drove the domestic slave trade, more than one million African-American slaves were forced by sales into the South, taken in a forced migration from families in the Upper South. After continued European-American settlement in the area, Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 extinguished Native A
The Yazoo River is a river in the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is considered by some to mark the southern boundary of what is called the Mississippi Delta, a broad floodplain, cultivated for cotton plantations before the American Civil War, it has continued to be devoted to large-scale agriculture. The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth at its confluence with the Mississippi; the exact meaning of the term is unclear. One long held belief is that it means "river of death"; the river is 188 miles long and is formed by the confluence of the Tallahatchie and the Yalobusha rivers, where present-day Greenwood developed. The river parallels the Mississippi River in the latter's floodplain for some distance before joining it north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Natural levees. A "yazoo stream" is a hydrologic term, coined to describe any river or major stream with similar characteristics. Potamologists believe.
The French called the surrounding area of Mississippi and Alabama the Yazoo lands, after the river. This became the basis for naming the Yazoo Land Scandal of early 19th century; the river was of major importance during the American Civil War. The Confederates used the first electrically detonated underwater mine in the river in 1862 near Vicksburg to sink the Union ironclad USS Cairo; the last section of the Cairo was raised on December 12, 1964. It has been restored and is now on permanent display to the public at the Vicksburg National Military Park. There are 29 sunken ships from the Civil War beneath the waters of the river; the steamer Dew Drop was sunk near Roebuck Lake as an obstruction to the United States Navy, but Union sources claim the vessel was captured and burned. Variant names of the Yazoo River include Zasu River, Yazous River, Yahshoo River, Rivière des Yasoux, Fiume del Yasous. In 1876, the Mississippi River changed its course, shifting west several miles and leaving Vicksburg without a river front.
In 1902, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers diverted the Yazoo River into the old river bed, forming the Yazoo Diversion Canal; the modern-day port of Vicksburg is still located on this canal. Commercial navigation of the Yazoo River has declined since the 1990s and is concentrated on the section from Vicksburg to Yazoo City. List of rivers of Mississippi Mississippi Delta Flood Control Act of 1937 Yazoo stream U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Yazoo River GeologyYazoo Basin - Engineering Geology Mapping Program PDF files of publications about and maps of the geology of the Yazoo River region. EcoregionsEcoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregions of Mississippi
Sumner is a town in Tallahatchie County, Mississippi. The population was 407 at the 2000 census. Sumner is one of the two county seats of Tallahatchie County, it is located on the west side of the county and the Tallahatchie River, which runs through the county north-south. The other county seat is Charleston, located east of the river. Charleston was the first county seat, as settlement came from the east, it is the larger of the two towns; the Tallahatchie County Courthouse in Sumner was the site in 1955 of the trial of two men charged with the lynching murder in August of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old African-American boy from Chicago, visiting his great-uncle in Money, Mississippi. The all-white jury acquitted the men; the courthouse has been restored. It houses the Emmett Till Interpretive Center, which opened in 2012 in his honor. Sumner is located at 33°58′12″N 90°22′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles, all land. The wooded swamp along the Tallahatchie River was part of the Choctaw Nation, one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast.
Ceding large amounts of territory to the United States, they were forced to remove to Indian Territory in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. Afterward the US government sold the lands to European-American families. Among the early settlers were the Sumner family; the bottomland was covered by trees and underbrush when the pioneers started clearing the land for agriculture. The wealthiest men developed their property through the labor of enslaved African Americans, their work on cotton plantations produced the commodity crop, the basis of the economy for decades. Sumner was not incorporated until 1900. In 1902 the county was divided into two districts, on either side of the Tallahatchie River, a barrier to cross-county transportation. Charleston was the original county seat, located east of the river in the first area of European-American settlement. Sumner was designated as the seat of the western district; the Tallahatchie County Courthouse in Sumner was built in 1902 on a lot donated by Joseph B.
Sumner, who donated the lot for the jail. The courthouse burned in 1908 and was rebuilt in 1909. Cotton continued to be the major commodity crop of the area well into the 20th century; the county seat served as the market town for that district. This courthouse was the site of the 1955 murder trial of two white men, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, charged in the lynching death of Emmett Till that year in adjoining Leflore County; the two men were acquitted by an all-male, all-white jury of the murder of Till, a teenage African-American boy from Chicago. The brutality of his murder and the acquittal of the men generated outrage and activism in the nation, he became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement and a symbol of the violent persecution suffered by blacks in the South. In 1990, the courthouse was designated as a state landmark by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. In 2007 the Tallahatchie Board of Supervisors appointed the Emmett Till Memorial Commission to explore commemoration of Till and reconciliation in the area.
It made a formal apology to the Till family for their son's lynching. In addition, it undertook to restore the Sumner County Courthouse and adapt it as the site of an interpretive center to commemorate Emmett Till; the center is sponsoring a variety of art and historical workshops and events. The city reached its peak of population in 1940. After that numerous African-American residents left the county. Many moved to California and the West Coast during World War II and after, attracted by jobs in the buildup of the defense industries and seeking to escape southern oppression and violence. In addition, mechanization of agriculture had made much farm labor unneeded. African Americans moving from Sumner were part of the Great Migration, by which some 5 million blacks moved out of the Deep South from 1940 to 1970. Rural populations have continued to decline in many areas; as of the census of 2000, there were 407 people, 148 households, 105 families residing in the town. The population density was 726.5 people per square mile.
There were 158 housing units at an average density of 282.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 57.99% White, 39.07% African American, 2.21% Asian, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.25% of the population. There were 148 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 20.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,000, the median income for a family was $35,208.
Males had a median income of $40,625 versus $15,000 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,056. About 25.2% of families and 37.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.9% of those under ag
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group. It is most used to characterize informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a group, it is an extreme form of informal group social control such as charivari, riding the rail, tarring and feathering, conducted with the display of a public spectacle for maximum intimidation. It is to be punishable by law. Instances of lynchings and similar mob violence can be found in every society. In the United States, lynchings of African Americans by hanging, became frequent in the South during the period after the Reconstruction era and during the decades on either side of the turn of the 20th century. At the time, Southern states were passing new constitutions and laws to disenfranchise African Americans and impose legal segregation and Jim Crow rule. Most lynchings were conducted by white mobs against black victims suspects taken from jail before they were tried by all-white juries, or before arrest.
The political message—the promotion of white supremacy and black powerlessness—was an important element of the ritual. Lynchings were photographed and published as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in the U. S. to expand the intimidation of the acts. Victims were burned alive, or otherwise tortured and mutilated in the public events. In some cases the mutilated body parts were taken as mementos by the spectators. In the West, other minorities—Native Americans and Asians—were lynched. Southern states had the highest total numbers of lynchings in America; the origins of the word "lynch" are obscure, but it originated during the American revolution. The verb comes from the phrase "Lynch Law", a term for a punishment without trial. Two Americans during this era are credited for coining the phrase: Charles Lynch and William Lynch, who both lived in Virginia in the 1780s. Charles Lynch has the better claim, as he was known to have used the term in 1782, while William Lynch is not known to have used the term until much later.
There is no evidence. In 1782, Charles Lynch wrote that his assistant had administered "Lynch's law" to Tories "for Dealing with Negroes, &c."Charles Lynch was a Virginia Quaker and American Revolutionary who headed a county court in Virginia which imprisoned Loyalist supporters of the British for up to one year during the war. Although he lacked proper jurisdiction for detaining these persons, he claimed this right by arguing wartime necessity. Subsequently, he prevailed upon his friends in the Congress of the Confederation to pass a law that exonerated him and his associates from wrongdoing, he was concerned that he might face legal action from one or more of those he had imprisoned, notwithstanding the American Colonies had won the war. This action by the Congress provoked controversy, it was in connection with this that the term "Lynch law", meaning the assumption of extrajudicial authority, came into common parlance in the United States. Lynch was not accused of racist bias, he acquitted blacks accused of murder on three separate occasions.
He was accused, however, of ethnic prejudice in his abuse of Welsh miners. William Lynch from Virginia claimed that the phrase was first used in a 1780 compact signed by him and his neighbors in Pittsylvania County. While Edgar Allan Poe claimed that he found this document, it was a hoax. A 17th-century legend of James Lynch fitz Stephen, Mayor of Galway in Ireland in 1493, says that when his son was convicted of murder, the mayor hanged him from his own house; the story was proposed by 1904 as the origin of the word "lynch". It is dismissed by etymologists, both because of the distance in time and place from the alleged event to the word's emergence, because the incident did not constitute a lynching in the modern sense; the archaic verb linch, to beat with a pliable instrument, to chastise or to maltreat, has been proposed as the etymological source. Every society has had forms including murder; the legal and cultural antecedents of American lynching were carried across the Atlantic by migrants from the British Isles to colonial North America.
Collective violence was a familiar aspect of the early modern Anglo-American legal landscape. Group violence in the British Atlantic was nonlethal in intention and result. In the seventeenth century, in the context of political turmoil in England and unsettled social and political conditions in the American colonies, there arose rebellions and riots that took multiple lives. In the United States, during the decades before the Civil War, free Blacks, Latinos in the South West, runaways were the objects of racial lynching, but lynching attacks on U. S. blacks in the South, increased in the aftermath of Reconstruction, after slavery had been abolished and freed men gained the right to vote. The peak of lynchings occurred in 1892, after southern white Democrats had regained control of state legislatures. Many incidents were related to economic troubles and competition. At the turn of the 20th century, southern states passed new constitutions or legislation which disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, established segregation of public facilities by race, separated blacks from common public life and facilities through Jim Crow rules.
Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968. Lynching in the British Empire dur