A tamale is a traditional Mesoamerican dish, from modern-day Mexico, made of masa or dough, steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf. The wrapping can either used as a plate. Tamales can be filled with meats, fruits, chilies or any preparation according to taste, both the filling and the cooking liquid may be seasoned. Tamale is the anglicized version of the Spanish word tamal. Tamal comes from the Nahuatl word tamalli via Spanish where the singular is tamal and the plural tamales; the word tamale is a back-formation of tamales, with English speakers assuming the singular was tamale and the plural tamales. Tamales originated in Mesoamerica as early as 8000 to 5000 BC; the preparation of tamales is to have spread from the indigenous culture in Mexico and Guatemala to the rest of Latin America. According to archaeologists Karl Taube, William Saturn and David Stuart, tamales may date from the year 100 AD, they found pictorial references in Petén, Guatemala. The Aztec and Maya civilizations, as well as the Olmec and Toltec before them, used tamales as portable food, for hunting trips, for traveling large distances, as well as supporting their armies.

Tamales were considered sacred as it is the food of the gods. Aztec, Maya and Tolteca all considered themselves to be people of corn and so tamales played a large part in their rituals and festivals. In the pre-Columbian era, the Aztecs ate tamales with fillings such as turkey, frog, pocket gopher, fish, turkey eggs, fruits and beans, as well as with no filling. Aztec tamales differed from modern tamales by not having added fat. One of the most significant rituals for the Aztecs was the feast of Atamalcualiztli; this ritual, held every eight years for a whole week, was done by eating tamales without any seasoning, spices, or filling which allowed the maize freedom from being overworked in the usual tamale cooking methods. In the pre-Columbian era, the Mayas ate tamales and served them at feasts and festivals; the Classic Maya hieroglyph for tamales has been identified on pots and other objects dating back to the Classic Era, although it is they were eaten much earlier. While tortillas are the basis for the contemporary Maya diet, there is remarkably little evidence for tortilla production among the Classic period Maya.

A lack of griddles in the archaeological record suggests that the primary foodstuff of the Mesoamerican diet may have been the tamale, a cooked, vegetal-wrapped mass of maize dough. Tamales are cooked without the use of ceramic technologies and are therefore the form of the tamale is thought to predate the tortilla. Similarities between the two maize products can be found in both the ingredients and preparation techniques and the linguistic ambiguity exhibited by the pan-Mayan term wa referring to a basic, daily consumed maize product that can refer to either tortillas or tamales. In Mexico, tamales begin with a dough made from ground nixtamalized corn, called masa, or alternatively a rehydrated masa powder, such as Maseca, it is combined with lard or vegetable shortening, along with broth or water, to bring the dough to the consistency of a thick batter. It's traditional to whisk the lard, whisk the resulting batter, with the intent of producing the signature soft and fluffy texture. Modern recipes may use baking powder to achieve a similar effect.

Chili purees or dried chili powders are occasionally added to the batter, in addition to the spice can cause some tamales to appear red in color. Tamales are wrapped in corn husks or plantain leaves before being steamed, with the choice of husk depending on the region, they have a sweet or savory filling and are steamed until firm. Tamale-making is a ritual, part of Mexican life since pre-Hispanic times, when special fillings and forms were designated for each specific festival or life event. Today, tamales are filled with meats, cheese or vegetables chilies. Preparation is complex, time-consuming and an excellent example of Mexican communal cooking, where this task falls to the women. Tamales are a favorite comfort food in Mexico, eaten as both breakfast and dinner, accompanied by hot atole or champurrado and arroz con leche or maize-based beverages of indigenous origin. Street vendors can be seen serving them from huge, covered pots or ollas. Instead of corn husks, banana or plantain leaves are used in tropical parts of the country, such as Oaxaca, Chiapas and the Yucatán Peninsula.

These tamales are rather square in shape very large—15 inches —and these larger tamales are known as "pibs" in the Yucatán Peninsula. Another large type of tamale is zacahuil, made in the Huasteca region of Mexico. Depending on the size, zacahuil can feed anywhere between 200 people. In the classical times of the Maya of Central America, during winter solstice, on December 21, the great Mayan lords delighted with a baked dough bun (made of maize, which they mixed with turkey, tepezcuintle or venison, different spices, chili pepper, among others; as the years went by, that meal was integrated into Guatemalan traditions. In addition, the tradition on Christmas Eve is that families make or buy black, red or sweet tamales to family and friends, in gratitude, they accompany this with chocolate, yolk bread and punch, participate in the Mass of Gallo, at 1

Anita Rachlis

Anita Rachlis, M. D. is a Canadian HIV/AIDS researcher and is the principal author of the HIV treatment guidelines in Canada. She is an associate scientist at the Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, in Toronto, Canada. Dr. Rachlis is the recipient of awards from Sunnybrook Hospital and the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada and is a member of Canada's Ministerial Council of HIV/AIDS. MD, 1972, University of Toronto FRCP, 1976, Internal Medicine, University of Toronto Certificate of Special Competence, 1983, Infectious Disease, University of Toronto M. Ed. 1994, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto Associate scientist, clinical integrative biology - trauma and critical care program, Sunnybrook Research Institute Professor, department of laboratory medicine and pathobiology, University of Toronto Professor, division of infectious diseases, department of medicine, University of Toronto Clerkship director, undergraduate medical program, faculty of medicine, University of Toronto In September 2003 Rachlis was made a member of Canada's Ministerial Council of HIV/AIDS.

In 2004, the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre gave her an award in recognition of her outstanding contributions to inpatient teaching. In 2014, Dr. Rachlis was awarded the Distinguished Service Award "in recognition of her many years of service to AMMI Canada as Chair and member of the Education/ Continuing Professional Development Committee and for her contributions to HIV care and research in Canada since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic" by the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada. Rachlis's research is focussed on HIV-related clinical work, her research interests are in the treatment of patients with HIV infection. She has been involved in clinical research on antiretroviral agents and treatment of opportunistic infections, her other area of interest is in medical education related to continuing education for infectious diseases and HIV infection and undergraduate medical education

Immaculate Machine

Immaculate Machine was a Canadian indie pop band from Victoria, British Columbia, active from 2003 to 2011. The band's name is taken from the lyrics of "One-Trick Pony" from the album One-Trick Pony by Paul Simon. Immaculate Machine was a trio in 2003 consisting of Brooke Gallupe, Kathryn Calder and Luke Kozlowski; the band released The View and Transporter independently before signing to label Mint Records in early 2005. Their Mint Records debut and Zeros, came out on September 6, 2005, they supported the album with a tour of Canada and the United States; that year, Calder became a member of The New Pornographers, appearing on the album Twin Cinema and touring with the band. She is the niece of New Pornographers leader A. C. Newman. In early June 2007, the band's song "Jarhand", the first single from their third album Immaculate Machine's Fables, was featured as the iTunes free single of the week. In 2009, Kozlowski left the band and was replaced by Aden Collinge; as well, due to family commitments, Calder was unable to tour the band's latest album, High on Jackson Hill.

To compensate for this, a touring band was formed consisting of Caitlin Gallupe, Brooke's sister, Jordan Minkoff, bandmate of Caitlin in Slam Dunk, Leslie Rewega. Brooke Gallupe Kathryn Calder Luke Kozlowski Aden Collinge Caitlin Gallupe Jordan Minkoff Leslie Rewega Won't Be Pretty The View Les Uns Mais Pas Les Autres Transporter Ones and Zeros Immaculate Machine's Fables High on Jackson Hill Canadian rock List of Canadian musicians List of bands from Canada List of bands from British Columbia Immaculate Machine