SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tallulah, Louisiana

Tallulah is a small city in, the parish seat of, Madison Parish in northeastern Louisiana, United States. The 2010 population was 7,335, a decrease of 1,854, or 20.2 percent, from the 9,189 recorded at the 2000 census. As this was a center of agriculture since the antebellum years, producing cotton and pecans and the parish have long had majority-African American populations; the small city is now nearly 77 percent African American. Mechanization and industrial agriculture have reduced the number of jobs, many residents have moved since the mid-20th century to larger cities with more opportunities. Tallulah is the principal city of the Tallulah Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Madison Parish; the Madison Parish Sheriff's office operates the Steve Hoyle Rehabilitation Center in Tallulah. This area was developed in the antebellum years by European Americans for cotton plantations, they brought in thousands of enslaved African Americans to process the crops. Major planters grew wealthy from their labor at a time.

During the American Civil War, Union gunboats in Lake Providence headed south to Tallulah, where they burned the Vicksburg and Texas Railroad's depot. They captured Confederate supplies awaiting shipment to Indian Territory, where some tribes were allied with the Confederacy; the Confederates in Tallulah offered no resistance. Afterward, numerous potential Confederate troops in the area had to be rejected for enlistment because of a lack of weapons. During the Vicksburg Campaign, Union General Ulysses S. Grant's troops destroyed many structures in the parish; some plantation homes, such as Hermione, were used as Union hospitals. After the war, many freedmen from the plantations stayed in the parish working as sharecroppers. In the late 19th century, Italian immigrants settled in Louisiana, most in New Orleans but some in outlying parishes such as Madison; some served as migrant workers on cotton or sugar cane plantations, in the north or south of the state, respectively. The immigrants were from Sicily.

Starting as farm workers, some banded together to establish small stores, such as groceries in county seats and other trading towns. By 1899 five Sicilians were doing a good business in Tallulah, with four small stores devoted to fruit and poultry. All but one of the men were relatives. Whites attacked the Sicilians because of economic competition, they had been criticized for failing to comply with Jim Crow rules: if they had black customers waiting, they made new white customers wait their turn rather than giving the whites preference, as was the custom. On July 20, 1899, a mob of white residents of Tallulah lynched the five Sicilians from Cefalù. Two other Italians who lived in nearby Milliken's Bend fled the area for their safety; the Italians were still citizens of Italy, their government protested to the United States government about each lynching murder. The US government said; as was typical in this period of frequent lynchings of black US citizens, none of the white lynch mob was prosecuted.

The city developed through the early 20th century and had a growing population, as people came in from rural areas to work in the lumber mills and timber processing. Because it was the center of a major agricultural area, Tallulah became the site of the Louisiana Delta Fair, held annually in October through the first half of the 20th century, it featured exhibits from Madison, East Carroll, Tensas parishes. In the century, the fair was phased out. Shirley Field known as Scott Field, was the first airport in Louisiana. Dr. B. R. Coad, head of the Agricultural Experiment Laboratory, developed a process and equipment for crop dusting from airplanes, in order to combat the devastating boll weevil infestation of cotton crops; the USDA bought a Huff-Daland plane for this purpose in 1924. Hundreds of flights took off from the Tallulah Airport as this process was developed, fields on both sides of the Mississippi were treated. Delta Air Lines had its origins from Delta Dusters, the company developed here to produce and operate crop dusting from airplanes.

Shirley Field and the original airport building still stand near Tallulah, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The parish seat attracted Jewish immigrants. Based on the success of their drugstore, in 1927 merchant brothers Mertie M. and Abe Bloom built the first enclosed shopping mall, Bloom's Arcade, in the United States in Tallulah. It was built by A. Hays Town in the style of European city arcades; the building had a central hall, with stores located on either side, much like the ones today. The hall opened into the street on both ends; this landmark is still in Tallulah, located along what is now U. S. Route 80, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of late 2013, it has been restored to its original architectural character and was adapted as an apartment complex. In 1927, the downtown was flooded during the Great Flood of 1927. Many downtown stores were flooded by several feet of water, it took time for the town to recover. After serving in World War II, African-American veterans began to challenge racial discrimination in the South more vigorously.

After the Supreme Court ruled in Smith v. Allwright that the white primary of the Democratic Party was unconstitutional, more blacks began to register in the South, but in Louisiana the number of white qualified voters in 1947 still surpassed blacks by a ratio of 100 to one. The population increased in Tallulah in the decades after the war, reaching a high in 1980. African America

Norm Lee

Norman Edward "Norm" Lee was an Australian politician. He was a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Lee was born in Brisbane to née Lindner, he became a grazier and civil engineering contractor. In 1964 Lee was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly as the Liberal member for Yeronga in a by-election following the death of former Health Minister Winston Noble. In 1975 he was promoted to the front bench as Minister for Works and Housing, moving to Industry and Administrative Services in 1977, he was dismissed from the front bench in 1980. In 1983 he was involved in negotiations to defect to the National Party. Lee retired from politics in 1989. Lee died in Brisbane on 3 April 2002

Adultcentrism

Adultcentrism is the exaggerated egocentrism of adults, including the belief that an adult perspective is inherently better. It is used to describe the conditions facing children and youth in schools and community settings. In social work, adultcentrism has been recognized as the potential bias adults have in understanding and responding to children; this bias is said to extend from the difference in age between the adult. The differences—including language, communication styles and world view—can create a hurdle to overcome. Rather than allowing the adult to share their view, adultcentrism acknowledges the powerlessness and inability of young people to affect the systems of authority adults have created; this creates barriers to effective practice with children. Explaining adultcentrism, one author reports, Adultcentrism contributes to the ongoing difficulty which agencies experience in incorporating into their modus operandi the practice of routine consultation with children about decisions that affect their lives—even after training and policy development about children's rights and participation has taken place.

In the field of occupational therapy adultcentrism has been said to "lead researchers to underestimate children's abilities." According to one researcher, "This stance can be seen when researchers assume they know everything they need to know about children because they have been children." Research has shown this leads adults to stay within their own perspective, thus discriminating against children through adultism. In respect to occupational therapy, "Adultcentrism has emerged in the family therapy literature to describe the tendency by adults to view the world from an adult perspective and in so doing not understand or appreciate how children and young people are viewing things."Adultcentrism is growing in importance in the fields of education, mental health, community sociology, children's empowerment One international affairs specialist reflects that, according to the pillar of adultcentrism, are seen as "the future" and are therefore not yet full human beings capable of making choices.

The elderly are considered "past their prime" and are seen as a burden on society. From this notion "education leaders, school board members and reform advocates... call for the same improvements, the same tasks, the same accountabilities that have been always called for. One such organization, the National Youth Rights Association, identifies that adultcentrism causes society to... The word "human" evokes the mental image of an adult -- you need to specify if you are talking about a youth.... The field of "psychology" deals with adults. Stairs, light switches, toilets, the international symbols for "men" and "women" on bathroom doors -- are all designed with adults in mind