Tamilakam, or Thamizhagam, refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people. Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language and culture of all people; the ancient Tamil country was divided into kingdoms. The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas and Pallavas. During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam. Ancient Tamil settlements were found in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. "Tamiḻakam" is a portmanteau of a word and suffix from the Tamil language, namely - akam. It can be translated as the "homeland of the Tamils". According to Kamil Zvelebil, the term seems to be the most ancient term used to designate Tamil territory in the Indian subcontinent; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as Ptolemy's writings, mention the term "Limyrike" which corresponds to the Malabar Coast of south-western India.
Based on a misinterpretation of the Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana and the possible phonetic connection between the words "Damir-" and "Tamil", some modern scholars have wrongly mentioned Limyrike as "Damirica", considering it as a synonym of "Tamilakam". The "Damirice" mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana refers to an area between the Himalayas and the Ganges; the term "Tamilakam" appears to be the most ancient term used for designating the Tamil territory. The earliest sources to mention it include Purananuru 168.18 and Patiṟṟuppattu Patikam 2.5. The Specific Preface of the more ancient text Tolkāppiyam mentions the terms tamil-kuru nal-lulakam and centamil... nilam. However, this preface, of uncertain date, is a addition to the original Tolkāppiyam. According to the Tolkāppiyam preface, "the virtuous land in which Tamil is spoken as the mother tongue lies between the northern Venkata hill and the southern Kumari."The Silappadikaram defines the Tamilakam as follows: While these ancient texts do not define the eastern and western boundaries of the Tamilakam, scholars assume that these boundaries were the seas, which may explain their omission from the ancient definition.
The ancient Tamilakam thus included the present-day Kerala. However, it excluded the present-day Tamil-inhabited territory in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka. During the period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty, the Pandyan dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera dynasty. There were a few independent chieftains, the Velirs; the earliest datable references to the Tamil kingdoms are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE during the time of the Maurya Empire. The Pandyan dynasty ruled parts of South India until the late 17th century; the heartland of the Pandyas was the fertile valley of the Vaigai River. They ruled their country from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, in times moved to Madurai; the Chola dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period until the 13th century in central Tamil Nadu. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri; the Chera dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period until the 12th century over an area corresponding to modern-day western Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
The Vealirs were minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamiḻakam in the early historic period of South India. Tamiḻakam was divided into political regions called Perunadu or "Great country", "nadu" means country. There were three important political regions which were Chola Nadu and Pandya Nadu. Along these three there were two more political regions of Athiyaman Nadu and Thamirabharani Nadu which were on absorbed into Chera resp. Pandya Nadu by 3rd century BCE. Thondai Nadu, under Chola Nadu emerged as independent Pallava Nadu by 6th century CE. Again Tamilakam were divided into 12 socio-geographical regions called Nadu or "country"; each of this Nadu had their own dialect of Tamil. Some other Nadus are mentioned in Tamil literature which weren't part of Tamilakam, but the countries traded with them in ancient times. Although the area covered by the term "Tamilakam" was divided among multiple kingdoms, its occurrence in the ancient literature implies that the region's inhabitants shared a cultural or ethnic identity, or at least regarded themselves as distinct from their neighbours.
The ancient Tamil inscriptions, ranging from 5th century BCE to 3rd century CE, are conisdered as linguistic evidence for distinguishing Tamilakam from the rest of South India. The ancient non-Tamil inscriptions, such as those of the northern kings Ashoka and Kharavela allude to the distinct identity of the region. For example, Ashoka's inscriptions refer to the independent states lying beyond the southern boundary of his kingdom, Kharavdela's Hathigumpha inscription refers to the destruction of a "confederacy of Tamil powers". However, the archaeological evidence does not support the existence of "Tamilakam" as a distinct cultural region: the material culture and habitations discovered in present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala are found elsewhere in peninsular India and Sri Lanka. With the advent of the early historical period in South India and the ascent of the three Tamil kingdoms in South India in the 6th century BCE, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamiḻakam. Prior to 3rd century BCE, more Tamil settlers arrived in Sri Lanka.
The Annaicoddai seal, dated to the 3rd
St. Dominic's Priory School is an independent co-educational Catholic Pre and High School in Godlonton Avenue in the suburb of Miramar, in Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa, it was founded in 1900. In 1867, six foundresses left Durban and sailed to the missionary station in Port Elizabeth, where they founded the Holy Rosary Convent. Holy Rosary Convent, Marist Brothers College and Priory High merged to form Trinity High School, for boys and girls, in 1983; the Trinity High School moved to the Holy Rosary Convent buildings in central Port Elizabeth, while a junior school remained at the Priory. However, in 2000, urban decline and economic factors led to the move of Trinity High School to the Priory buildings when the Holy Rosary buildings were sold. Lisa Fugard, daughter of Athol Zolani Mahola, singer of Freshlyground Marguerite Poland, novelist Reeva Steenkamp and paralegal List of Marist Brothers schools Official website
Georgette Gómez is an American politician serving as a member of the San Diego City Council, representing District 9. Gómez is a Democrat, though city council positions are nonpartisan per California state law. In December 2018, Gómez was unanimously appointed president of the city council. In September 2019, she announced her candidacy to represent California's 53rd congressional district. Gómez was born in San Diego to working class immigrants, she was raised in Barrio Logan. Gómez attended Serra High School and graduated from San Diego State University majoring in Environmental and Natural Resource Geography. Gomez resides in the Azalea Park within City Heights; the 2016 San Diego City Council election for District 9 featured an open seat due to incumbent Marti Emerald choosing not to seek reelection. District 9 includes the neighborhoods of Alvarado Estates, City Heights, College Area, College View Estates, El Cerrito, Mountain View, Mt. Hope, Rolando and Talmadge. In the June 2016 primary, Gómez came in second to Emerald's chief of staff.
Since no candidate received a majority of the votes in the primary, a runoff election was held in November 2016 between Flores and Gómez. Gómez was elected to the City Council in November with a majority of the votes. On December 10, 2018, the City Council voted unanimously to appoint Gómez to be the council president. In this role, she automatically gained a seat on the board of directors of the San Diego Association of Governments, she served as the chairwoman of the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System from January 2018 to October 2019. City of San Diego: Georgette Gómez website Gómez for City Council website
Canby Area Transit, or CAT, is the public transit bus service provided by and for the US city of Canby, Oregon. As of 2015, it operates one fixed route between Woodburn and Oregon City along Oregon Route 99E, complementary paratransit, a dial-a-ride service within the city of Canby, it has a hub at the downtown Canby Transit Center. CAT was established as a department of the City of Canby on January 1, 2002 upon Canby's withdrawal from the TriMet service area, had an official dedication on August 20, 2002. Canby paid TriMet to continue service in the interim, replaced TriMet's commuter runs in 2004, which received little ridership at the end. CAT expanded service within the city of Canby, to Woodburn and to Wilsonville, the latter in partnership with Wilsonville's South Metro Area Regional Transit. Canby replaced TriMet's payroll tax with its own within the city, but at a somewhat lower rate, receives state and federal grants. Due to the loss of state tax credits and recession-caused tax revenue decreases, CAT had to eliminate Saturday service, fixed-route service within Canby and trips to Wilsonville, as well as started charging a $1 fare.
In exchange, they started to allow the general public to use dial-a-ride service within Canby, limited to eligible disabled riders, SMART continued to operate its trips from Wilsonville. CAT connects to the following systems: TriMet at the Oregon City Transit Center SMART service to Wilsonville at Canby Transit Center South Clackamas Transportation District service to Molalla at Canby Transit Center Woodburn Transit System at Woodburn Chemeketa Area Regional Transportation System service to Silverton and Salem at Woodburn CAT official website
1231 Auricula is a carbonaceous background asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt 20 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 10 October 1931, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg Observatory; the elongated C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 3.98 hours. It indirectly honors astronomer Gustav Stracke. Based on recent HCM-analyses, Auricula is a non-family asteroid that belongs to the main belt's background population. On its osculating Keplerian orbital elements, it is located in the Eunomia region, where the prominent family of stony stony asteroids is located, it orbits the Sun in the central main-belt at a distance of 2.4–2.9 AU once every 4 years and 4 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 11 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Heidelberg in October 1931. This minor planet was named after primula auricula; the official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955.
It honors German astronomer and diligent orbit computer Gustav Stracke, who had asked that no asteroid be named after him. The initials of the asteroids through, all discovered by Karl Reinmuth, spell out "G. Stracke". In this manner, Reinmuth was able to honor him nevertheless; the asteroid 1019 Strackea was named after Stracke directly. In the 1990s, astronomer Brian Marsden was honored by this method, see asteroids 5694 to 5699; the consecutive initial letters of these minor-planet names spell out "MarsdenB". Due to his many discoveries, Karl Reinmuth submitted a large list of 66 newly named asteroids in the early 1930s; the list covered his discoveries with numbers between and. This list contained a sequence of 28 asteroids, starting with 1054 Forsytia, that were all named after plants, in particular flowering plants. In the SDSS-based taxonomy, Auricula is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid. In April 2008, a rotational lightcurve of Auricula was obtained from photometric observations by Colin Bembrick at the Mount Tarana Observatory and other observers from Australia and New Zealand.
Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 3.9816±0.0006 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.75 magnitude, indicative of a non-spherical, elongated shape. A modeled lightcurve using photometric data from the Lowell Photometric Database was published in 2016, it gave a concurring sidereal period of 3.981580±0.000001 hours, as well as two spin axes at and in ecliptic coordinates. According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Auricula measures between 13.43 and 22.52 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.066 and 0.11. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0465 and a diameter of 22.37 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.2. Lightcurve Database Query, at www.minorplanet.info Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1231 Auricula at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1231 Auricula at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
The flag of the United Nations was adopted on December 7, 1946, consists of the official emblem of the United Nations in white on a blue background. The emblem's design is described as: A map of the world representing an azimuthal equidistant projection centred on the North Pole, inscribed in a wreath consisting of crossed conventionalized branches of the olive tree... The projection of the map extends to 60 degrees south latitude, includes five concentric circles; the olive branches are a symbol for peace, the world map represents all the people and the countries of the world. White and blue are the official colours of the United Nations; the size of the emblem on the UN's flag is one half the width of the flag itself. The organizers of the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, California wanted an insignia that could be made into a pin to identify delegates. United States Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Jr. was chairperson of the U. S. delegation, realized that a temporary design might become the permanent symbol of the United Nations.
He formed a committee headed by Oliver Lundquist that developed a design consisting of a world map surrounded by leaves from a design created by Donal McLaughlin. McLaughlin had worked as chief of graphics for the Office of Strategic Services that preceded the CIA; the azimuthal equidistant projection used in his design was influenced by the maps created during World War II by Richard Edes Harrison, a popular cartographer working for Fortune and Life.. The blue that appears in the background of the insignia was chosen to be "the opposite of red, the war colour", although the exact shade has never been specified by the United Nations; the original colour the group chose in 1945 was a gray blue that differs from the current United Nations flag. The globe used in the original design was an azimuthal projection focused on the North Pole with the United States, the host nation of the conference, at the centre; the projection, used cut off portions of the Southern Hemisphere at the latitude of Argentina, acceptable at the time, as Argentina was not planned to be an original member of the United Nations.
The projection was altered so that no country will be at prominence within the flag. The new logo was now designed so that the globe is bisected in the centre by the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line. In 1946, a UNO committee got the task of making a definite design, presented December 2, 1946, adopted by the plenary session of the UNO on December 7, 1946; the earlier version had the globe 90 degrees turned eastward compared with the present flag, which has the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line forming the vertical diameter. According to press statements, the change was made to move North America away from the centre of the emblem. According to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, the emblem and the flag of the United Nations can be used by the personnel and material of UN peacekeeping missions as a protective sign to prevent attacks during an armed conflict; the United Nations flag may be flown as a garrison flag with other country flags.
Garrison size is 10 feet by 30 feet. The flag of the World Food Programme has the olive leaves of the UN flag, with a hand clutching grains in the centre, in place of the globe; the white/blue colours of the UN flag are reversed in the WFP flag. The flag of Somalia, with central symbol a five-pointed star, uses the UN's blue colour in honour of the UN's help in gaining Somalia's independence; the UNTAC UN administration of Cambodia used UN colours. The most popular proposed flag of Antarctica uses the UN colours, consisting of a plain white representation of the continent on a blue background. A number of proposed flags of Bosnia and Herzegovina used UN colours. A proposed flag for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly uses the same colours and olive branches and uses the cartographic elements of the globe to create what appear to be parliamentary benches; the UN flag is depicted in the background of former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld on Sweden's 1,000 SEK banknote, the currency's highest denomination.