Pawhuska is a city in and the county seat of Osage County, United States. It was named after Paw-Hiu-Skah, which means "White Hair" in English; the Osage tribal government, which opened offices in Pawhuska in 1872 when its reservation was established in Indian Territory, continues to be based in Pawhuska. One of the United States' first Boy Scout troops was organized here in 1909; the town known as Deep Ford, was established in 1872 with the reservation for the Osage Nation, part of Indian Territory. The Osage Indian Agency was located along Bird Creek. One of the three main bands of the tribe settled here. Traders followed, building stores during 1872 and 1873. Pawhuska's first newspaper, the Indian Herald, was founded in 1875 by George Edward Tinker, an Osage who became the father of Clarence L. Tinker, highest-ranking Native American officer in the US Army; the first post office opened in 1876. The Midland Valley Railroad reached Pawhuska in September 1905. By the time of statehood in 1907, the town population was 2,407.
The first Boy Scout troop is claimed to have been organized in Pawhuska, in May 1909 by John F. Mitchell, a missionary priest from England sent to St. Thomas Episcopal Church by the Church of England. On Independence day weekend 2009, the Pawhuska Boy Scout troop celebrated its centennial with a mini-jamboree attended by over 300 Scouts from across the United States. During the Osage oil boom of the 1910s and 1920s, Pawhuska was the site of public lease options; the population grew to 6,414 by 1920. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad extended its line from Owen, a community in Washington County, to Pawhuska in 1923; as the oil boom declined and the Great Depression set in, the population declined. The steady decline has continued to the present. Pawhuska is located at 36°40′9″N 96°19′59″W, it is 57 miles northwest of Tulsa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles, all of it land. The Tallgrass Prairie Preserve is north of the town. Pawhuska is in the Tulsa metropolitan area.
The population of the city was 3,589 at the 2010 census, a decline of 1.2 percent from 3,629 at the 2000 census. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,629 people, 1,513 households, 954 families residing in the city; the population density was 966.4 people per square mile. There were 1,802 housing units at an average density of 479.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.98% White, 2.78% African American, 25.46% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.52% from other races, 6.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.85% of the population. There were 1,513 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 19.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,156, the median income for a family was $31,599. Males had a median income of $25,682 versus $17,690 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,916. About 13.7% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.3% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Other than cattle ranches nearby, local employment consisted of a brick plant, a creamery, an ice factory, a rock crusher; the Osage Nation has opened a gaming casino here. In 2016, "Pioneer Woman" Ree Drummond opened The Mercantile on Main Street; the establishment includes a restaurant which serves up to 6,000 people per day. Drummond operates a boutique hotel, The PW Boarding House, offers tours of the blogger-turned-Food Network star's cooking lodge on nearby Drummond Ranch, thus solidifying her place as a major economic force in Pawhuska.
Pawhuska has a home rule charter form of government. KPGM Radio, 1500 AM featuring local news until 8:00am and the Sports Animal Format out of Oklahoma City. KOSG, 103.9 FM featuring Southern Gospel music. Tracy Letts' Pulitzer Prize-winning play August: Osage County is set in a country house near Pawhuska; the 2013 film August: Osage County was set in Osage County. Montauban Franks, Kenny A.. The Osage Oil Boom. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Heritage Association. OCLC 84216747. Osage County Profiles. Pawhuska, Okla.: Osage County Historical Society. 1978. "Pawhuska". Vertical File. Oklahoma City: Research Division, Oklahoma Historical Society. Warehime, Les. History of Ranching the Osage. Tulsa, Okla.: W. W. Publishing. OCLC 865808685. Pawhuska Public Schools Osage Nation official site
Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve
Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located in the Flint Hills region of Kansas, north of Strong City. The preserve protects a nationally significant example of the once vast tallgrass prairie ecosystem. Of the 400,000 square miles of tallgrass prairie that once covered the North American continent, less than 4% remains in the Flint Hills. Since 2009, the preserve has been home to the growing Tallgrass Prairie bison herd. Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve is a new kind of national park; the preserve of 10,894 acres was the Spring Hill/Z-Bar Ranch, purchased by the National Park Trust in 1994. Legislation introduced in 1991 called for the creation of the Preserve, but local interests objected to the condition that the National Park Service would own it all. From 1991-1994, U. S. Senator Nancy Kassebaum-Baker convened a group of stakeholders, many with opposing views, to seek agreement on the formula for a tallgrass prairie park; the group began work in January 1992, a different model for a national park emerged.
In 1994, Senators Kassebaum-Baker and Bob Dole introduced Senate bill S. 2412 Congress, which would allow the Federal government to create a national preserve, under the public/private partnership ownership arrangement. The bill, limited National Park Service ownership to no more than 180 acres of the preserve, the remainder owned by the National Park Trust. On November 12, 1996, the bill became Public Law 104-333 codified under Title 16 United States Code Section 698u. On September 20, 2002, National Park Trust donated 32 acres to the National Park Service. National Park Trust worked with the National Park Service to plan and develop the park from 1996 to 2005. Though National Park Trust was named in the legislation, the law allowed for successor non-profits to own the land and continue the unique public/private ownership and management relationship. So, in 2005, National Park Trust sold the approximate 10,862 acres to The Nature Conservancy, which specializes in the protection and management of unique, irreplaceable landscapes and perishable resources the world over.
Today, the NPS and The Nature Conservancy work toward preservation of the tallgrass prairie, while sharing the story of ranching legacy, American Indian history, the diverse tallgrass prairie ecosystem in the heart of the scenic Flint Hills of Kansas. Tallgrass Prairie is the nation's second newest national preserve and the park is still under development with visitor opportunities continually being expanded. There are over 40 miles of maintained hiking trails in the preserve allowing visitors access to the tallgrass prairie. During the summer, narrated bus tours of the prairie are offered. On January 29, 2008, Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve was named as one of the 8 Wonders of Kansas. In 2009, The Nature Conservancy introduced a small herd of bison into the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve. Development of Spring Hill Ranch began in 1878, with land purchases in the Flint Hills by Stephen F. Jones, a cattle rancher from Tennessee, he completed the ranch headquarters in 1881, was one of the early adopters in the region of enclosed ranching, in which cattle movements are limited by stone walls, fences, or barbed wire.
This was a marked change that swept across the Plains in the 1880s, caused in large part by overgrazing in open range operations. Over the years that followed his initial purchase, Jones expanded the ranch to a size of 7,000 acres; the fine Second Empire ranch house was built for Jones in 1881 at an estimated cost of $25,000. Jones was responsible for construction of the Lower Fox Creek School, built on land he donated. Jones used the ranch to grow herds of purebred cattle of several breeds, as well as some purebred breeds of hogs and sheep. Jones sold the ranch in 1888 to Barney Lantry; the Lantry family kept the ranch until 1904 raising thoroughbred cattle. Spring Hill, the core of their holdings, was divided up until smaller parcels, it was reassembled in a series of purchases executed in 1935 by George Davis, a grain dealer from Kansas City. Following Davis' death in 1955, the property was put into a trust, operated as the Z-Bar Ranch. Historic interest in the property began in the 1960s, when local groups organized the restoration of the Lower Fox Creek School.
The ranch complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971, one of the first listings in the state. The National Audubon Society acquired an option to purchase the property in 1988, but this expired in 1990, it aroused wider interest in the property, resulting in its eventual acquisition by the National Park Trust. The entire ranch property was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1997 for its association with Jones and the end of the open range ranching era. Big Basin Prairie Preserve Cimarron National Grassland Flint Hills Konza Prairie List of National Historic Landmarks in Kansas Strong City, Kansas This article incorporates public domain material from the Recreation.gov document "Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, KS". Retrieved on 2016-11-20. Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve. National Park Service. Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve; the Nature Conservancy. Photo essay about the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve; the Nature Conservancy. Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve.
National Park Trust
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as Wazhazhe, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.
The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.
Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.
The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.
They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against th
The Last Picture Show
The Last Picture Show is a 1971 American drama film directed and co-written by Peter Bogdanovich, adapted from a semi-autobiographical 1966 novel The Last Picture Show by Larry McMurtry. Set in a small town in north Texas from November 1951 to October 1952, it is about the coming of age of Sonny Crawford and his friend Duane Jackson; the cast includes Cybill Shepherd in her film debut, Ellen Burstyn, Ben Johnson, Cloris Leachman, features Eileen Brennan, Clu Gulager, Randy Quaid. For aesthetic reasons, it was shot in black and white, unusual for the time; the film features many songs of other recording artists. The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Ben Johnson and Jeff Bridges for Best Supporting Actor, Ellen Burstyn and Cloris Leachman for Best Supporting Actress, with Johnson and Leachman winning. In 1998 the film was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
In 1951 Sonny Crawford and Duane Jackson are high-school seniors and friends in Anarene, Texas, a small declining northern Texas town. Duane is dating the prettiest girl in town. Sonny breaks up with his girlfriend Charlene Duggs. At Christmas time Sonny begins an affair with Ruth Popper, the depressed middle-aged wife of his high-school coach, "Coach" Popper, she is lonely. At the Christmas dance Jacy is invited by Lester Marlow to a naked indoor pool party at the home of Bobby Sheen, a wealthy young man who seems to be a better prospect than Duane. Bobby tells Jacy; the group of boys take their young, mentally disabled friend, Billy, to a prostitute to lose his virginity, but she hits Billy in the face when he ejaculates prematurely. When Duane and Sonny take Billy back home, Sam "the Lion" tells them that since they cannot take care of a friend, he is barring them from the pool hall, the movie theater, the cafe. Duane isn't seen by Sam. At the cafe, the waitress, tells Sonny she knows that Duane was with the group but agrees not to tell Sam.
During the weekend of New Year's Eve and Sonny go on a weekend road trip to Mexico. Before they drive off, who has forgiven Sonny, chats with them about their trip, wistfully wishing he still had the stamina to join them, gives them some extra money; when they return from the trip, hung over and tired, they learn that during their absence Sam died of a stroke on New Year's Eve. In his will, Sam left the movie theater to the woman. Jacy invites Duane to a motel for sex so that she can date Bobby, but Duane is unable to get an erection, she loses her virginity to Duane on their second attempt and breaks up with him by telephone. When Bobby marries another girl, Jacy is disappointed. Out of boredom, she has sex with her mother's lover, though he is cold to her afterward. Jacy sets her sights on Sonny, who drops Ruth without notice. Duane quarrels with Sonny over Jacy, "his" girl, hits him in the side of the head with a bottle, blinding him in the left eye. Duane decides to join the army to fight in Korea.
Jacy suggests to Sonny. On their way to their honeymoon, they are stopped by an Oklahoma state trooper; the couple are brought back to Anarene. On the trip back, Jacy's mother, admits to Sonny that she was Sam the Lion's paramour and tells him that he was much better off with Ruth Popper than with Jacy; the marriage of Sonny and Jacy is annulled. Duane returns to town on leave from the Army before shipping out for Korea, he and Sonny are among the meager group attending the final screening at the movie house, closing that day. The next morning, Sonny sees Duane off on the bus. Billy is hit and killed by a truck. An upset Sonny seeks comfort from Ruth, her first reaction is to vent her hurt and anger but she takes his outstretched hand, saying, "Never you mind, honey. Never you mind." Timothy Bottoms as Sonny Crawford. Bogdanovich liked Bottoms for his sad eyes and recalled that he was convinced to cast him based on promotion from Bottoms' agent, who said that the actor had been given the lead in a Dalton Trumbo movie, Johnny Got His Gun.
Jeff Bridges as Duane Jackson. Bridges got the role because in the book Duane is not a likable character. Cybill Shepherd as Jacy Farrow. Shepherd was a model. "There was something about her expression, piquant." He arranged to meet her with her agent in a hotel in New York City. According to Bogdanovich, Shepherd was interested in going through college and not interested in being in movies, but she liked the script and thought it was an interesting part, she was playing with a rose on the table, Bogdanovich kept expecting the rose to keel over and collapse.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five became extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene in South Asia, was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus, the ancestor of all other Bison species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki, North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly related to the true buffalo; the North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, the Wood bison, B. b. athabascae, the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada.
A third subspecies, the Eastern Bison is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison. References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle and produce fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron; the American bison and the European bison are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. They are typical artiodactyl ungulates, are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo, they are muscular with shaggy coats of long hair. Adults grow up to 1.8 metres in length for American Bison and up to 2.8 metres in length for European bison. American bison can weigh from 400 kilograms to 900 kg and European bison can weight from 800 kilograms to 1,000 kilograms.
European bison tend to be heavier than American bison. Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds; the bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, join a male herd, which are smaller than female herds. Mature bulls travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes commingle. American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The Wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it removed from the Endangered Species List.
Although superficially similar and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison has 14; the American bison has four lumbar vertebrae. Adult American bison are less slim in have shorter legs. American bison tend to graze more, browse less than their European relatives, their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference. The body of the American bison is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison; the horns of the European bison point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American bison are more tamed than their European cousins, breed with domestic cattle more readily; the bovine tribe split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species.
This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini: Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison and yak and Banteng and gayalHowever, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison. An ear
The Wichita people or Kitikiti'sh are a confederation of Southern Plains Native American tribes. They spoke the Wichita language and Kichai language, both Caddoan languages, they are indigenous to Oklahoma and Kansas. Today, Wichita tribes, which include the Kichai people, Waco, Taovaya and the Wichita proper, are federally recognized as the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes are headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is in Oklahoma; the Wichitas are a self-governance tribe, who operate their own housing authority and issue tribal vehicle tags. The current tribal administration is. President: Terri Parton Vice-President: Jesse E. Jones Secretary: Myles Stephenson Jr. Treasurer: Vanessa Vance The tribe owns the Sugar Creek Casino, several restaurants, the Sugar Creek Event Center, Hinton Travel Inn in Hinton, it owns a smoke shop, travel plaza, historical center in Anadarko. Their annual economic impact in 2010 was $4.5 million. The Wichita language is one of the Caddoan languages.
They are related by language and culture with whom they enjoy close relations. The Wichita lived in fixed villages notable for their large, domed-shaped, grass-covered dwellings, sometimes up to 30 feet in diameter; the Wichita were skilled traders and negotiators. Their historical homelands stretched from San Antonio, Texas in the south to as far north as Great Bend, Kansas. A semi-sedentary people, they occupied northern Texas in the early 18th century, they traded with other Southern Plains Indians on both sides of the Red River and as far south as Waco. For much of the year, the Wichita lived in huts made of forked cedar poles covered by dry grasses. In the winter, they lived in hunting camps. Wichita hunters used all parts of the bison—for clothing and cooking fat, winter shelter, leather supplies and medicine; each spring, Wichita families to their villages for another season of cultivating crops. Wichita people wore clothing from tanned hides, which the women sewed, they decorated their dresses with elk canine teeth.
Both men and women tattooed their bodies with solid and dotted lines and circles. The Wichita tribes call themselves Kitikiti'sh / Kirikirish, because of the historical practice of tattooing marks around their eyes; the kindred Pawnee called them Kírikuuruks / Kírikuruks and the Arikara referred to them as Čirikuúnux. The Kiowa knew them as Thoe-Khoot. Wichita people have been a loose confederation of related peoples on the Southern Plains, including such bands or sub-tribes as Taovayas, Tawakonis and Guichitas or Wichita Proper; the Taovaya were the most important in the 18th century. The French called the Wichita peoples Panis Piqués or Panis Noirs. One Pawnee splinter grouping known as Panismahas moved from what is now Nebraska to the Texas-Arkansas border regions where they lived with the Taovayas. In 2018, the Wichita Tribes opened the Wichita Tribal History Center in Anadarko, which shares Wichita history, visual arts, culture with the public; the Wichita Annual Dance, a powwow, is held at the Wichita Tribal Park on US-281, north of Anadarko, every August.
After the man and woman were made they dreamed that things were made for them, when they woke they had the things of which they had dreamed... The woman was given an ear of corn... It was to be the food of the people that should exist in the future, to be used generation after generation. —Tawakoni Jim in The Mythology of the Wichita, 1904 The Ancestral Wichita people lived in the eastern Great Plains from the Red River in Arkansas north to Nebraska for at least 2,000 years. Early Wichita people were hunters and gatherers who adopted agriculture. Farming villages were developed about 900 CE on terraces above the Washita and South Canadian Rivers in present-day Oklahoma; the women of these 10th-century communities cultivated varieties of maize and squash, marsh elder, tobacco, important for religious purposes. The men hunted deer, rabbits and bison, caught fish and harvested mussels from the rivers; these villagers lived in thatched-roof houses. Archaeologists describe the Washita River Phase from 1250 to 1450, when local populations grew and villages of up to 20 houses were spaced every two or so miles along the rivers.
These farmers may have had contact with the Panhandle culture villages in the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles, farming villages along the Canadian River. The Panhandle villagers showed signs of adopting cultural characteristics of the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande Valley, with whom they interacted. In the late 15th century, most of these Washita River villages were abandoned for reasons that not known today. Numerous archaeological sites in central Kansas near the Great Bend of the Arkansas River share common traits and are collectively known as the "