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Tantalus was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus. He was called Atys, he was made to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches, with the fruit eluding his grasp, the water always receding before he could take a drink. He was the father of Pelops and Broteas, was a son of Zeus and the nymph Plouto. Thus, like other heroes in Greek mythology such as Theseus and the Dioskouroi, Tantalus had both a hidden, divine parent and a mortal one. Plato in the Cratylus interprets Tantalos as ταλάντατος talantatos, "who has to bear much" from τάλας talas "wretched". R. S. P. Beekes rejects an Indo-European interpretation. There may have been a historical Tantalus the ruler of an Anatolian city named "Tantalís", "the city of Tantalus", or of a city named "Sipylus". Pausanias reports that there was a port under his name and a sepulcher of him "by no means obscure", in the same region. Tantalus is referred to as "Phrygian", sometimes as "King of Phrygia", although his city was located in the western extremity of Anatolia, where Lydia was to emerge as a state before the beginning of the first millennium BC, not in the traditional heartland of Phrygia, situated more inland.

References to his son as "Pelops the Lydian" led some scholars to the conclusion that there would be good grounds for believing that he belonged to a primordial house of Lydia. Other versions name his father as Tmolus, the name of a king of Lydia and, like Sipylus, of another mountain in ancient Lydia; the location of Tantalus' mortal mountain-fathers placed him in Lydia. The identity of his wife is variously given: as Dione the daughter of Atlas. Tantalus was called the father of Dascylus. Tantalus, through Pelops, was the progenitor of the House of Atreus, named after his grandson Atreus. Tantalus was the great-grandfather of Agamemnon and Menelaus; the geographer Strabo states that the wealth of Tantalus was derived from the mines of Phrygia and Mount Sipylus. Near Mount Sipylus are archaeological features that have been associated with Tantalus and his house since Antiquity. Near Mount Yamanlar in İzmir, where the Lake Karagöl associated with the accounts surrounding him is found, is a monument mentioned by Pausanias: the tholos "tomb of Tantalus" and another one in Mount Sipylus, where a "throne of Pelops", an altar or bench carved in rock and conjecturally associated with his son is found.

Further afield, based on a similarity between the names Tantalus and Hantili, it has been suggested that the name Tantalus may have derived from that of these two Hittite kings. Tantalus became one of the inhabitants of Tartarus, the deepest portion of the Underworld, reserved for the punishment of evildoers; the association of Tantalus with the underworld is underscored by the names of his mother Plouto, grandmother, Chthonia. Tantalus was known for having been welcomed to Zeus' table in Olympus, like Ixion. There, he is said to have abused Zeus' hospitality and stolen ambrosia and nectar to bring it back to his people, revealed the secrets of the gods. Most famously, Tantalus offered up Pelops, as a sacrifice, he cut Pelops up, boiled him, served him up in a banquet for the gods. The gods became aware of the gruesome nature of the menu, so they did not touch the offering. Clotho, one of the three Fates, was ordered by Zeus to bring the boy to life again, she collected the parts of the body and boiled them in a sacred cauldron, rebuilding his shoulder with one wrought of ivory made by Hephaestus and presented by Demeter.

The revived Pelops grew to be an extraordinarily handsome youth. The god Poseidon took him to Mount Olympus to teach him to use chariots. Zeus threw Pelops out of Olympus due to his anger at Tantalus; the Greeks of classical times claimed to be horrified by Tantalus's doings. Tantalus's punishment for his act, now a proverbial term for temptation without satisfaction, was to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches. Whenever he reached for the fruit, the branches raised his intended meal from his grasp. Whenever he bent down to get a drink, the water receded. Over his head towers a threatening stone like the one; this fate has cursed him with eternal deprivation of nourishment. In a different story, Tantalus was blamed for indirectly having stolen the dog made of gold created by Hephaestus for Rhea to watch over infant Zeus. Tantalus's friend Pandareus gave it to Tantalus for safekeeping; when asked by Pandareus to return the dog, Tantalus denied that he had it, saying he "had neither seen nor heard of a golden dog."

According to Robert Graves, this incident is. Others state that it was Tantalus who stole the dog, gave it to Pandareus for safekeeping. Tantalus was the founder of the cursed House

Lower Sagehen Creek Hiking Trail

The Lower Sagehen Creek Hiking Trail follows Sagehen Creek, a tributary of the Truckee River on the east slope of the central Sierra Nevada in the western United States. The stream lies north of Lake Tahoe and the town of Truckee and near the California/Nevada border; the headwaters and upper watershed of the creek west of California State Route 89 comprise the 9,000-acre Sagehen Experimental Forest and Sagehen Creek Field Station, a research and education facility of the University of California, Berkeley. Below Highway 89, the Lower Sagehen Creek Hiking Trail follows the creek to its terminus at Stampede Reservoir; the trail is famous for wildflowers in late May to early June, when fields of camas lilies bloom en masse, creating the illusion of a purple haze lying on the meadow. But the lilies are not the only attraction, with a wide variety of blossoms appearing in both shaded and sunny habitats along the way. Mule's ears, purshia, various penstemons, mahala mat, shooting stars are common.

The hike is flat and easy, running about 2.5 miles to the lake through shady forest and open meadows. It is done as an out-and-back, though it is possible to combine the trail with others in the area for a longer outing. In early season, the area can be marshy and wet, requiring appropriate footwear and mosquito protection; the trailhead lies at 39.4341 N, 120.2047 W, outside of Truckee 7.2 miles north of Interstate 80 on California Highway 89. There is no signage, but there is an obvious pullout parking spot for 8-10 cars on the east side of the road where the creek crosses beneath the highway. There are no trash or restroom facilities at the trailhead, but visitors can use the Donner Picnic Area a few miles south of the trailhead on Highway 89. Sagehen Creek Field Station encourages hikers to use the iNaturalist app to submit their observations of plants and animals photographed in the area; these observations are used in research and monitoring efforts in the basin to track presence/absence of species and their locations

Free Centre

The Free Centre was a political party in Israel. It is one of the forerunners of the modern-day Likud; the party was created on 29 March 1967 during the sixth Knesset when Shmuel Tamir led a breakaway of three Herut members after a leadership dispute with Menachem Begin. Before the next election they were joined by Shlomo Cohen-Tzidon who had left Gahal and failed in an attempt to create a one-man parliamentary group named the Popular Faction. In the 1969 elections the Free Centre only just passed the electoral threshold of 1%, claiming 1.2% of the vote and 2 seats, which were taken by Tamir and Shostak. Before the 1973 elections it joined the Likud alliance formed by Herut, the Liberal Party, the National List and the Movement for Greater Israel; the new alliance won 39 seats, with four taken by the Free Centre. In 1974, internal conflict led to Shostak and Ehud Olmert leaving the Free Centre to establish the Independent Centre, which merged into the La'am faction. Another dispute led to Tamir and Nof leaving Likud and re-establishing the party as an independent faction on 26 October 1976 during the eighth Knesset.

Both resigned from the Knesset on 25 January 1977, joined the Democratic Movement for Change. They were both elected to the ninth Knesset as members of the new party, though Nof defected back to Likud after a spell in Ahva. Free Center Knesset website

Galwegian Gaelic

Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct dialect of the Goidelic languages spoken in southwest Scotland. It was spoken by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. Little has survived of the dialect, so that its exact relationship with other Goidelic languages is uncertain. Gaelicisation in Galloway and Carrick occurred at the expense of Old English and Cumbric, a British dialect. Old Irish can be traced in the Rhins of Galloway from at least the fifth century. How it developed and spread is unknown; the Gaelicisation of the land was complete by the eleventh century, although some have suggested a date as early as the beginning of the ninth century. The main problem is that this folk-movement is unrecorded in historical sources, so it has to be reconstructed from things such as place-names. According to the placename studies of W. F. H. Nicolaisen of the University of Edinburgh, the earliest layer is represented by compound placenames starting with Sliabh "mountain" (often Anglicised Slew- or Sla and Carraig "rock".

This would make the settlement contemporary with what was Dál Riata. The Gall-Gaidhel, who gave their name to the area, appear to have settled in the ninth and tenth centuries. Many of the leading settlers would have been of both Norse and Gaelic heritage, it was the Gaelicisation of these Norse leaders which distinguished them from other Norse lords of northern Britain such as those in Shetland and Caithness, it is quite possible that as late as the twelfth century, Cumbric was still spoken in Annandale and lower Strathnith, but these areas seem to have been Gaelicised by the end of that century. A couple of legal terms survive in medieval documents; the demise of Cumbric in the region is harder to date than that of Gaelic. The eastern limit reached by the language was the River Annan, for the reason that Gaelic placenames disappear quite beyond this boundary. In the north it was cut off from other Scottish dialects in the 14th, if not the 13th century. Gaelic-speakers in medieval Galloway, whom Richard of Hexham erroneously called Picts, had a fearsome reputation.

They were the barbarians par excellence of the northern English Chroniclers, amongst other things, to have ripped babies out of their mothers' wombs. It was reported that by Walter of Guisborough in 1296, that during a raid on Hexham Priory, the Galwegians under William Wallace desecrated the shrine of St Andrew, cut off the head of the saint's statue, threw relics into a fire. Although Galloway was peripheral to Scotland until 1234, in the aftermath of the rebellion of Gille Ruadh and the dissolution of the Lordship and Galwegians became critical. In many ways, the Scottish Wars of independence were just a Galwegian civil war, with the Bruces the successors of Gilla Brigte mac Fergusa and the Balliols the successors of Uchtred mac Fergusa. Under the post-1234 Franco-Gaelic lordship were several powerful kin-groups, or clans, for instance, the MacLellans, the MacDowalls, the Kennedys of Carrick, it was through these groups that Galwegian society operated for the remainder of the Middle Ages.

Evidence for a clan system in the area can be found in medieval records – cineal appears in such terms as "kenelman", "kenkynol". A number of local surnames have Gaelic origins e.g. Landsburgh, MacClumpha, MacGuffock, Hannay, McKie and MacCulloch; the placenames Balmaclellan and Balmaghie may represent the site of chiefs' residences. Evidence of a bardic class can be found in such placenames as Dervaird and Loch Recar. Important information about local agriculture can be gleaned from placenames as well: shielings were in use e.g. Airies, Airieholland. Gall-ghàidhil agriculture is indicated in the use of peighinn and its subdivisions, e.g. Pinminnoch, Leffin Donald, Fardin, it is thought that Galwegian Gaelic had more in common with the Manx and Ulster Irish than with Scottish Gaelic as spoken in the Highlands. However, medieval Goidelic was a single language, spoken from Munster to Sutherland, with a universal educated standard and many regional dialects, which might have been mutually comprehensible.

It is possible that the Gaelic dialect of the Isle of Arran parallels the Galwegian language most, but this is purely speculative. Galwegian Gaelic may have borrowed certain words from Old English or Norse; the influence of the Anglian Bishopric of Whithorn, with the Norse Gall-Gaidhel, could explain the word cirice / kirkja: see kirk is used in so many placenames with Celtic second-elements and word order. Cirice/ kirkja occurs in medieval placenames where, in the rest of Scotland, one would expect Cille. Examples are legion, they include Kirkcormac, Kirkinner, Kirkcowan, Kirkmabrick. In these names, the first word is Germanic and the second Gaelic; the word order is typical of the Celtic languages, with the adjective following the noun, rather than the Germanic adjective preceding the noun. It is possible that this was a feature of the dialect, but it is possible that most of these are the product of English semi-translations. E

Alex Anatole

Alex Anatole is a Taoist priest and writer. He directs centers of Taoist studies in the United States. Grand Master Alex Anatole was born in Russia. At a young age, he was introduced to Master Lu Yang Tai, the "Enlightened One," a Taoist sage with genealogical lineage extending to the ancient origins of Taoism. From the age of eight, Alex was his only disciple, learning all aspects of the Great Art — philosophy, martial arts and religious procedures. After twenty years he was ordained as a Taoist priest, building several underground Taoist temples in Russia — hidden from the religious persecution of Soviet times, his spiritual activities became known to the authorities and he fled to the United States. In 1976 Grand Master Anatole immigrated to the United States. Near Boston, he built the Center of Traditional Taoist Studies and its Temple of Original Simplicity, recognized as one of the few authentic Taoist temples outside China, it maintains close ties to the few surviving temples in Shanghai.

Master Anatole continues the tradition of imparting Taoism through a classical program of philosophy, religion and Chi Quong. Motivated by a desire to preserve ancient Taoism in its purest form, he writes and lectures throughout the United States and Asia. Grand Master Alex Anatole and his Temple of Original Simplicity have been profiled in numerous studies, including Harvard's Pluralism Project, he is the author of Truth of Essence of Tao and Tao of Celestial Foxes. The Temple houses a wide collection of Taoist deities, as well as the only Hall of Celestial Foxes in the United States; the Temple offers traditional Taoist teachings including the philosophical teachings of the Tao Te Ching, Chi Quong, as well as the esoteric disciplines of The Celestial Fox Creed. The Truth of Tao, an analysis and application of the Taoist philosophy to life in the western world; the Essence of Tao A lineage master's interpretation of the core chapters of the Tao Te Ching. The Tao of Celestial Foxes-The Way to Immortality Vol. I, II, III A Fox Master's explanation of the Fox Creed.

"Tracing the Contours of Daoism in North America" by Louis Komjathy Nova Religion November 2004, Vol. 8, No. 2, Pages 5–27 Official website Profile at Harvard University's Pluralism Project List of Daoist teachers in North America compiled by Professor Louis Komjathy of Pacific Lutheran University

River Wansbeck

The River Wansbeck runs through the county of Northumberland, England. It rises above Sweethope Lough on the edge of Forelaws Forest in the area known locally as The Wanneys; the River flows through the village of Kirkwhelpington, the town of Morpeth, the village of Mitford, where it is joined by a small tributary, the River Font. The River Wansbeck is nicknamed the River Wanney; the term'The Wilds of Wanney' is used by people of Tyneside to refer to the rural areas of Northumberland where the Wansbeck rises. The River lent its name to the former Wansbeck district, based in Ashington, included Newbiggin-by-the-Sea and Stakeford. Between 1974-75, a £250,000 barrage with a navigation lock was built near the rivermouth and adjacent to the A189 road bridge. In so doing the lower three miles of river became a country park and are recognised as England's most northerly inland navigation. Little use of the lock has been recorded although rowing and sailing craft are launched and used in the country park.

Stakeford bridge is about midway in the navigable part. Sheepwash Bridge is near the upper limit of the navigable water. From 1985 the new navigation was recorded in The Inland Waterways of Great Britain noting that the navigation authority was Wansbeck District Council, which means that since 2009 Northumberland County hold that role. Rivers of the United Kingdom Canal Plan AC Waterways Gazetteer Bridges On the Wansbeck