Sangli (pronunciation, is a city and the district headquarters of Sangli District in the state of Maharashtra, in western India. It is known as the Turmeric City of Maharashtra due to its trade of the spice. Sangli houses many sugar factories. Sangli city - the district place - is situated on the bank of Krishna river; the valley of the River Krishna and its tributaries offer many irrigation and agricultural advantages which drives the economy of the district and the city. Other small rivers, such as the Warana and the Panchganga, flow into the River Krishna; the district of Sangli is a recent creation, being made as late as in 1949. It was known as South Satara and was renamed Sangli in 1961, it is made up of a few talukas which once formed part of the old Satara District and of the States and jahagirs belonging to Patwardhans, Dafles which came to be merged during the post-independence period. Kundal, the region around Sangli, was once the capital of the Chalukyas. Kundal was an ancient village, around 1,600 years old.
Kaundanyapur was a part of Karnataka. Pulakeshin I chose Vatapi as his capital; the city’s original name was Sahagalli—from the Marathi words saha and galli describing the early street plan—which was shortened to Sangli. The Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Municipal Corporation is the local self-government body which looks after the development of the Sangli-Miraj twin cities, serving 0.5 million citizens. Education institutions in the area, aside from schools, include engineering colleges such as Walchand College of Engineering RIT college, Islampur, KBP College, Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology. Government Medical College, Miraj, is present, as is the Willingdon College of Arts & Science at Vishrambaug. Ganapati Temple, located on the banks of river Krishna The Irwin Bridge, built by the British A royal palace Sangli has a semi-arid climate with three seasons, a hot, dry summer from the middle of February to the middle of June, a monsoon from the middle of June to late October and a mild cool season from early November to early February.
The total rainfall is about 22 inches. Sangli has a chill climate throughout winter. Rain is within its limits
The venu is one of the ancient transverse flutes of Indian classical music. It is an aerophone made from bamboo, a side blown wind instrument, it continues to be in use in the South Indian Carnatic music tradition. In Northern Indian music, a similar flute is called bansuri. In the South, it is called by various other names such as pullankuzhal in Tamil, പുല്ലാങ്കുഴല് in Malayalam, ಕೊಳಲು in Kannada, it is known as Vēṇuvu in Telugu. The venu is discussed as an important musical instrument in the Natya Shastra, the classic Hindu text on music and performance arts; the ancient Sanskrit texts of India describe other side blown flutes such as the murali and vamsika, but sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. A venu has six holes, is about the thickness of a thumb, twelve fingers long. A longer murali has two hands longs; the vamsika has eight holes, between twelve and seventeen fingers long. A venu is a part of the iconography of Hindu god Krishna. One of the oldest musical instruments of India, the instrument is a key-less transverse flute made of bamboo.
The fingers of both hands are used to open the holes. It has a blowing hole near one end, eight placed finger holes; the instrument comes in various sizes. The venu is a respected instrument and those who play it are expected to appreciate it, for it is considered a gift to be able to play it; the venu is capable of producing two and half octaves with the help of over-blowing and cross fingering. The flute is like the human voice in that it is monophonous and has a typical two and half octave sound reproduction. Sliding the fingers on and off the holes allows for production of variety of Gamakas, important in the performance of raga-based music; the flute finds great mention in Indian mythology and folklore having been listed as among the 3 original instruments meant for music along with the human sound and Veena. However it is strange; the venu is associated with the Hindu god Krishna, depicted playing it. This kind of flute is used in South India; the Lord Vishnu is portrayed as Sri Venugopala - playing the flute of Creation.
In the Hindustani style, it is known as Bansuri. In the Carnatic style, it is known as flute. Palladam Sanjiva Rao, a disciple of Sharaba Shastri. H. Ramachandra Shastry, a disciple of Palladam Sanjiva Rao. T. R. Mahalingam, a child venuist prodigy who started playing the flute at the age of five years, he is most popularly known as "Mali" or sometimes "Flute Mali." T. Viswanathan, grandson of Veena Dhanammal and brother of Balasaraswati N Ramani G. S. Rajan K. Bhaskaran Kudamaloor Janardanan Raman Kalyan Shashank Subramanyam Bansuri Carnatic Music Hindustani Music Beck, Guy. Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-855-6. Caudhurī, Vimalakānta Rôya; the Dictionary of Hindustani Classical Music. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1708-1. Dalal, Roshen. Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-81-8475-277-9. Daniélou, Alain. Northern Indian Music, Volume 1. Theory & technique; the main rāgǎs. London: C. Johnson. OCLC 851080. Gautam, M.
R.. Evolution of Raga and Tala in Indian Music. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-0442-2. Kaufmann, Walter; the Ragas of North India. Oxford & Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34780-0. OCLC 11369. Lochtefeld, James G.. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, 2 Volume Set; the Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2287-1. Martinez, José Luiz. Semiosis in Hindustani Music. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1801-9. Nettl, Bruno; the Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01163-2. Rowell, Lewis. Music and Musical Thought in Early India. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-73034-9. P, Sambamoorthy; the Flute. Indian music Publishing House. Sorrell, Neil. Indian Music in Performance: A Practical Introduction. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-0756-9. Te Nijenhuis, Emmie. Indian Music: History and Structure. BRILL Academic. ISBN 90-04-03978-3. Wilke, Annette. Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism. Walter de Gruyter.
ISBN 978-3-11-024003-0. Carnatic Flute Fingering Chart
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum—and others by hitting the strings with a light wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow. In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord, the musician presses a key that plucks the string. With bowed instruments, the player pulls a rosined horsehair bow across the strings, causing them to vibrate. With a hurdy-gurdy, the musician cranks. Bowed instruments include the string section instruments of the Classical music orchestra and a number of other instruments. All of the bowed string instruments can be plucked with the fingers, a technique called "pizzicato". A wide variety of techniques are used to sound notes on the electric guitar, including plucking with the fingernails or a plectrum, strumming and "tapping" on the fingerboard and using feedback from a loud, distorted guitar amplifier to produce a sustained sound.
Some types of string instrument are plucked, such as the harp and the electric bass. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, string instruments are called chordophones. Other examples include the sitar, banjo, mandolin and bouzouki. In most string instruments, the vibrations are transmitted to the body of the instrument, which incorporates some sort of hollow or enclosed area; the body of the instrument vibrates, along with the air inside it. The vibration of the body of the instrument and the enclosed hollow or chamber make the vibration of the string more audible to the performer and audience; the body of most string instruments is hollow. Some, however—such as electric guitar and other instruments that rely on electronic amplification—may have a solid wood body. Dating to around c. 13,000 BC, a cave painting in the Trois Frères cave in France depicts what some believe is a musical bow, a hunting bow used as a single-stringed musical instrument.
From the musical bow, families of stringed instruments developed. In turn, this led to being able to play chords. Another innovation occurred when the bow harp was straightened out and a bridge used to lift the strings off the stick-neck, creating the lute; this picture of musical bow to harp bow has been contested. In 1965 Franz Jahnel wrote his criticism stating that the early ancestors of plucked instruments are not known, he felt that the harp bow was a long cry from the sophistication of the 4th-century BC civilization that took the primitive technology and created "technically and artistically well-made harps, lyres and lutes."Archaeological digs have identified some of the earliest stringed instruments in Ancient Mesopotamian sites, like the lyres of Ur, which include artifacts over three thousand years old. The development of lyre instruments required the technology to create a tuning mechanism to tighten and loosen the string tension. Lyres with wooden bodies and strings used for plucking or playing with a bow represent key instruments that point towards harps and violin-type instruments.
Musicologists have put forth examples of that 4th-century BC technology, looking at engraved images that have survived. The earliest image showing a lute-like instrument came from Mesopotamia prior to 3000 BC. A cylinder seal from c. 3100 BC or earlier shows. From the surviving images, theororists have categorized the Mesopotamian lutes, showing that they developed into a long variety and a short; the line of long lutes may have developed into pandura. The line of short lutes was further developed to the east of Mesopotamia, in Bactria and Northwest India, shown in sculpture from the 2nd century BC through the 4th or 5th centuries AD. During the medieval era, instrument development varied from country to country. Middle Eastern rebecs represented breakthroughs in terms of shape and strings, with a half a pear shape using three strings. Early versions of the violin and fiddle, by comparison, emerged in Europe through instruments such as the gittern, a four-stringed precursor to the guitar, basic lutes.
These instruments used catgut and other materials, including silk, for their strings. String instrument design refined during the Renaissance and into the Baroque period of musical history. Violins and guitars became more consistent in design and were similar to what we use in the 2000s and into the present day; the violins of the Renaissance featured intricate woodwork and stringing, while more elaborate bass instruments such as the bandora were produced alongside quill-plucked citterns, Spanish body guitars. In the 19th century, string instruments were made more available through mass production, with wood string instruments a key part of orchestras – cellos and upright basses, for example, were now standard instruments for chamber ensembles and smaller orchestras. At the same time, the 19th-century guitar became more associated with six string models, rather than traditional five string versions. Major changes to string instruments in the 20th century involved innovations in electro
A Shankha is a conch shell of ritual and religious importance in Hinduism and Buddhism. It is the shell of Turbinella pyrum, found in the Indian Ocean. In Hindu mythology, the shankha is a sacred emblem of the Hindu preserver god Vishnu, it is still used as a trumpet in Hindu ritual, in the past was used as a war trumpet. The shankha is praised in Hindu scriptures as a giver of fame and prosperity, the cleanser of sin and the abode of goddess Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and consort of Vishnu; the shankha is displayed in Hindu art in association with Vishnu. As a symbol of water, it is associated with female fertility and serpents; the shankha is the state emblem of the Indian state of Kerala and was the national emblems of the Indian princely state of Travancore, the Kingdom of Cochin. The shankha is one of the eight auspicious symbols of Buddhism, the Ashtamangala, represents the pervasive sound of Buddhism. A powder made from the shell material is used in ayurveda as a treatment for stomach ailments.
In the Western world, in the English language, the shell of this species is known as the "divine conch" or the "sacred chank". It may be called a "chank" or conch; the more common form of this shell is known as "left-turning" in a religious context, although scientists would call it "dextral". A rarely encountered form has reverse coiling, called "right-turning" in a religious context, but is known as "sinistral" or left-coiling in a scientific context; this shell is from a sea snail species Turbinella pyrum in the family Turbinellidae. This species is found surrounding seas; the shell is porcelaneous. The overall shape of the main body of the shell is conical. In the oblong form, it tapers at each end; the upper portion is corkscrew-shaped, while the lower end is tapering. Its colour is dull, the surface is hard and translucent. Like all snail shells, the interior is hollow; the inner surfaces of the shell are shiny, but the outer surface exhibits high tuberculation. In Hinduism, the shiny, soft shankha with pointed ends and heavy is the most sought after.
Based on its direction of coiling, the shankha has two varieties: A Dakshinavarti Shankh: This is the rare sinistral form of the species, where the shell coils or whorls expand in a counterclockwise spiral if viewed from the apex of the shell. The Vamavarta: This is the commonly occurring dextral form of the species, where the shell coils or whorls expand in a clockwise spiral when viewed from the apex of the shell. In Hinduism, a dakshinavarta shankha is associated with Vishnu; the Vamavarta shankha is linked with Shiva. The Dakshinavarta shankha is believed to be the abode of the wealth goddess Lakshmi - the consort of Vishnu, hence this type of shankha is considered ideal for medicinal use, it is a rare variety from the Indian Ocean. This type of shankha has three to seven ridges visible on the edge of the aperture and on the columella and has a special internal structure; the right spiral of this type reflects the motion of the planets. It is compared with the hair whorls on the Buddha's head that spiral to the right.
The long white curl between Buddha's eyebrows and the conch-like swirl of his navel are akin to this shankha. The Varaha Purana tells. Skanda Purana narrates that bathing Vishnu with this shankha grants freedom from sins of seven previous lives. A Dakshinavarta shankha is considered to be a rare "jewel" or ratna and is adorned with great virtues, it is believed to grant longevity and wealth proportional to its shine and largeness. If such a shankha has a defect, mounting it in gold is believed to restore the virtues of the shankha. In its earliest references, shankha is mentioned as a trumpet and in this form it became an emblem of Vishnu, it was used as a votive offering and as a charm to keep away the dangers of the sea. It was the earliest known sound-producing agency as manifestation of sound, the other elements came hence it is regarded as the original of the elements, it is identified with the elements themselves. To make a trumpet or wind instrument, one drills a hole near the tip of the apex of the shankha.
When air is blown through this hole, it travels through the whorls of the shankha, producing a loud, shrill sound. This sound is the reason the shankha was used as a war trumpet, to summon friends. Shanka continued to be used in battles for a long time; the sound it produced was called shankanad. Nowadays, the shankha is blown at the time of worship in Hindu temples and homes in the ritual of the Hindu aarti, when light is offered to the deities; the shankha is used to bathe images of deities Vishnu, for ritual purification. No hole is drilled for these purposes, though the aperture is cut clean or the whorls are cut to represent five consecutive shells with five mouths. Shankha is used as a material for making bangles and other objects; because of its aquatic origin and resemblance to the vulva, it has become an integral part of the Tantric rites. In view of this, its symbolism is said to represent female fertility. Since water itself is a fertility symbol, an aquatic product, is recognised as symbolic of female fertility.
In ancient Greece, along with pearls, are mentioned as denoting sexual love and mar
The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame. The piece of metal is called a reed. More portable than pipe organs, free-reed organs were used in smaller churches and in private homes in the 19th century, but their volume and tonal range were limited, they had one or sometimes two manuals, with pedal-boards being rare. The finer pump organs had a wider range of tones, the cabinets of those intended for churches and affluent homes were excellent pieces of furniture. Several million free-reed organs and melodeons were made in the USA and Canada between the 1850s and the 1920s. During this time Estey Organ and Mason & Hamlin were popular manufacturers. Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein, professor of physiology at Copenhagen, was credited with the first free-reed instrument made in the Western world, after winning the annual prize in 1780 from the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg; the harmonium's design derives from the earlier regal.
A harmonium-like instrument was exhibited by Gabriel-Joseph Grenié in 1810. He called it an orgue expressif, because his instrument was capable of greater expression, as well as of producing a crescendo and diminuendo. Alexandre Debain improved Grenié's instrument and gave it the name harmonium when he patented his version in 1840. There was concurrent development of similar instruments. A mechanic who had worked in the factory of Alexandre in Paris emigrated to the United States and conceived the idea of a suction bellows, instead of the ordinary bellows that forced the air outward through the reeds. Beginning in 1885, the firm of Mason & Hamlin, of Boston made their instruments with the suction bellows, this method of construction soon superseded all others in America. Harmoniums reached the height of their popularity in the West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they were popular in small churches and chapels where a pipe organ would be too large or too expensive. Harmoniums weigh less than similar sized pianos and are not as damaged in transport, thus they were popular throughout the colonies of the European powers in this period not only because it was easier to ship the instrument out to where it was needed, but it was easier to transport overland in areas where good-quality roads and railways may have been non-existent.
An added attraction of the harmonium in tropical regions was that the instrument held its tune regardless of heat and humidity, unlike the piano. This "export" market was sufficiently lucrative for manufacturers to produce harmoniums with cases impregnated with chemicals to prevent woodworm and other damaging organisms found in the tropics. At the peak of the instruments' Western popularity around 1900, a wide variety of styles of harmoniums were being produced; these ranged from simple models with plain cases and only four or five stops, up to large instruments with ornate cases, up to a dozen stops and other mechanisms such as couplers. Expensive harmoniums were built to resemble pipe organs, with ranks of fake pipes attached to the top of the instrument. Small numbers of harmoniums were built with two manuals; some were built with pedal keyboards, which required the use of an assistant to run the bellows or, for some of the models, an electrical pump. These larger instruments were intended for home use, such as allowing organists to practise on an instrument on the scale of a pipe organ, but without the physical size or volume of such an instrument.
For missionaries, chaplains in the armed forces, travelling evangelists, the like, reed organs that folded up into a container the size of a large suitcase or small trunk were made. The invention of the electronic organ in the mid-1930s spelled the end of the harmonium's success in the West; the Hammond organ could imitate the tonal quality and range of a pipe organ whilst retaining the compact dimensions and cost-effectiveness of the harmonium as well as reducing maintenance needs and allowing a greater number of stops and other features. By this time, harmoniums had reached high levels of mechanical complexity, not only through the need to provide instruments with a greater tonal range, but due to patent laws, it was common for manufacturers to patent the action mechanism used on their instruments, thus requiring any new manufacturer to develop their own version. The last mass-producer of harmoniums in North America was the Estey company, which ceased manufacture in the mid-1950s; as the existing stock of instruments aged and spare parts became hard to find and more were either scrapped or sold.
It was not uncommon for harmoniums to be "modernised" by having electric blowers fitted very unsympathetically. The majority of Western harmoniums today are in the hands of enthusiasts, though the instrument remains popular in South Asia. Modern electronic keyboards can emulate the sound of
The shehnai is a musical instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is made out of wood, with a double reed at one end and a metal or wooden flared bell at the other end, its sound is thought to create and maintain a sense of auspiciousness and sanctity and, as a result, is used during marriages, processions and in temples although it is played in concerts. The shehnai is similar to South India's nadaswaram; this tubular instrument broadens towards the lower end. It has between six and nine holes, it employs one set of quadruple reeds. By controlling the breath, various tunes can be played on it; the shehnai has a range of two octaves, from the A below middle C to the A one line above the treble clef. The instrument’s flared open end is made of metal while its body is made of wood or bamboo; the shehnai is thought to have been developed by improving upon the pungi. Another theory of the origin of the shehnai is that the name is a modification of the word "sur-nal"; the word nal/nali/nad is used in many Indian languages to mean reed.
The word "sur" means tone or tune—musical note or music—and is used as a prefix to the names of many Indian instruments. The "sur-nal" is said to have given its name to the "surna/zurna" of the old Persian Empire, the name by which the reed-pipe is known throughout the Middle East and eastern Europe. Shehnai is played at traditional North Indian weddings and is associated with the bride leaving her parental house for her husband's house. Sometimes, two shehnais can be tied together, making it a double shawm similar to the ancient Greek aulos; the counterparts to the shehnai played in West India and Coastal Karnataka are indigenous to the territory. Shenai players were/are an integral part of Goan/Konkani and temples along the western coast and the players are called Vajantri and were allotted lands for services rendered to the temples. Bismillah Khan S. Ballesh Anant Lal Ali Ahmed Hussain Khan Reed instrument, a type of woodwind instrument Shawm, a type of reed instrument Mizmar, a shawm similar to the shehnai Nadaswaram, a similar South Indian instrument Ranade, Ashok Damodar.
Music contexts: a concise dictionary of Hindustani Music. Bibliophile South Asia. ISBN 81-85002-63-0. Hoiberg, Dale. Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan