Tallinn is the capital and the most populous city of Estonia. Located in the northern part of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, it has a population of 434,562. Administratively a part of Harju maakond, Tallinn is the main financial, cultural and research centre of Estonia. Tallinn is located 80 kilometres south of Helsinki, Finland, 320 kilometres west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, 300 kilometres north of Riga, 380 kilometres east of Stockholm, Sweden, it has close historical ties with these four cities. From the 13th century until the first half of the 20th century Tallinn was known in most of the world by its historical German name Reval. Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years; the first recorded claim over the land was laid by Denmark in 1219, after a successful raid of Lyndanisse led by king Valdemar II, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and Teutonic rulers. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League.
Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tallinn has the highest number of start-ups per person among European countries and is a birthplace of many international high technology companies, including Skype and Transferwise; the city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency. Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. Tallinn is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top ten digital cities in the world; the city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland. In 1154, a town called قلون was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of'Astlanda', it was suggested. Another one of the earliest name of Tallinn is Kolyvan, discovered from East Slavic chronicles and may somehow be connected to the Estonian mythical hero Kalev.
However, a number of modern historians have considered connecting al-Idrisi placename with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous. Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town with the name, known to have been used up to the 13th century by Scandinavians: Lindanisa, it has been suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna'castle, town'. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the same meaning as niemi'peninsula', producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city. Another ancient historical name for Tallinn is Rääveli in Finnish; the Icelandic Njal's saga mentions Tallinn and calls it Rafala, based on the primitive form of Revala. This name originated from the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German and Danish languages as Reval. Reval was in official use in Estonia until 1918; the name Tallinn is Estonian. It is thought to be derived from Taani-linn, after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse.
However, it could have come from tali-linna, or talu-linna. The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod meant'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names; the previously-used official names in German Reval and Russian Revel were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918. At first, both forms Tallinn were used; the United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam. In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, this spelling is still sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence; the form Таллин is used in several other languages in some of the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications.
Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian. The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city centre by archeologists are about 5,000 years old; the comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE. Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn Toompea; as an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, Tallinn known more as Reval, became the northernmost member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military allian
Genome-based peptide fingerprint scanning is a system in bioinformatics analysis that attempts to identify the genomic origin of sample proteins by scanning their peptide-mass fingerprint against the theoretical translation and proteolytic digest of an entire genome. This method is an improvement from previous methods because it compares the peptide fingerprints to an entire genome instead of comparing it to an annotated genome; this improvement has the potential to improve genome annotation and identify proteins with incorrect or missing annotations. GFS was designed by Michael C. Giddings et al. and released in 2003. Giddings expanded the algorithms for GFS from earlier ideas. Two papers were published in 1993 explaining the techniques used to identify proteins in sequence databases; these methods determined the mass of peptides using mass spectrometry, used the mass to search protein databases to identify the proteins In 1999 a more complex program was released called Mascot that integrated three types of protein/database searches: peptide molecular weights, tandem mass spectrometry from one or more peptide, combination mass data with amino acid sequence.
The fallback with this used program is that it is unable to detect alternative splice sites that are not annotated, it not able to find proteins that have not been annotated. Giddings built upon these sources to create GFS which would compare peptide mass data to entire genomes to identify the proteins. Giddings system is able to find new annotations of genes that have not been found, such as undocumented genes and undocumented alternative splice sites. In 2012 research was published where genes and proteins were found in a model organism that could not have been found without GFS because they had not been annotated; the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been used in research for over 100 years. This planarian is capable of regenerating missing body parts and is therefore emerging as potential model organism for stem cell research. Planarians are covered in mucus which aids in locomotion, in protecting them from predation, in helping their immune system; the genome of Schmidtea mediterranea is sequenced but un-annotated making it a prime candidate for genome-based peptide fingerprint scanning.
When the proteins were analyzed with GFS 1,604 proteins were identified. These proteins had not been annotated before they were found with GFS They were able to find the mucous subproteome, they found. The mucous subproteome is so conserved. Due to the similarity in these genes the planarian can now be used as a model to study mucous protein function in humans; this is relevant for infections and diseases related to mucous aberrancies such as cystic fibrosis and other lung diseases. These genes could not have been found without GFS because they had not been annotated. In February 2013, proteogenomic mapping research was done with ENCODE to identify translational regions in the human genome, they applied peptide fingerprint scanning and MASCOT to the protein data to find regions that may not have been annotated as translated in the human genome. This search against the whole genome revealed that 4% of unique peptide that they found were outside of annotated regions; the comparison of the whole genome revealed 15% more hits than from a protein database search alone.
GFS can be used as a complementary method for annotation due to the fact that you can find new genes or splice sites that have not been annotated before. However it is important to remember that the whole genome approach used by GFS can be less sensitive than programs that look only at annotated regions. Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning Documentation Facebook link to "Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning" Explanation of MS/MS in relation to MASCOT
Anvita Dutt is an Indian dialogue writer, screenplay writer, story writer and Director for Bollywood films. Her father worked with the Indian Air Force, thus she grew in several military cantonments across India, including Hindon, Guwahati and Saharanpur, she worked in advertising for 14 years, before she was introduced to Aditya Chopra by Rekha Nigam, dialogue writer of Parineeta and Laaga Chunari Mein Daag, thus starting her film career as a lyricist and screenwriter with Yash Raj Films. She worked with Dharma Productions as a lyricist and dialogue writer. Followed by Nadiadwala Grandson Films as a dialogue writer on one project, and as a dialogue writer and lyricist on the second project. She worked with Nikhil Advani as lyricist, she worked again under their banner of Y films. For two films. After a hiatus she worked with Phantom films. Clean slate filmz. Where now she is directing films for them, her first one is releasing as a Netflix Original. She has moved on to direction now, she has directed a film titled Bulbbul for Clean Slate Filmz.