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Tao

Tao or Dao is a Chinese word signifying "way", "path", "route", "road" or sometimes more loosely "doctrine", "principle" or "holistic beliefs". In the context of East Asian philosophy and East Asian religions, Tao is the natural order of the universe whose character one's human intuition must discern in order to realize the potential for individual wisdom; this intuitive knowing of "life" cannot be grasped as a concept. Laozi in the Tao Te Ching explains that the Tao is not a "name" for a "thing" but the underlying natural order of the Universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe due to it being non-conceptual yet evident in one's being of aliveness; the Tao is "eternally nameless" and to be distinguished from the countless "named" things which are considered to be its manifestations, the reality of life before its descriptions of it. The Tao lends its name to the religious tradition and philosophical tradition that are both referred to in English with the single term Taoism.

The word "Tao" has a variety of meanings in modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, path, principle, or similar, the word has acquired a variety of differing and confusing metaphorical and religious uses. In most belief systems, the word is used symbolically in its sense of'way' as the'right' or'proper' way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection, the outcome of such practices; some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word "Tao", prominent in Confucianism and religious Taoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Taoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism. The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of the Tao and the Tao itself, which cannot be expressed or understood in language.

Liu Da asserts that the Tao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of the Tao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners. The Tao can be thought of as the flow of the Universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the Universe balanced and ordered, it is related to the idea of the essential energy of action and existence. The Tao is a non-dualistic principle – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the Universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars, but the Tao is an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object; the Tao is more expressed in the relationship between wu and yinyang, leading to its central principle of wu wei. The Tao is described in terms of elements of nature, in particular as similar to water.

Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing and quiet but immensely powerful, impassively generous. Much of Taoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings. In all its uses, the Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words, it can, however, be known or experienced, its principles can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of the Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so; the Tao was shared with Confucianism, Chán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to'become one with the Tao' or to harmonise one's will with Nature in order to achieve'effortless action'; this involves moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De.

In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism, these are explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action. The Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang, where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments. De is the term used to refer to proper adherence to the Tao. Particular things that manifest from the Tao have their own inner nature that they follow, in accordance with the Tao, the following of this inner nature is De. Wuwei, or "naturalness", is contingent on understanding and conforming to this i

Boeing Model 1

The Boeing Model 1 known as the B & W Seaplane, was a United States single-engine biplane seaplane aircraft. It was the first Boeing product and carried the initials of its designers, William Boeing and Lt. Conrad Westervelt USN; the first B & W was completed in June 1916 at Boeing's boathouse hangar on Lake Union in Seattle, Washington. It was made of wood, with wire bracing, was linen-covered, it was similar to the Martin trainer aircraft that Boeing owned, but the B & W had better pontoons and a more powerful engine. The first B & W was named Bluebill, the second was named Mallard, they first flew on 15 June 1916, in November. The two B & Ws were offered to the United States Navy; when the Navy did not buy them, they were sold to the New Zealand Flying School and became the company's first international sale. On June 25, 1919, the B&W set a New Zealand altitude record of 6,500 feet; the B & Ws were used for express and airmail deliveries, making New Zealand's first official airmail flight on December 16, 1919.

New ZealandNew Zealand Flying School Data from Boeing: HistoryGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 27 ft 6 in Wingspan: 52 ft in Wing area: 580 ft2 Empty weight: 2,100 lb Gross weight: 2,800 lb Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-5 Straight-6 piston engine, 125 hp Performance Maximum speed: 75 mph Cruise speed: 67 mph Range: 320 miles Rate of climb: 700 ft/min Bowers, Peter M. Boeing aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6. Photo of Boeing Model 1 in Raglan Harbour in 1920

T.M. Richardson

T. M. Richardson was a steamboat built in 1888 at Oneatta, which served on Yaquina Bay and on the Yaquina River from 1888 to 1908; this vessel was known as the Richardson or the T. M. T. M. Richardson was built in 1888 at Oregon by Capt. James T. Chatterton; the boat measured 64 ft long, 14.5 ft beam, 5 ft depth of hold, 36.38 gross tons and 24.53 registered tons. T. M. Richardson was driving by a steam engine which generated 125 nominal horsepower In 1890, T. M. Richardson was licensed to carry only about 100 persons. In 1890, Richardson was employed on the water route between Newport and Yaquina City, making the trip twice a day. In 1893, T. M. Richardson was used to tow rock scows for government engineering works; the water route from Yaquina City to Newport was four miles long. From 1888 to at least 1895, Captain Chatterton used T. M. Richardson for ferrying and towing on Yaquina Bay, in Lincoln County, on the central Oregon coast; the original head of navigation on the Yaquina River was Elk City. Elk City was about twenty miles upriver from Yaquina City.

According to B. F. Jones, a steamboat man of Yaquina Bay and river, vessels drawing 8 to 10 feet of water were reported to have been able to reach Elk City; this included the Richardson, which drew 6 or 7 feet of water, the General Wright, a government vessel, drawing 8 to 10 feet, the Volante, a smaller steamer, reported to have drawn 8.5 to 9 feet of water. However, in 1910 it was claimed that quarrying and logging along the banks of the Yaquina River had caused silt and debris to wash down the river, making it more shallow and less navigable; the machinery for Richardson came from the Tressa May known as the Teresa May, in 1888, when the Tressa May was condemned and taken out of service. The engines were not new in the Tressa May. During the winter months of 1888 and 1889, Richardson worked under government contract moving scows of rock and pilings for the construction work on jetties at the mouth of Yaquina Bay. Captain Chatterton was in charge of the Richardson in 1891. On April 5, 1893 the Tacoma steamship Alice Blanchard with a cargo of 271 tons of wheat and 100 tons of coal, was sighted in distress off the Yaquina bar.

The only steam tug in Yaquina Bay, the Resolute, was under repair and unable to assist. Some fishermen succeeded in drifting the vessel over the bar. T. M. Richardson and another Yaquina Bay steamer and went to assist the Alice Blanchard the vessel went aground on the south jetty, about 300 feet from the tramway being used for jetty construction; every rope fastened to the vessel by the steamers parted and the vessel settled in the sand. On July 4, 1893, Richardson transported 89 passengers from Toledo to Newport. In 1893 Richardson was engaged in quarry service; the steamer made its last quarry trip for the year on October 31, 1893, after which it was expected to have been laid up for overhaul and repairs. Richardson was under a monthly contract to the U. S. Corps of Engineers to tow rock barges from the quarry to the jetties which were under construction at the mouth of Yaquina Bay. For this work, as well as incidental transportation on the bay, the owners of Richardson were paid $500 per month, earning a total of $2000 on the contract.

While under the contract, Richardson handled 91 scows laden with a total of 21,887 tons of rock, for jetty construction. The quarry was located on the Yaquina River, about 12 miles up from Newport; the government had rented the quarry from C. H. Williams for an annual rental of $325 per year. In April 1897 the steamer was reported to be engaged in transporting building stone from the Rochester quarry to Newport, to be transshipped to San Francisco. In May 1895 there was a dispute between two parties and Richardson, over ownership of the steamer. Testimony in the dispute was taken at Newport on May 28, 1895 before Referee J. Fred Yates. An earlier report, from February 22, 1894, was that there was a good chance that litigation would arise over the steamer Richardson, with a silent partner in the boat demanding an accounting and a settlement. On October 4, 1895, a writ of attachment, in the amount of $319, was sworn out at the Lincoln County court against the steamer Richardson, representing attorney’s fees said to be owing by H.

A. Moss to A. L. McFadden. In March 1896, Richardson took the place of the steamer Volante, caring passengers and mail and freight between Newport and Yaquina City, after Volante was destroyed by fire. In the summer of 1896, Richardson was involved in a collision with the much larger ocean-going steamer Farallon, which left Richardson with a smashed guard rail. On Tuesday, July 21, 1896, Richardson was brought up to the gridiron at Toledo to have the guard rail repaired, to be repainted and have other repairs. In September 1896, the Richardson was chartered by the “Silver forces of Lincoln County for a “Grand Bryan Ratification” to occur on Tuesday, September 15, 1896; the rally was held at Oregon. Richardson transported over one hundred people from Yaquina City; the steamer Mascot brought in a crowd of Bryan supporters from Elk City. According to a newspaper report, “speaking commenced at 2:30 at the courthouse, first by Hon. J. K. Weatherford, of Albany, who poured in hot shot for Bryan and free silver for an hour and a half.”In the fall of 1896, Richardson was employed on the lower Yaquina river transporting fish for a cannery at Newport.

By October 15, 1896, Richardson was tied up to the dock at Toledo, under the care of the purser, Charley Jahn. The vessel was back in operation by December 31, 1896, when it transported passengers from Newport, Yaquina City, Toledo to E