Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Nenana is a Home Rule City in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of the Unorganized Borough in the Interior of the U. S. state of Alaska. Nenana developed as a Lower Tanana community at the confluence where the tributary Nenana River enters the Tanana; the population was 378 at the 2010 census, down from 402 in 2000. Completed in 1923, the 700-foot-long Mears Memorial Bridge was built over the Tanana River as part of the territory's railroad project connecting Anchorage and Fairbanks. Nenana is in the westernmost portion of Tanana territory; the town was first known by European Americans as Tortella, a transliteration of the Indian word Toghotthele, which means "mountain that parallels the river." It was named for the river and the Nenana people who live nearby. The Nenana people became accustomed to contact with Europeans, due to trading journeys to the Village of Tanana, where Russians bartered Western goods for furs from 1838; the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. Early American explorers and traders, such as Henry Tureman Allen, Arthur Harper and Bates, first entered the Tanana Valley in 1874 and 1885.
In 1902 the discovery of gold in Fairbanks brought intense activity to the region. The next year, Jim Duke built a trading post/roadhouse to supply river travelers and trade with the Nenana community. In 1905 the Episcopal Church, which had missionaries in Alaska, built the St. Mark's Episcopal mission and Tortella School a short distance upriver; the boarding school taught about 28 children of various ages at a time. Hudson Stuck, the Archdeacon of the Yukon visited the settlement, part of the 250,000 square-acre territory of the Interior he administered. Native children from other communities, such as Minto attended school in Nenana. A post office opened in 1908. In 1915, construction of the Alaska Railroad brought new settlers; the railroad connected Nenana to the southern port city of Anchorage. The community incorporated as a city in 1921; the Railroad Depot was completed in 1923. That year, United States President Warren Harding arrived to drive the final, golden spike at the north end of the 700-foot-long Mears Memorial Bridge built over the Tanana River as part of the state's railroad project.
This railroad truss bridge, the longest in the United States and its territories when completed, gave Nenana a rail transportation link north to Fairbanks and Seward, Alaska. The bridge still ranks as the longest span in Alaska and the third-longest truss bridge in the United States; the construction had encouraged businesses and settlement in town. According to local records, 5,000 residents lived in Nenana by the early 1920s. After the railroad was completed, however and construction workers left the area; the city suffered an economic slump, most of the residents migrated to seek work in other places. By 1930, the population had dropped to 291. Nenana was the starting point for the 1925 serum run to Nome, after diphtheria antitoxin had been transported by rail from Anchorage, it was carried by dog sled to Nome to treat people in an epidemic. In 1961, Clear Air Force Station was constructed 21 miles southwest. During this construction, many civilian contractors commuted from Nenana. A road was constructed south to Clear, but northbound vehicles had to be ferried across the Tanana River.
In 1967 the community was devastated by one of the largest floods recorded in the valley. In 1968 a $6 million bridge for vehicles was completed across the Tanana River, which gave the town a modern road link to Fairbanks and replaced the river ferry; the George Parks Highway was completed in 1971. The federally recognized tribe in the community is the Nenana Native Association, who traditionally spoke the Lower Tanana language. Under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, they have rights of self-government and managing some of their traditional territory. According to the 2000 Census, 41% of the city residents were Native American. Residents of Nenana sponsor a nature-based lottery. Entrants buy a ticket and pick a date in April or May and a time, to the closest minute, when they think the winter ice on the Tanana River will break up; this lottery began in 1917 among a group of surveyors working for the Alaska Railroad. They formed a betting pool as they waited for the river to open and boats to arrive with needed supplies.
The competition is run as follows: a large striped tripod is placed on the frozen Tanana River and connected to a clock. The winner is whoever comes closest to guessing the precise time when the ice beneath weakens to the point that the tripod moves and stops the clock. Interest in the pool attracts bettors statewide; this lottery has paid out nearly $10 million in prize money, with the winning pool in recent years being near $300,000. In the summer of 2008, Nenana suffered heavy damage due to flooding; the Tanana River reached its second-highest level since written record keeping began. Nenana is located at 64°33′50″N 149°5′35″W, in the Nenana Recording District. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles, of which, 6.0 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Nenana is located 55 road miles southwest of Fairbanks on the George Parks Highway and 304 road miles north of Anchorage, it is at mile 412 of the Alaska Railroad. The river is ice-free from early May to late October.
Nenana has a continental subarctic climate. Nenana first reported on the 1910 U. S. Census as a
Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge
Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge is a dynamic landscape made up of forests, tundra, lakes and glacial rivers bounded by the snowy peaks of the Alaska Range. This upper Tanana River valley has been called the "Tetlin Passage," because it serves as a major migratory route for birds traveling to and from Canada, the lower 48 and both Central and South America. Many of these birds nest on the refuge. Others pass through on their way to breeding and nesting grounds elsewhere in the state. Migrants, including ducks, swans, cranes and songbirds, begin arriving in the valley in April, continue into early June. An estimated 116 species breed on Tetlin during the short summer, when long days and warm temperatures accelerate the growth of plants and other invertebrates, providing a ready source of rich foods for nesting birds. Tetlin Refuge supports a variety of large mammals. Dall sheep dot the higher slopes while Alaskan moose feed upon the tender new growth that springs up in the wake of frequent lightning caused fires.
Wolf packs, turkey vulture, Canadian lynx, tundra swan, red fox, peregrine falcon, beaver, golden eagle, six species of owls, snowshoe hare, trumpeter swan, bald eagle, river otter, grizzly bears and black bears and members of three different caribou herds range over the refuge. Two of the six known humpback whitefish spawning areas in the Yukon River drainage are located within the refuge. Along with caribou and moose, these fish are important subsistence resources for area residents. Arctic grayling, northern pike and burbot are found in the refuge's many streams and lakes; the refuge has a surface area of 700,058 acres, is one of the larger National Wildlife Refuges in the United States, although surprisingly the second-smallest of the sixteen in Alaska. List of largest National Wildlife Refuges Refuge profile Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory; the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon -- Kuskokwim Delta; the average flow is 6,430 m3/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km2; the total area is more than 25 % larger than Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.
The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps and other sources. However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, water quality data from the U. S. Geological Survey shows good levels of turbidity and dissolved oxygen; the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers. The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data; the name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization. In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.
However, Yukkhana does not correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. Two years the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich ` in words; because the Holikachuks had been trading with both the Gwich'ins and the Yup'iks, the Holikachuks had been in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence reflects that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han from Gwich'in, erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuigpak; the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia.
Others suggest. Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake. Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake; the Yukon River proper starts at the northern end of Marsh Lake, just south of Whitehorse. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, which has a larger flow when it reaches the Yukon at Hootalinqua; the upper end of the Yukon River was known as the Lewes River until it was established that it was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, made famous by Robert W. Service's "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kluane Lake; the river passes through the communities of Whitehorse and Dawson City in Yukon, crossing Alaska into Eagle, Fort Yukon, Stevens Village, Tanana, Galena, Grayling, Holy Cross, Russian Mission, Pilot Station, St. Marys, Mountain Village. After Mountain Village, the main Yukon channel frays into many channels.
There are a number of communities after the "head of passes," as the channel division is called locally: Nunum Iqua, Alakanuk and Kotlik. Of those delta communities, Emmonak is the largest with 760 people in the 2000 census. Emmonak's gravel airstrip is the regional hub for flights. Navigational obstacles on the Yukon River are the Five Finger Rapids and Rink Rapids downstream from Carmacks. Despite its length, there are only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river: The Lewes Bridge, north of Marsh Lake on the Alaska Highway. A car ferry crosses the river at Dawson City in the summer. Plans to build a permanent bridge were announced in March 2004, alth
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti