Tarnów is a city in southeastern Poland with 109,062 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship, it is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews and Austrians; the entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements and defensive walls, has been preserved. Tarnów is the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country; the first documented mention of the settlement dates back to 1105, spelled as Tharnow. The name evolved to Tarnowo, Tarnów, Tharnow; the place name Tarnów is used in different forms across Slavic Europe, lands which used to be inhabited by Slavs, such as eastern Germany and northern Greece.
There is a German town, Greek Tyrnavos, Czech Trnov, Bulgarian Veliko Tarnovo and Malko Tarnovo, as well as different Trnovos/Trnowos in Slovenia, Serbia and North Macedonia. The name Tarnów comes from an early Slavic word trn/tarn, which means "thorn", or an area covered by thorny plants. In the mid-9th century, on the Tarnów's St. Martin Mount, a Slavic gord was established by the Vistulans. Due to efforts of local archaeologists, we know that the size of the gord was 16 hectares, it was surrounded by a rampart; the settlement was destroyed in the 1030s or the 1050s, during either a popular rebellion against Christianity, or Czech invasion of Lesser Poland. In the mid-11th century, a new gord was established on the Biała river, it was a royal property, which in the late 11th or early 12th century was handed over to the Tyniec Benedictine Abbey. The name Tarnów, with a different spelling, was for the first time mentioned in a document of Papal legate, Cardinal Gilles de Paris; the first documented mention of Tarnów occurs in the year 1309, when a list of miracles of Kinga of Poland specifies a woman named Marta, resident of the settlement.
In 1327, a knight named Spicymir purchased a village of Tarnów Wielki, three years founded his own private town. On 7 March 1330, King Władysław I the Elbow-high granted Magdeburg rights to Tarnów. In the same year, construction of a castle on the St. Martin Hill was completed by Castellan of Kraków, Spycimir Leliwita of Leliwa coat of arms. Tarnów remained in the hands of the Leliwa family, out of which in the 15th century the Tarnowski family emerged. In the 14th century, numerous German settlers immigrated from Nowy Sącz. During the 17th century Scottish immigrants began to come in large numbers. In 1528 the exiled King of Hungary János Szapolyai lived in the town; the town prospered during the Polish Golden Age. In the mid-16th century, its population was app. 1,200, with 200 houses located within town's defensive wall. In 1467, the waterworks and sewage systems were completed, with large cisterns filled with drinking water built in the main market square. In the 16th century, during the period known as the Polish Golden Age, Tarnów had a school, a synagogue, a Calvinist prayer house, Roman Catholic churches, up to twelve guilds.
After the death of Jan Tarnowski, Italian sculptor Jan Maria Padovano began creating one of the most beautiful examples of Renaissance headstones in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The monument of hetman Tarnowski is 14 meters tall, stands in St. Anne Chapel, located in northern nave of the Tarnów Cathedral. Padovano completed his work in 1573. At that time, in 28 niches of the town hall were portraits of members of the Tarnowski family – from Spicymir Leliwita to Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski, who died in 1567. In 1570 Tarnów became property of the Ostrogski family, after Zofia Tarnowska, the daughter of the hetman, married prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski. In 1588, after Konstanty's death, the town changed hands several times, belonging to different families, which slowed its development; until the Partitions of Poland, Tarnów belonged to the County of Sandomierz Voivodeship. The town, like all locations of Lesser Poland, was devastated in October 1655, during the Swedish invasion of Poland, as a result, its population declined from 2,000 to 768.
In 1723, the town became property of the Sanguszko family, which purchased it from the Lubomirski family. After the first partition of Poland, Tarnów was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, remained in Austrian Galicia until late 1918. Austrian rule brought positive changes, as the town ceased to be private property, became the seat of a county, of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tarnów. On 14 March 1794, Józef Bem was born in Tarnów. In the 1830s, under the influence of events in Congress Poland, Tarnów emerged as a center of Polish conspiratorial organizations. Plans for a national uprising in Galicia failed in early 1846, when local peasants began murdering the nobility in the Galician slaught
The Wassaic Project is a non-profit artist-run arts and art education space in Wassaic, New York founded in 2008 that hosts festivals, community events and year-round artist residencies. It consists of a year-round competitive residency program and summer arts programming which culminate in a large, free summer festival. Co-founders Bowie Zunino and Eve Biddle had done community organizing after in Providence, Rhode Island. Zunino's father, an architect and developer of historic sites like South Street Seaport, had just finished preserving the Maxon Mills, with a wood crib elevator, in the hamlet of Wassaic, New York, near where he owned a house; the artists and friends Zunino and Biddle and cofounders Jeff Barnett-Winsby and Elan Bogarin opened a gallery space in the mill in 2008 and began an art happening there focused on community and contemporary art. They began restoring buildings in the hamlet and expanded with other events like a haunted house and added their current artist in residence program.
The organization makes use of restored historic buildings in the hamlet of Wassaic, including Maxon Mills and Luther Barn. Maxon Mills, a seven-story former wood crib grain elevator, has been converted into exhibition and studio spaces, including Art NEST, a free drop-in creative space for kids. Luther Barn is home to artist-in-residence studios and the old cattle auction ring is used as a film exhibition space during the summer festival; the organization offers year-round programming as well as an education program focused onsite and at the Webutuck consolidated school district serving the Towns of Amenia and Northeast. The Wassaic Project hosts an annual Summer Festival, outdoors and in their Mill building, their Mill building has an exhibition space open to the public that has shown work by Colin Williams, Margeaux Walter, Minhee Bae, Tatiana Arocha, Eleanor Sabin, Ghost of a Dream and Doug and Mike Starn. And their artist in residence program alumni include Sean Fader, Manuel H. Márquez, Hillerbrand + Magsamen, Hunter Creel, Goldie Poblador The project hosts other community events that bring thousands of visitors like their August Festival for dance performances, their annual haunted house and overnight bonfires.
The Wassaic Project has an invitational print Editions Program where they pair a contemporary artist with a master printer to produce an edition in their studio. Artists in this program have included William Powhida, Lisa Iglesias and Amanda Valdez among many. Official website
Herman Bernstein was an American journalist, novelist, translator, Jewish activist, diplomat. He was the United States Ambassador to Albania and was the founder of The Day, the Jewish daily newspaper. Herman Bernstein was born at that time on the Russo-German border. Herman's parents were Marie Elsohn Bernstein, his brother was Hillel, or Harry Bernstein. He had two older sisters named Helen and Flora; when he was 6 years old, his parents moved on the Dnieper river in present-day Belarus. Herman emigrated to the United States in 1893 first arriving in Chicago, his father, a Talmudic scholar, became sick with tuberculosis shortly after they arrived in the United States. This illness required his siblings to work in sweatshops to support the family, he married Sophie Friedman in 1901. They had four children together, Violet Bernstein Willheim, Hilda Bernstein Gitlin, Dorothy Bernstein Nash, David Bernstein. In 1893, he emigrated with his family to the United States, he married Sophie Friedman on December 31, 1901.
They had Hilda Bernstein Gitlin, Dorothy Bernstein Nash, Violet Bernstein Willheim. Bernstein covered the Russian Revolution in 1917 for the New York Herald, which led him to both Siberia and Japan with the American Expeditionary Forces, he covered the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 for the same newspaper. Herman Bernstein died in Sheffield, Massachusetts on August 31, 1935, he was survived by his wife Sophie, his brother the writer Hillel Bernstein. Descendants include a physician and poet. Bernstein was prolific as a journalist throughout his life, with his first stories published in 1900, he contributed, among others, to the New York Evening Post, The Nation, The Independent, Ainslee's Magazine. He was the founder and editor of The Day and an editor of The Jewish Tribune and of the Jewish Daily Bulletin; as a correspondent of the New York Times, Bernstein travelled to Europe. In 1915, he went to Europe to document the situation of Jews in the war zones. Victoria Woeste writes: Bernstein, a novelist and poet of some repute, won acclaim for his accomplishments in investigative journalism in the 1910s.
He was driven'to lay bare the operations of Russian totalitarianism, whether Czarist or Bolshevist in so far as it affected the fate of Russian Jews.' His reporting revealed'the involvement of the Russian secret police in the case of Mendel Beilis, the Jew wrongfully accused of the ritual murder of a gentile boy' in 1911, he documented social and political conditions in Russia before and after the Communist Revolution. Bernstein translated Beilis's Story of My Sufferings. In the 1920s Bernstein wrote for the New York American and the Brooklyn Eagle reporting from Europe and writing about Russia. In 1918, Bernstein revealed a secret correspondence between Tsar Nicholas II and Kaiser Wilhelm II and published it in a book, The Willy-Nicky Correspondence, published by Knopf with a foreword by Theodore Roosevelt. Bernstein summarized the contents as follows: During my recent stay in Russia I learned that shortly after the Tsar had been deposed, a series of intimate, secret telegrams were discovered in the secret archives of Nicholas Romanoff at Tsarskoye Selo...
The complete correspondence, consisting of sixty-five telegrams exchanged between the Emperors during the years 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907, forms an amazing picture of international diplomacy of duplicity and violence, painted by the men responsible for the greatest war in the world's history. The documents, not intended for the eyes of the Secretaries of State of the two Emperors, constitute the most remarkable indictment of the system of governments headed by these imperial correspondents, he remarked that "the Kaiser is exposed as a master intriguer and Mephistophelian plotter for German domination of the world. The former Tsar is revealed as a capricious weakling, a characterless, colourless nonentity." The two, Bernstein wrote, "both talked for peace and plotted against it." In 1915, Bernstein published La Rekta Gibulo, in the so-called universal language Esperanto. It is a translation of the story "The Straight Hunchback" which comes from Bernstein's In the Gates of Israel. Bernstein interviewed many of the most eminent people of his time, including Leo Tolstoy, Bernard Shaw, Auguste Rodin, Henri Bergson, Pope Benedict XV, Peter Kropotkin, Arthur Schnitzler, Leon Trotsky, Chaim Weizmann, Havelock Ellis, Romain Rolland, Albert Einstein, Woodrow Wilson.
These interviews were gathered in several books, including With Master Minds: Interviews by Herman Bernstein and Celebrities of Our Times. Bernstein translated a number of important literary works, by figures such as Maxim Gorky, Leonid Andreyev, Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev, from Russian to English, his own plays The Mandarin and The Right to Kill, were presented on Broadway. In addition, he published poems, short stories, a novel. In the early 1910s, Bernstein advocated liberal immigration policies and was a member of the Democratic National Committee, working to elect Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Bernstein met Herbert Hoover at the Paris Peace Conference and s