click links in text for more info

Tank destroyer

A tank destroyer, tank hunter, or tank killer is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed to engage enemy tanks. Tanks are armoured fighting vehicles designed for front-line combat, combining operational mobility and tactical offensive and defensive capabilities; the tank destroyer on the other hand is designed to take on enemy tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles. Many are based on a tracked tank chassis. Since World War II, gun-armed tank destroyers have fallen out of favor as armies have favored multirole main battle tanks; however armored anti-tank guided missile carriers are used for supplementary long-range anti-tank work. The resurgence of expeditionary warfare in the first two decades of the 21st century has seen the emergence of gun-armed wheeled vehicles, sometimes called protected gun systems, which may bear a superficial resemblance to tank destroyers, but are employed as direct fire support units providing support in low-intensity operations such as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Dedicated anti-tank vehicles made their first major appearance in the Second World War as combatants developed effective armored vehicles and tactics. Some were little more than stopgap solutions, mounting an anti-tank gun on a tracked vehicle to give mobility, while others were more sophisticated designs. An example of the development of tank destroyer technology throughout the war are the Marder III and Jagdpanzer 38 vehicle, that were different in spite of being based on the same chassis: Marder was straightforwardly an anti-tank gun on tracks whereas the Jagdpanzer 38 traded some firepower for better armor protection and ease of concealment on the battlefield. Except for most American designs, tank destroyers were all turretless and had fixed or casemate superstructures; when a tank destroyer was used against enemy tanks from a defensive position such as by ambush, the common lack of a rotating turret was not critical, while the lower silhouette was desirable. The turretless design allowed accommodation of a more powerful gun a dedicated anti-tank gun that had a longer barrel than could be mounted in a turreted tank on the same chassis.

The lack of a turret increased the vehicle's internal volume, allowing for increased ammunition stowage and crew comfort. Eliminating the turret let the vehicle carry thicker armor, let this armour be concentrated in the hull. Sometimes there was no armored roof to keep the overall weight down to the limit that the chassis could bear; the absence of a turret meant that tank destroyers could be manufactured cheaper and more than the tanks on which they were based, they found particular favor when production resources were lacking. After hard lessons early in the war, machine guns were mounted for use against infantry, but the limited traverse of the mounting meant that they were still less effective than those used on turreted tanks. Variants of the Polish TKS and TK-3 tankettes up-armed with 20 mm gun were operationally deployed in the invasion of Poland, they were used as an anti-tank component of the reconnaissance units. Due to the quick defeat of France, few French vehicles were built; the Laffly W15 TCC was an attempt to build a light tank destroyer by mounting a 47 mm SA37 anti-tank gun onto a armored Laffly W15T artillery tractor.

Other French tank destroyers were being developed, including the SOMUA SAu-40, ARL V39 and various ad hoc conversions of the Lorraine 37L. The first German tank destroyers were the Panzerjäger, which mounted an existing anti-tank gun on a convenient chassis for mobility with just a three-sided gun shield for crew protection. For instance, 202 obsolete Panzer I light tanks were modified by removing the turret and were rebuilt as the Panzerjäger I self-propelled 4.7 cm PaK. Panzer II tanks were used on the eastern front. Captured Soviet 76.2 mm anti-tank guns were mounted on modified Panzer II chassis, producing the Marder II self-propelled anti-tank gun. The most common mounting was a German 75 mm anti-tank gun on the Czech Panzer 38 chassis to produce the Marder III; the Panzer 38 chassis was used to make the Jagdpanzer 38 casemate style tank destroyer. The Panzerjäger series continued up to the 88 mm equipped Nashorn. German tank destroyers based on the Panzer III and German tanks were unique in that they had more armor than their tank counterparts.

One of the more successful German tank destroyers was designed as a self-propelled artillery gun, the Sturmgeschütz III. Based on the Panzer III tank chassis, the Sturmgeschütz III was fitted with a low-velocity gun, was assigned to the artillery arm for infantry fire support. After encountering Soviet tanks, it was refitted with a comparatively short-barreled high-velocity anti-tank gun with a muzzle brake, enabling it to function as a tank destroyer; the Sturmgeschütz III from its 1938 origin used a new casemate-style superstructure with an integrated design, similar to the Jagdpanzer vehicle designs' superstructure, to enclose the crew. It was employed in infantry support and offensive armored operations as well as in the defensive anti-tank role; the StuG III assault gun was

Frankfort Township, Will County, Illinois

Frankfort Township is one of 24 townships in Will County, Illinois. As of the 2010 census, its population was 57,055 and it contained 19,720 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 36.83 square miles, of which 36.8 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. It includes all of Frankfort and Mokena as well as small portions of Tinley Park and Orland Park. Frankfort Township is bordered by Harlem Avenue on the east, 183rd Street and Orland Parkway on the north, Townline Road on the west, Steger Road on the south. Frankfort Mokena Tinley Park Orland Park Orland Township, Cook County Bremen Township, Cook County Rich Township, Cook County Monee Township Green Garden Township Manhattan Township New Lenox Township Homer Township The township contains these eight cemeteries: Frankfort Township, Pioneer Memorial, Pleasant Hill, Saint John's United Church of Christ, Saint Mary's, Union Burial Society. U. S. Route 30 U. S. Route 45 Interstate 80 Gun Club Lake Hunters Woods County Forest Preserve Hickory Creek Preserve Illinois' 1st congressional district State House District 37 State House District 38 State House District 80 State Senate District 19 State Senate District 40 Frankfort Township official website Illinois State Archives Township Officials of Illinois Will County official site

Kuala Pilah (federal constituency)

Kuala Pilah is a federal constituency in Negeri Sembilan, represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1959. The federal constituency was created in the 1958 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system. 2004–2016: The constituency contains the polling districts of Kampong Tengkek, Kampong Tapak, Kampong Sungai Jelutong, Kampong Padang Lebar, Kampong Terentang, Juasseh Tengah, Bukit Gelugor, Kampong Terusan, Pekan Juasseh, Kampong Gentam, Kampong Langkap, Kampong Ulu Bendol, Kampong Talang, Kampong Gemetir, Kampong Ibol, Kampong Tengah, Tanjong Ipoh, Kampung Gamin, Kampong Buyau, Sri Menanti, Kampung Sikai, Gunong Pasir, Temaris, FELDA Kepis, Rembang Panas, Kampong Sungai Dua, Kampong Kuala Dioh, Sawah Lebar, Kampong Dioh, Tebat Kering, Ampang Tinggi, Kampong Parit, Pekan Lama, Taman Bunga, Kampong Gemuroh, Kampong Jawa, Jalan Yam Tuan, Tengku Besar, Bukit Temensu, Batang Pilah, Kampong Gachong, Seri Pilah, Kampong Kepis, Malan Baru, Kampung Selaru, Kampong Padang Jual, Pekan Johol, Kuala Johol, Kampung Nuri, Ayer Mawang.

2016–present: The constituency contains the polling districts of Kampong Tengkek, Kampong Tapak, Kampong Sungai Jelutong, Kampong Padang Lebar, Kampong Terentang, Juasseh Tengah, Bukit Gelugor, Kampong Terusan, Pekan Juasseh, Kampong Gentam, Kampong Langkap, Kampong Ulu Bendol, Kampong Talang, Kampong Gemetir, Kampong Ibol, Kampong Tengah, Tanjong Ipoh, Kampung Gamin, Kampong Buyau, Sri Menanti, Kampung Sikai, Gunong Pasir, Temaris, FELDA Kepis, Rembang Panas, Kampong Sungai Dua, Kampong Kuala Dioh, Sawah Lebar, Kampong Dioh, Tebat Kering, Ampang Tinggi, Kampong Parit, Pekan Lama, Taman Bunga, Kampong Gemuroh, Kampong Jawa, Jalan Yam Tuan, Tengku Besar, Bukit Temensu, Batang Pilah, Kampong Gachong, Seri Pilah, Kampong Kepis, Malan Baru, Kampung Selaru, Kampong Padang Jual, Pekan Johol, Kuala Johol, Kampung Nuri, Ayer Mawang. "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya". Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 2018-08-12

Varen, Switzerland

Varen is a municipality in the district of Leuk in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Varen is first mentioned in 1225 as Varonam. Varen was used as a setting for the British/American crime drama "The Missing" Varen has an area, as of 2009, of 12.8 square kilometers. Of this area, 4.06 km2 or 31.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.35 km2 or 34.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.51 km2 or 4.0% is settled, 0.17 km2 or 1.3% is either rivers or lakes and 3.67 km2 or 28.6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 1.4% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.0%. Out of the forested land, 30.2% of the total land area is forested and 3.7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 0.1% is used for growing crops and 1.6% is pastures, while 9.3% is used for orchards or vine crops and 20.7% is used for alpine pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water. Of the unproductive areas, 9.8 % is unproductive 18.9 % is too rocky for vegetation.

The municipality is located in the Leuk district, on the right slope of the Rhone above the Pfynwald. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or, a Tree Vert eradicated and trunked proper in base Coupeaux Vert on a Chief Azure three Mullets of Five Argent. Varen has a population of 642; as of 2008, 5.8% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -7.3%. It has changed at a rate of -2.7 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common and French is the third. There are 3 people; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. The population was made up of 287 Swiss men and 11 non-Swiss men. There were 289 Swiss women and 23 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 379 or about 63.0% were born in Varen and lived there in 2000. There were 133 or 22.1% who were born in the same canton, while 41 or 6.8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 41 or 6.8% were born outside of Switzerland.

The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 19.9% of the population, while adults make up 64% and seniors make up 16.1%. As of 2000, there were 221 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 322 married individuals, 46 widows or widowers and 13 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 254 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.3 persons per household. There were 71 households that consist of 11 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 256 households that answered this question, 27.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 6 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 78 married couples without children, 79 married couples with children There were 15 single parents with a child or children. There were 5 households that were made up of unrelated people and 2 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.

In 2000 there were 123 single family homes out of a total of 209 inhabited buildings. There were 61 multi-family buildings, along with 15 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 10 other use buildings that had some housing. In 2000, a total of 242 apartments were permanently occupied, while 58 apartments were seasonally occupied and 21 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 3.3 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 2.65%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 74.6% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SP and the FDP. In the federal election, a total of 364 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 71.1%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 390 votes were cast, of which 17 or about 4.4% were invalid. The voter participation was 79.0%, much more than the cantonal average of 54.67%.

In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 359 votes were cast, of which 14 or about 3.9% were invalid. The voter participation was 71.5%, much more than the cantonal average of 59.88%. As of 2010, Varen had an unemployment rate of 0.9%. As of 2008, there were 120 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 58 businesses involved in this sector. 16 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 7 businesses in this sector. 57 people were employed with 17 businesses in this sector. There were 304 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 39.5% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 116; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 60. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 13 of which 6 or were in manufacturing and 5 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 43. In the tertiary sector.

Yaesu FT-One

The Yaesu FT-ONE is an all-mode solid state general coverage HF amateur radio transceiver. The use of FM required an optional FM board be installed; the unit was designed for fixed, portable or mobile operation, although the size and weight would make it more suitable for fixed use. The FT-ONE was built by the Japanese Yaesu-Musen Corporation from 1982 to 1986. At its release, the FT-ONE was launched as the successor to the FT-902 and as the new Yaesu top of the line transceiver; the FT-ONE was not only Yaesu’s first synthesized, computer-controlled amateur band transceiver but it was the first transceiver with a general coverage receiver.. The FT-ONE was sold on the U. S. Asian and European markets, it was released in 1982 with a list price of $2800. The receiver is standard filtered by a 22 pole crystal filter with switchable extra 8 and 6 pole narrow band CW filters, a 14 pole SSB filter and a separate 14 pole CW filter; the RF circuit is based on a - manually or automatically - microprocessor controlled PIN diode attenuator with 2 bipolar power transistors being used as a high level RF amplifier in the receive mode and as a double RF output pre-driver in the transmit mode.

This is to ensure continuous output power on all frequencies. To guarantee a clean local oscillator signal to the Shottky diode mixer module 6 separate VCO’s are being used; the final power transistors produce >100W through a 3-stage microprocessor controlled lowpass filter. YM-34 through YM-38 base and hand microphones. Mechanically the FT-1 is well built; the set has a nice design, looks professional and is easy to operate. This standard HAM rig was designed with real general coverage receive in mind; the standard programmable ROM allows continuous transmitting from 1.8 up to 30 MHz by cutting a wire jumper. Its receiver works fantastic thanks to its outstanding x’tal filters; the AM and FM modes are functioning flawlessly. All components are mounted on easy accessible glass epoxy circuit boards; the set is equipped with a bad synthesizer and local oscillator design so it is prone to drift and phase noise. Yaesu introduced circuit modifications in the production series to improve on the issue, but was not able to fix the problem for 100% as the major concept remained unchanged.

Frequency coverage: Transmit: 1.8-2.0, 3.0 -4.0, 7.0-8.0, 10.0-11.0, 14.0 – 15.0, 18.0-19.0, 21.0 – 22.0, 24.0-25.0 and 28.0 – 29.99 MHz Frequency coverage: Receive 150 kHz to 29.9999 MHz continuous. Power requirements: 100–120 V or 200-234 V AC 50–60 Hz. Power requirements: 13.8 V DC, 2.7 A on receive, 20 A on transmit. Tuning steps: 1 MHz, 100 kHz, 100 Hz, 10 Hz switchable Dimensions 380 mm x 157 mm x 350 mm with all feet and heatsink. Weight 17 kg Emission: CW, SSB, FSK, AM, FM Power output: SSB, CW 100 W, 90 W. After that less than 100 Hz Ant output impedance: 50 Ohms unbalanced nominal Microphone output impedance: 500-600 Ohms nominal Receive sensitivity: 150 kHz – 29.999 MHz continuous better than 0.3 microV for S/N 10 dB Image rejection: better than -80 dB IF rejection: better than -70 dB Selectivity: -6 dB 2.4 kHz, -60 dB 4.0 kHz Audio output: 3W @ 10% THD, 4 Ohms User manual FT-1 image and data An FT-ONE repair


Rumia is a city in the Eastern Pomerania region of north-western Poland, with some 45,000 inhabitants. It is a suburb part of the metropolitan area of the Tricity, it has been situated in the Wejherowo County in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Traditionally, Rumia is related to Kashubia, it is connected by well-developed railway and highway connections to the Tricity, an urban agglomeration of over 1 million inhabitants on the coast of Gdańsk Bay. The village of Rumia was first mentioned in 1224 when it was awarded by Swantopolk II duke of Eastern Pomerania to the Cistercian convent in Oliwa; the name of Rumia was applied to the neighbourhoods of Janowo and Biała Rzeka. In 1285 Mestwin II, duke of Pomerania stopped here to issue official documents, it fell to the State of the Teutonic Order in 1309 according to the Treaty of Soldin. Rumia was part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship of the Polish Crown from 1466 until the first partition of Poland in 1772, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia.

It belonged to the province of West Prussia inside the Kingdom of Prussia until 1871 when it became part of the unified German Empire. In 1905 the village of Rahmel had 760 inhabitants. 579 of them were Germans and 180 were Kashubian or Polish. It was a German language island in a predominantly Slavic speaking region. At the end of World War I, Rumia became a part of the new Pomeranian Voivodeship of the newly re-established Polish state. In the late 1920s, the nearby village of Gdynia was developed into a city and one of the biggest seaports in the region - due to its strategic location in the Polish Corridor, to which Rumia belonged. Rapid growth of the city of Gdynia prompted the price of land to increase. Labour migrants from other parts of Poland began to settle in the region including village of Rumia and its vicinity. Zagórze, Kazimierz and Łężyce, which are today parts of Rumia, were separate villages, were joined with Rumia in 1934 to form the Rumia Rural Commune. By 1934, Rumia had become a suburb of Gdynia, located 10 km from the city centre and well-connected with it through a railway link.

A small military airfield, home of two squadrons of the Coast Defence Escadrille was opened to civilian planes on 1 May 1936. The airport serviced international route Gdynia-Copenhagen and domestic route Gdynia-Warszawa and by 1 January 1939, the number of passengers using it rose to over 3000 a year; the airfield was the main base of the Gdynia-based glider club. During the German invasion of Poland in 1939, Rumia was a site of heavy fighting, it was a flanking position of the main Polish defence line at Kępa Oksywska. Two military cemeteries are located in the area. Soldiers of the 207th Infantry Division and SS members murdered 18 people in Rumia 11–12 September 1939. During World War II, the town was occupied by Nazi Germany, which annexed it to province of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and renamed it to Rahmel. In September and October 1939, SS and SD terrorized ethnic Jewish population. Most of the victims were either executed at a nearby mass execution site in Piaśnica or sent to Stutthof concentration camp.

Half of the pre-war inhabitants of the town were expelled in 1940 and 1941 to the General Government. The town was a place of internment for several thousand POWs from the United Kingdom and Italy. A forced labour camp and an aircraft assembly plant were located in the town's vicinity. In 1945, shortly before the town's liberation by the Red Army, the local airfield was destroyed by an RAF bombing raid. In 1945, the town was transferred back to the once again reestablished Pomeranian Voivodeship. Rumia became a city in 1954. In 2001, nearby village of Kazimierz was included into city of Rumia. Rumia is well connected through a 2-lane highway that leads from Wejherowo to Gdynia and from there by Circular Highway to Gdańsk. There is a plan to extend the Circular from Gdynia to beyond Wejherowo; the Szybka Kolej Miejska makes two stops in the city, connecting it to Wejherowo and beyond. The stops are Rumia Janowo. There is network of city buses that offers connections to Wejherowo and Gdynia. Erika Steinbach a German CDU politician, served in the Bundestag 1990-2017 Jerzy Treder a Polish philologist and linguist, focusing on Kashubian studies Magdalena Damaske a Polish volleyball player Rumia is twinned with: Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany Territorial changes of Poland Treatment of the Polish citizens by the occupiers World War II atrocities in Poland 1896 Map - Rumia/German Rahmel in West-East Prussia Official Rumia page