The Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group living in Tatarstan and the wider Volga-Ural region. They speak a Kipchak Turkic language; the vast majority of Tatars today reside in post-Soviet countries in Russia and Uzbekistan. The vast majority of Tatars are Muslims; the name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as ‎, Ta-tar and was referring to the Tatar confederation. That confederation was incorporated into the Mongol Empire when Genghis Khan unified the various steppe tribes; the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass known as Tartary, dominated by various Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More however, the term has come to refer more narrowly to related ethnic groups who refer to themselves as Tatars or who speak languages that are referred to as Tatar, namely Tatar by Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatar by Crimean Tatars and Siberian Tatar by Siberian Tatars; the largest group amongst the Tatars by far and the one called "Tatars" in Russian, are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga-Ural region, who for this reason are also known as "Tatars".

They compose 53% of the population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language; as of 2002, there were an estimated 5 million ethnic Tatars in Russia. There is a common belief that Russians and Tatars are intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian just a little and you will discover a Tatar underneath" and the fact that a number of noble families in the Tsardom of Russia had Tatar origins. In modern-day Tatarstan, Russian-Tatar marriages are common; the name "Tatar" originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century. The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin and Bilge Khagan monuments as ‎, Otuztatar,'Thirty Tatar' and:‎, Tokuz Tatar,'Nine Tatar' referring to the Tatar confederation. Tatar became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanates; the form Tartar has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language.

From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most due to an association with Tartarus. The Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves; the Arabic word for Tatars is تتار. Tatars themselves wrote their name as تاتار‎ or طاطار‎; the Chinese term for Tatars was 韃靼. The name Tatars was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged. Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians. However, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols, as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples in the territory of the former Russian Empire.

Nowadays Tatar is used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, the Tartar missile. All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar; some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not. Kipchak groups Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense Volga Tatars Astrakhan Tatars Lipka Tatars Kipchak–Cuman branch Crimean Tatars Karachays and Balkars: Mountain Tatars Kumyks: Daghestan Tatars Kipchak–Nogai branch: Nogais: Nogai Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of Nogais—Kundrov Tatars Siberian branch: Siberian Tatars Altay people: Altay Tatars, including the Tubalar or Chernevo Tatars Chulyms or Chulym Tatars Khakas people: Yenisei Tatars, still use the Tatar designation Shors: Kuznetsk Tatars Oghuz branch Azerbaijani people: Caucasus Tatars The name Tatar is an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people; as various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars.

After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde. The various Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde and of its successor, the Great Horde; these include: the Khanate of Kazan, conquered by the Tsardom of Russia i

Manny Alvarez

Manuel Alvarez is a Cuban-American obstetrician-gynecologist who has appeared on Fox News Channel shows such as America's Newsroom, Fox & Friends, Happening Now, Varney & Co. Money with Melissa, The O'Reilly Factor, The Kelly File, Fox News Weekend, as well as on the local affiliate, WNYW-Fox 5 News, he serves as chairman of the department of obstetrics/gynecology at Hackensack University Medical Center in Hackensack, New Jersey, runs out of its headquarters in Hoboken, New Jersey. Alvarez is an outspoken opponent of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, insisting it will lead to "socialized medicine" and "the end of private practice". Alvarez was separated from his family as a young boy during the Cuban Revolution when he was sent to the United States to live with a foster family through an outreach program while his father was placed in a Cuban prison. Five years Alvarez was reunited with his family in New York, his father started a business in New Jersey. Alvarez lives in a New Jersey suburb with three children.

His son Ryan is on the autism spectrum and Alvarez has been a vocal supporter of the autism community using his position at Fox News to speak out on social issues affecting people on the spectrum. Alvarez graduated in 1981 from the Department of Medicine of Universidad Central del Este a private university in the Dominican Republic, founded in San Pedro de Macorís on October 15, 1970. Alvarez sits on the board of the Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation which supports patient information and research grants to scientists in an effort to find a cure for Alzheimer's disease. Howard Lutnick and chief executive officer of Cantor Fitzgerald, L. P. is a board member. In June 2006, Alvarez was honored by Hillary Clinton during the 20th anniversary of Postpartum Support International for his work in providing lectures and community education on women's health, he is a member of the organization's President's Advisory Council. In September 2005, Alvarez filed a report for Fox News from Texas on the preparations that were being made ahead of Hurricane Rita to prevent mistakes made after Hurricane Katrina.

Alvarez launched AskDrManny in January 2006 as a website dedicated to providing general information about health news. The website specializes in information regarding Women's Health and Early Childhood Development. In 2009 AskDrManny launched a YouTube channel aimed at providing video segments related to the same topics. Alvarez reported on the earthquake that hit Haiti in January 2010, where he brought medical supplies and helped treat patients at border hospitals in the Dominican Republic. On that year, in June 2010, he reported on the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, coining the phrase "Gulf Oil Syndrome" in referring to the potential health hazards that the population in the region could face in the years to come. Alvarez has interviewed the Nobel laureate Paul Greengard about his discoveries in treating Alzheimer's disease and receiving The Karolinska Institute's Bi-Centennial Gold Medal. Alvarez is the author of The Checklist: What You and Your Family Need to Know to Prevent Disease and Live a Long and Healthy Life, which won two awards in May 2008 for both its Spanish and English editions at the 10th annual International Latino Book Awards in Los Angeles.

In 2008, he published The Hot Latin Diet: The Fast-Track Plan to a Bombshell Body. He serves as the senior managing health editor for, Fox News Channel, Fox Business Network, The Checklist: What You and Your Family Need to Know to Prevent Disease and Live a Long and Healthy Life. New York: Rayo. 2007. ISBN 978-0-06-118878-7; the Hot Latin Diet: The Fast-Track Plan to a Bombshell Body. New York: Celebra Books. 2008. ISBN 978-0-451-22371-5. Bio on Ask Dr. Manny Bio on AskDrManny

List of railway lines in Croatia

The following is the list of railways in Croatia as defined by the Government of Croatia in 2006. The classification groups the railways into three groups — of railways of international and local significance; the railways of international significance are defined as railways located in Pan-European corridors and Pan-European corridor branches, railways connecting the Pan-European corridors to seaports and river ports serving international transport, railways interconnecting the Pan-European corridors. The railways of regional significance are defined as railways connecting specific regions of Croatia to the railways of international significance, to railway networks in neighbouring countries, to ports which are not themselves significant to international transport and railways interconnecting regions of Croatia; the railways of international and local significance are marked with prefixes M, R and L and a three digit number. As of 2012, Croatia had a total of 2,722 kilometres of railways, including 254 kilometres of double-tracked railways.

A total of 984 kilometres of the railways are electrified, there are 598 railway stations and other official railway facilities. As of 2013 all railways in Croatia are operated by state owned Croatian Railways company. Additional operators are planned in passenger traffic in near future; the railways are planned to be leased to future operators by state owned company HŽ Infrastruktura which will perform maintenance of the railways