Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The avant-garde are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society. It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability, it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer; the avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo in the cultural realm. The avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada through the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the Language poets around 1981; the avant-garde promotes radical social reforms. It was this meaning, evoked by the Saint Simonian Olinde Rodrigues in his essay "L'artiste, le savant et l'industriel", which contains the first recorded use of "avant-garde" in its now customary sense: there, Rodrigues calls on artists to "serve as avant-garde", insisting that "the power of the arts is indeed the most immediate and fastest way" to social and economic reform.
Several writers have attempted to map the parameters of avant-garde activity. The Italian essayist Renato Poggioli provides one of the earliest analyses of vanguardism as a cultural phenomenon in his 1962 book Teoria dell'arte d'avanguardia. Surveying the historical, social and philosophical aspects of vanguardism, Poggioli reaches beyond individual instances of art and music to show that vanguardists may share certain ideals or values which manifest themselves in the non-conformist lifestyles they adopt: He sees vanguard culture as a variety or subcategory of Bohemianism. Other authors have attempted both to extend Poggioli's study; the German literary critic Peter Bürger's Theory of the Avant-Garde looks at the Establishment's embrace of critical works of art and suggests that in complicity with capitalism, "art as an institution neutralizes the political content of the individual work". Bürger's essay greatly influenced the work of contemporary American art-historians such as the German Benjamin H. D. Buchloh.
Buchloh, in the collection of essays Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry critically argues for a dialectical approach to these positions. Subsequent criticism theorized the limitations of these approaches, noting their circumscribed areas of analysis, including Eurocentric and genre-specific definitions; the concept of avant-garde refers to artists, writers and thinkers whose work is opposed to mainstream cultural values and has a trenchant social or political edge. Many writers and theorists made assertions about vanguard culture during the formative years of modernism, although the initial definitive statement on the avant-garde was the essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch by New York art critic Clement Greenberg, published in Partisan Review in 1939. Greenberg argued that vanguard culture has been opposed to "high" or "mainstream" culture, that it has rejected the artificially synthesized mass culture, produced by industrialization; each of these media is a direct product of Capitalism—they are all now substantial industries—and as such they are driven by the same profit-fixated motives of other sectors of manufacturing, not the ideals of true art.
For Greenberg, these forms were therefore kitsch: phony, faked or mechanical culture, which pretended to be more than they were by using formal devices stolen from vanguard culture. For instance, during the 1930s the advertising industry was quick to take visual mannerisms from surrealism, but this does not mean that 1930s advertising photographs are surreal. Various members of the Frankfurt School argued similar views: thus Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in their essay The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass-Deception, Walter Benjamin in his influential "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". Where Greenberg used the German word kitsch to describe the antithesis of avant-garde culture, members of the Frankfurt School coined the term "mass culture" to indicate that this bogus culture is being manufactured by a newly emerged culture industry, they pointed out that the rise of this industry meant that artistic excellence was displaced by sales figures as a measure of worth: a novel, for example, was judged meritorious on whether it became a best-seller, music succumbed to ratings charts and to the blunt commercial logic of the Gold disc.
In this way the autonomous artistic merit so dear to the vanguardist was abandoned and sales became the measure, justification, of everything. Consumer culture now ruled; the avant-garde's co-option by the global capitalist market, by neoliberal economies, by what Guy Debord called The Society of the Spectacle, have made contemporary critics speculate on the possibility of a meaningful avant-garde today. Paul Mann's Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde demonstrates how the avant-garde is embedded within institutional structures today, a thought pursued by Richard Schechner in his analyses of avant-garde performance. Despite the central arguments of Greenberg and others, various sectors of the mainstream culture industry have co-opted and misapplied the term "avant-garde" since the 1960s, chiefly as a marketing tool to publicise popular music and commercial
Kawasaki is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is the 8th most populated city in Japan and one of the main cities forming the Greater Tokyo Area and Keihin Industrial Area; as of October 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 1,503,690, with 716,470 households, a population density of 10,000 persons per km2. The total area is 142.70 km2. Kawasaki is governed by Mayor Norihiko Fukuda, an independent elected on 27 October 2013; the city assembly has 63 elected members. Mayor Fukuda was re-elected to a second term in office on 22 October 2017. Kawasaki mayoral election, 2005 Kawasaki Stadium: Located in Kawasaki-ku. Opened in 1952, was used as a home field for professional baseball teams from 1954 to 1991; the stands were taken down in 2001, is used for American football games and other events in addition to baseball. Kawasaki Todoroki Baseball Stadium: Located in Nakahara-ku. Maximum capacity of 5,000 people. Used for preliminary rounds of high school baseball and American football games.
Todoroki Athletics Stadium: Located in Nakahara-ku. Maximum capacity of 25,000 people. Opened in 1964, the stadium underwent several renovations before becoming the home field for the Kawasaki Frontale. Used for track & field competitions. Kawasaki Prefectural Gymnasium: Located in Kawasaki-ku. Opened in 1956, is used for Puroresu matches. 20 minutes walking distance from Kawasaki Station's east entrance. Kawasaki Todoroki Arena: Located in Nakahara-ku. International field athletics and volleyball matches are held here, in addition to various musical concerts. Velodrome: Kawasaki Velodrome Kawasaki Keiba Fujitsu's Main Branch is located in Nakahara-ku, it was Fujitsu's headquarters. Kawasaki has several factories and development bases of the companies of heavy industry and high technology. ■ East Japan Railway Company ■ Tōkaidō Main Line - Kawasaki - ■ Keihin-Tōhoku Line - Kawasaki - ■ Nambu Line Main Line: Kawasaki - Shitte - Yakō - Kashimada - Hirama - Mukaigawara - Musashi-Kosugi - Musashi-Nakahara - Musashi-Shinjō - Musashi-Mizonokuchi - Tsudayama - Kuji - Shukugawara - Noborito - Nakanoshima - Inadazutsumi - Branch Line: Shitte - Hatchōnawate - Kawasaki-Shinmachi - Hama-Kawasaki ■ Tsurumi Line Main Line: - Musashi-Shiraishi - Hama-Kawasaki - Shōwa - Ōgimachi Ōkawa Branch: - Ōkawa ■ Yokosuka Line, Shōnan-Shinjuku Line - Musashi-Kosugi - Shin-Kawasaki -■ Odakyu Electric Railway ■ Odakyū Line - Noborito - Mukōgaoka-Yūen - Ikuta - Yomiuri-Land-mae - Yurigaoka - Shin-Yurigaoka - Kakio ■ Tama Line Shin-Yurigaoka - Satsukidai - Kurihira - Kurokawa - Haruhino -■ Keio Corporation ■ Sagamihara Line - Keiō-Inadazutsumi - Keiō-Yomiuri-Land - Inagi - Wakabadai■ Keikyu Corporation ■ Keikyū Main Line - Hatchōnawate - Keikyū Kawasaki - ■ Daishi Line Keikyū Kawasaki - Minatochō - Suzukichō - Kawasaki-Daishi - Higashi-Monzen - Sangyō-Dōro - Kojimashinden■ Tokyu Corporation ■ Tōyoko Line - Shin-Maruko - Musashi-Kosugi - Motosumiyoshi - ■ Meguro Line - Shin-Maruko - Musashi-Kosugi - Motosumiyoshi - ■ Den-en-toshi Line - Futako-Shinchi - Takatsu - Mizonokuchi - Kajigaya - Miyazakidai - Miyamaedaira - Saginuma - ■ Ōimachi Line - Futako-Shinchi - Takatsu - Mizonokuchi Expressway Tōmei Expressway is a north-south expressway running from Tokyo to Nagoya and in central area.
Tōmei-Kawasaki Interchange is served from Kawasaki. Daisan Keihin Road is a north-south expressway running from Tokyo to Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama and in central area. Keihin-Kawasaki Interchange is served from Kawasaki. Shuto Expressway Route K1 is a north-south expressway running from Shuto Expressway Route 1 to Shuto Expressway Route K3 and in southern area. Daishi Interchange, Hama-Kawasaki Interchange, Asada Interchange are served from Kawasaki. Bayshore Route is a north-south expressway running from Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama to Ichikawa, Chiba and in southern area. Ukishima Interchange and Higashi-Ōgishima Interchange are served from Kawasaki. Shuto Expressway Route K6 is an expressway in southern area. Daishi Interchange, Tonomachi Interchange, Ukishima Interchange are served from Kawasaki. Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line is an expressway across Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki to Kisarazu, Chiba. Ukishima Interchange is served from Kawasaki. National Route National Route 1 and 15 are north-south highways running in southern area.
Due to elongated territory from east to west, these highways run short length in Kawasaki. Japan National Route 246 is a north-south highways running in central area, it runs short length in Kawasaki. Japan National Route 132 is short highway running in southern area, it bounds port of kawasaki. Japan National Route 357 is an industrial highway in southern area, it runs only in Higashi-Ōgishima Island in Kawasaki. Japan National Route 409 is a highway running from Kawasaki to Narita, Chiba, it bounds central downtown area in Kawasaki. Kanayama Shrine: Site of the annual Kanamara Matsuri. Kawasaki Daishi: the second most visited temple in the Kantō region Nihon Minka-en: a park with a collection of 20 minka, or traditional farmhouses, from various areas in Japan Koreatown: eastern Kawasaki has the second largest concentration of Koreans in Japan after Osaka. In 1997 it became the first municipality to allow non-Japanese nationals to take civil service employment. Todoroki Ryokuchi: athletic park Fujiko F. Fujio Museum: known as Doraemon museum, opened on September 3, 2011, in Tama-ku Ward.
Nakagawa stable: stable of professional su
Hotel de México
The Hotel de México was to have been the largest hotel in the Americas, a huge project started by the entrepreneur Manuel Suárez y Suárez in 1966 in Mexico City, Mexico. The project was never completed. After Suárez died in 1987 it stood unfinished for several years before being converted into an office building named the World Trade Center. In 1966 the entrepreneur Manuel Suárez y Suárez embarked on building the Gran Hotel de México. Suárez had made his fortune in various infrastructure projects including water supply systems and railways, in sugar mills that were nationalized, he conceived the idea of building a major business and tourist complex named Mexico 2000, centered around the huge Hotel de México. The architect was Guillermo Rossell de la Lama; the hotel was to be open in time to receive visitors to the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. It would be the tallest and most technologically advanced building in the country; the project included both private investment. The Parque de Lama was used as the site for the project.
The hotel was to be the largest in the Americas, 237 metres high with 1,500 rooms. It was to be 51 stories high with 1,508 hexagonal rooms. A panoramic elevator would be able to carry 100 tourists, 19 other elevators would carry normal passengers. There would be one open air panoramic terrace. There would be four cafeterias, six restaurants and 13 bars, with a revolving restaurant on the top floor, five reception halls, a 3000-person convention room, a 21,500 square feet spiral-shaped shopping mall, a theatre, museum and so on. Parking would be provided for 2,000 cars. A heliport would be equipped with customs facilities. A high-speed monorail would connect the hotel to the Casino de la Selva in Cuernavaca. Both Suárez and Rossell were associated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party. Rossell used neohumanistic jargon like "global communication and fraternity" to promote the idea that the hotel project reconciled capitalism with revolution; the adjacent Polyforum by the well-known dissident artist David Alfaro Siqueiros was used to reinforce this message.
In 1971 an exhibition about the hotel was shown in Paris and New York. It included a scale model and photographs. Rossell presented the project to Franco-Mexican diplomats at the Grand Palais in Paris, accompanied by Siqueros and the Minister of Tourism Miguel Alemán Valdés, he claimed it would act as a vehicle for reconciliation of postwar ethnic and geopolitical differences, would help reunite the physical and social urban fabric of Mexico city. From the 1970s until his death Suárez put most of his energy into the project, which grew out of control. An interview in 1978 noted that progress had been slow, caused in part by changes in engineers. Suárez, now 82 years old, said the hotel was worth around 1,200 million pesos in its current state, but still needed 800 million to be completed; that investment could be realized by liquidation of the sugar mills. There was some question about whether the state-administered mills, which were running below capacity, could be valued that high; as delays continued there was growing tension between Suárez and the elite of the PRI, which disputed claims that the hotel could symbolize the enlightened sovereignty of the state, resolving social and political problems and refused to authorize discounted loans to complete the project.
Financing problems were caused by the peso crises of 1976 and 1982. Suárez died in Mexico City in 1987 at the age of 91; the building was unfinished when he died, remained an unfinished skeleton for many years. In August 1987 it was reported that Hyatt would lend $30 million to the Suárez Group to complete the first 400 rooms on the ten highest levels of what would now be called the Hotel de México Hyatt; the work was abandoned several times. The Grupo Gusto bought the shell of the building to convert it into the World Trade Centre Mexico City, an office space, inaugurated by President Carlos Salinas on 19 November 1994. More than US$500 million was to be spent on the conversion; when completed in 1996 the complex would include a Presidente Intercontinentale hotel, a convention center, a mall and a parking lot for 8,500 cars. At the start of the 1990s the office of Gutiérrez Cortina Arquitectos was commissioned to redesign and convert the building into the World Trade Centre México. Architectural design and overall coordination was assigned to Bosco Gutiérrez Cortina, Arturo Guendulain Méndez directed structural redesign.
The architectural style was changed and the width increased to give greater rigidity. A blue glass facade was added; the World Trade Center opened in 1995. In July 2005 the World Trade Center was sold at auction for $58 million by the government's Fondo Bancario de Protección al Ahorro. Suarez first approached Siqueros in 1960, in 1965 commissioned him to paint a mural for his Hotel de la Selva in Cuernavaca. In 1966 the mural plan was expanded and transferred to the Hotel de Mexico, where the mural would become a tourist attraction pulling customers to the hotel. President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz may have suggested the change to make the mural as accessible to tourists as possible; the architects Rossell and Ramón Miquela Jáuregui worked with Siqueros to design a diamond-shaped building that would present a huge surface for his mural. Inside there were areas to stage plays, dance performances and art exhibitions; the Polyforum was started early in the 1970s and completed before Siqueiros died in 1974.
The building's exterior is a dodecahedron. It was built by the architects Guillermo Rossell de la Lama, Ramón Miqu