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Tarragona

Tarragona is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea. Founded before the 5th century BC, it is the capital of the Province of Tarragona, part of Tarragonès and Catalonia. Geographically, it is bordered on the north by the Province of Lleida; the city has a population of 201,199. One Catalan legend holds that it was named for Tarraho, eldest son of Tubal in c. 2407 BC. The real founding date of Tarragona is unknown; the city may have begun as an Iberian town called Kesse or Kosse, named for the Iberian tribe of the region, the Cossetans, though the identification of Tarragona with Kesse is not certain. William Smith suggests that the city was founded by the Phoenicians, who called it Tarchon, according to Samuel Bochart, means a citadel; this name was derived from its situation on a high rock, between 75–90 m above the sea. It was seated on the river Sulcis or Tulcis, on a bay of the Mare Internum, between the Pyrenees and the river Iberus. Livy mentions a portus Tarraconis.

This better reflects its present condition. During the Roman Republic, the city was fortified and much enlarged as a Roman colony by the brothers Publius Cornelius Scipio and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, who converted it into a fortress and arsenal against the Carthaginians; the city was first named Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco and was capital of the province of Hispania Citerior. Subsequently, it became the capital of the province named after it, Hispania Tarraconensis, in the Roman Empire and conventus iuridicus. Augustus wintered at Tarraco after his Cantabrian campaign, bestowed many marks of honour on the city, among which were its honorary titles of Colonia Victrix Togata and Colonia Julia Victrix Tarraconensis. Tarraco lies on the main road along the southeastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. According to Mela it was the richest town on that coast, Strabo represents its population as equal to that of Carthago Nova, its fertile plain and sunny shores are celebrated by other poets.

The city minted coins. An inscribed stone base for a now lost statue of Tiberius Claudius Candidus was found in Tarragona during the nineteenth century; the 24-line Latin inscription describes the Governor and Senator's career as an ally of the future Roman emperor Septimius Severus, who fought in the civil war following the assassination of Commodus in 192 AD. This important marble block was purchased by the British Museum in 1994. After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, it was captured first by the Vandals and by the Visigoths; the Visigothic Kingdom's rule of Tarracona was ended by the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 714. It was an important border city of the Caliphate of Córdoba between 750 and 1013. After the demise of the Caliphate, it was part of the Taifa of Zaragoza between 1013 and 1110 and under the control of the Almoravid dynasty between 1110 and 1117, it was taken by the County of Barcelona in 1117. After the dynastic union of Aragon and Barcelona, it was part of the Kingdom of Aragon from 1164–1412.

After dynastic union of Aragon and the Crown of Castile, it remained a part of Aragon until the foundation of the Spanish Empire in 1516. During the Catalan revolt, Tarragon was captured by Catalan insurgents with French support in 1641, but it was retaken by Spanish troops in 1644, it was captured by allied Portuguese and British troops in 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession and remained in their hands until Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During the war, the Catalans supported the unsuccessful claim of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen against the victorious Bourbon Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain, he signed the Nueva Planta decrees, which abolished the Crown of Aragon and all remaining Catalan institutions and prohibited the administrative use of Catalan language on 16 January 1716. During the Peninsular War, in the first siege of Tarragona from 5 May to 29 June 1811, Louis-Gabriel Suchet's Army of Aragon of the First French Empire laid siege to a Spanish garrison led by Lieutenant general Juan Senen de Contreras.

A British naval squadron commanded by Admiral Edward Codrington harassed the French besiegers with cannon fire and transported large numbers of reinforcements into the city by sea. Suchet's troops stormed into the defenses and killed or captured all the defenders, it became a subprefecture center in Bouches-de-l'Èbre department of French empire. In the second siege of Tarragona, an overwhelming Anglo-Spanish force under the command of Lieutenant General John Murray, 8th Baronet failed to wrest Tarragona from a small Franco-Italian garrison led by Brigadier general Antoine Marc Augustin Bertoletti. Murray was subsequently removed from command for his contradictory leadership; the Anglo-Spanish forces captured Tarragona on 19 August. During the Spanish Civil War, Tarragona was in the hands o

Mahlon Tisdale

Mahlon Street Tisdale was an officer of the United States Navy. He was awarded two Navy Crosses, one for staff service in World War I, another during the Battle of Tassafaronga in World War II. Tisdale was born on December 1890 in Wenona, Illinois, he was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in 1908 and graduated with a commission as an Ensign in the United States Navy on 7 June 1912. Before World War I, Tisdale served aboard cruisers USS North USS Salem. Aboard USS Salem, Tisdale participated in the Veracruz Expedition in 1914; when United States entered the World War I, Tisdale was appointed an Aide and Flag secretary on the staff of Commander Patrol Force, Atlantic Fleet and served on USS Birmingham, as Aide on the staff of Vice Admiral Henry Braid Wilson Commander of U. S. Naval Forces in France. For this service, Tisdale received a Navy Cross. After return to the United States in January 1919, Tisdale served as executive officer on USS Hart, he stayed in this capacity until March 1920.

In January 1921, he was transfer to the staff of the Commander, Battleship Division Six, Pacific Fleet, where he served aboard USS Wyoming as division radio officer. In June 1921, Tisdale was transferred to the Naval Academy. Subsequently, Tisdale received his first command, when he served as commander of the USS Farenholt from October 23, 1926 until June 1928. Tisdale's career including surface command, USS Chester, various staff positions, Commander, Pacific Fleet during World War II, he was Commandant of Midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy at the start of World War II. After his superior's ship was put out of action during the Battle of Tassafaronga he assumed command of the task force, continuing the battle from the USS Honolulu. For his actions, Tisdale was awarded a star to his existing Navy Cross; the Oliver Hazard Perry class guided missile frigate USS Mahlon S. Tisdale was named in his honor. US Navy Biography

Mount Perry Powder Magazine

Mount Perry Powder Magazine is a heritage-listed former gunpowder magazine at Sandy Camp Road, Mount Perry, North Burnett Region, Australia. It was built in 1874 by Queensland Department of Public Works, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 10 June 2011. The stone gunpowder magazine located in a paddock to the east of Sandy Camp Road, about 3.5 kilometres north of the town of Mount Perry, was constructed in 1874 to safely store the explosives used in copper mining at Mount Perry and is the oldest known surviving government powder magazine in Queensland. The Mount Perry area was explored from 1846, early runs in the district included Yenda and Tenningering and Mount Perry. Copper was discovered at Mount Perry in mid 1869. On 2 June 1871 the Queensland Surveyor-General directed John C Thompson to complete plans for a township to be known as Perry changed to Tenningering; the government town site was ignored by those who wished to live closer to the Mount Perry copper mine, a town called Fife-Barnett was surveyed on private land half a mile from Tenningering.

The government's post and telegraph office had to be moved to Fife-Barnett, which became known as the township of Mount Perry. Mount Perry prospered for most of the 1870s, a period when the price of copper was high and mining in general was experiencing rapid growth in Queensland. In 1872 the first churches were built, there were 25 hotels, mail services commenced. By May 1872 furnaces were operational, producing a regulus consisting of 80% copper, smelted from the poorer ores. Richer ores were dispatched in their crude state. By 1873 the population of Mount Perry was estimated to be 3,000, a refining furnace was opened that year so that pure copper could be shipped; the process of construction of the magazine at Mount Perry began in September 1873, when tenders were called by the Department of Public Works. By Christmas 1873 the material for the magazine was being assembled, with erection to begin in a fortnight. Expenditure on erecting the magazine during 1874 amounted to £432/2/10. Jason Walsh was appointed as the Powder Magazine Keeper at Mount Perry on 13 January 1875, at a salary of £100 and on 22 February 1875 notice was given in the Queensland Government Gazette that the powder magazine at Mount Perry was approved as a place where gunpowder could be stored.

The rate for storing 50 pounds or more for six weeks was 1 shilling, plus 2 pence for every week thereafter. The magazine was located on the road to Fortunatus on a 60 acres reserve for a Gunpowder Magazine declared in the Queensland Government Gazette of 18 December 1875; the western boundary of the reserve was the road, the northern boundary was Drummers Creek, the southern boundary ran along the northern boundary of portion 65. The eastern boundary was an extension of the line of the eastern boundary of portion 65. For over a century, control of all explosives and gunpowder imported into Queensland was the province of the Harbour Master's Department, the Department of Ports & Harbours, the Marine Department, the Department of Harbours and Marine. In 1964, responsibility was shifted to the Queensland Department of Health. Under The Navigation Act of 1876 the master of any ship entering a Queensland port with gunpowder to be unloaded had to ensure that it was placed in a government magazine.

The various incarnations of the Harbours Department were responsible for the provision of magazines and for the safe storage of explosives at Queensland ports of entry. The Act further regulated the conveyance and storage of gunpowder in any place in Queensland, not just in the ports. On the goldfields, magazines were administered by the Mines Department, as control of magazines outside ports was not vested in the Marine Department until 1907; some common magazine design features include sturdy construction, small windows and solid doors and overhanging eaves, timber floors with copper nails or timber pegs instead of iron nails, the provision of lightning conductors and copper earthing straps. Magazines were located away from other buildings, were sometimes surrounded by earthworks to deflect any blast. Magazine complexes were surrounded by walls or fences to keep people out; the Queensland Department of Public Works built powder magazines during the 1860s at Brisbane and Gympie. The first magazines at Cairns, Charters Towers, Georgetown, Normanton, Port Douglas and Rockhampton were all built in the 1880s.

The magazine at Mount Perry is the earliest government-built magazine known to be surviving in Queensland. The powder magazine's use was tied to the success of mining in the town. Low copper prices meant that the Mount Perry copper mine closed in the second half of 1877; the town stagnated, the population was only 500 by 1883. At this time the copper mine was being worked on a small scale with limited smelting; the owners of the mine eagerly awaited the arrival of the Mount Perry railway line from Bundaberg, which would lower the cost of bringing in firewood for the smelters, taking out copper. In August 1877 the Queensland Government approved three railways to connect mining towns to their principal ports: Townsville to Charters Towers. However, when the railway reached Mount Perry in 1884, the anticipated mining boom did not occur and copper prices remained low; the mine closed b