Tate Modern

Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group, it is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of contemporary art in the world; as with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is a visited museum, pulling in 5.8 million visitors in 2018. Tate Modern is housed in the former Bankside Power Station, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, built in two stages between 1947 and 1963, it is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral.

The power station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m; the structure was divided into three main areas each running east–west – the huge main Turbine Hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the switch house to the south. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995; the £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000. The most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof.

Much of the original internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall, which retained the overhead travelling crane. An electrical substation, taking up the Switch House in the southern third of the building, remained on-site and owned by the French power company EDF Energy while Tate took over the northern Boiler House for Tate Modern's main exhibition spaces; the history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000. Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined. Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004; these plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5,000 m2 of new display space doubling the amount of display space.

The southern third of the building was retained by the French State owned power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the company released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum planned to be completed in 2015; the tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, which would be converted to a performance art space. Structural, civil, façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016; this project was costed at £215 million. Of the money raised, £50 million came from the UK government. In June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art"; the Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".

The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, underground oil tanks used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and closed on 28 October 2012 as work on the tower building continued directly above, they reopened following the completion of the Switch House extension on 17 June 2016. Two of the Tanks are used to show live performance art and installations while the third provides utility space. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art". A ten-storey tower, 65 metres high from ground level, was built above the oil tanks; the original western half of the Switch House was demolished to make room for the tower and rebuilt around it with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 have natural top lighting. A bridge built across the turbine hall on level 4 provides an upper access route.

The new building opened to the public on 17 June 2016. The design, again by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial, it was designed with a glass stepped pyr

1995 Godlia kino meeting scandal

The 1995 Norwegian Association meeting at Godlia kino was a meeting, held on 2 September 1995, right before the electoral campaign for the 1995 local elections. The meeting was attended by many nationalist and far-right organisations, but gained notoriety because the profiled Progress Party Member of Parliament Øystein Hedstrøm was revealed to have been present and held a speech at the meeting. On 3 September 1995, the newspaper Dagbladet published photos of Hedstrøm holding a speech about immigration at an secret meeting at the movie theatre Godlia kino in Oslo; the journalists who had investigated the meeting were Arne O. Holm, Cato Vogt-Kielland and Thor Gjermund Eriksen; the meeting, which went under the name "Year of the grasshoppers", was attended by 24 persons, including Bastian Heide, Jack Erik Kjuus, Bjarne Dahl, Erik Gjems-Onstad and Hege Søfteland. The initiator to the meeting was the nationalist organisation the Norwegian Association, led by Torfinn Hellandsvik; the newspaper bulletin created shockwaves into the political community.

The Progress Party chairman, Carl I. Hagen, had not known. Hagen quieted Hedstrøm, distanced himself from the Norwegian Association. Hedstrøm was stripped of his position as Spokesperson of Immigration Issues. Hagen stated that "Hedstrøm has made a big mistake", Hedstrøm withdrew from the public scene. After a few days, Hagen changed his opinion and stated that Hedstrøm had done nothing else than attending the meeting as a private person, it reached surface that other politicians from the Progress Party, such as Deputy Chairman Vidar Kleppe, Member of Parliament Fridtjof Frank Gundersen had attended meetings hosted by the Norwegian Association. According to the newspaper Aftenposten, Hedstrøm had had long-term contact with organisations such as the Fatherland Party and Stop Immigration, it became known that the leader of the Norwegian Association, Torfinn Hellandsvik, had been the premise supplier for a parliamentary document about immigration that Hedstrøm had prepared. The attention around this case, together with focus on immigration, resulted in a markedly increased support for the Progress Party in the 1995 local elections

Danh Vō

Danh Vō is a Danish performance art inspired conceptual artist. He lives and works in Berlin and Mexico City. Danh Vō was born in Bà Rịa, Vietnam in August 1975. After the Communists' victory and the fall of Saigon, the Vo family and 20,000 other South Vietnamese were brought in 1975 to the island of Phú Quốc. in 1979, when he was 4 years old, his family fled South Vietnam in a homemade boat and was rescued at sea by a freighter belonging to the Danish Maersk shipping company. The family members settled in Denmark, their assimilation into European culture and the events that led up to their flight from Vietnam are reflected in Vō's art, which juxtaposes the historical and the personal. When Danh Vo and his family were registered by the Danish authorities, the family name Vo was placed last, his middle name, was recorded as his first name. Vō moved to Berlin in 2005, after finishing school at Städelschule in Frankfurt, where he went after quitting painting at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen.

He had residencies at the Villa Aurora at Kadist Art Foundation in Paris. He lives in both Mexico City. Vo's installations, which are composed of documents and appropriations of works of other artists address the issues of identity and belonging; the conceptual work Vo Rosasco Rasmussen involves the artist's marriage to and immediate divorce from a growing list of important people in his life. His official name is now Trung Ky Danh Vo Rosaco Rasmussen. Oma Totem, a stacked sculpture of his grandmother's welcome gifts from a relief program on her arrival in Germany in the 1980s, displays her television set, washing machine, refrigerator, among other items. For 2.02.1861, the artist asked his father Phung Vo to transcribe the last communication from the French Catholic Saint Théophane Vénard to his own father before he was decapitated in 1861 in Vo's native Vietnam. In Autoerotic Asphyxiation, Vō presents documentary pictures of young Asian men taken by Joseph Carrier, an American anthropologist and counterinsurgency specialist who worked in Vietnam for the RAND Corporation from 1962 to 1973.

While in Vietnam, Carrier documented the casual interactions he observed, intimate without being homoerotic, between local men. For his project We the People, created between 2010 and 2012, Vo enlisted a Shanghai fabricator to recast a life-size Statue of Liberty from 30 tons of copper sheets the width of just two pennies. Rather than assemble the 300 sections, the artist shipped the giant elements to some 15 sites around the world after they rolled off the production line in China. From mid May to early December 2014 We the People was shown in New York City under the auspices of the Public Art Fund, with its assembly of parts shared between City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge Park in the borough of Brooklyn. While the work was being installed in City Hall Park, a few of its pieces – replicas of the chain links found at the feet of the original Statue of Liberty – were stolen. For a 2013 show at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Vo conceived a homage to the artist Martin Wong.

The installation consists of nearly 4,000 small artworks and tchotchkes that once belonged to Wong, crowded into a specially designed gallery lined with laminated plywood shelves. The show's title -- you are too -- appeared on Wong's business cards and stamps. Another 2013 show at New York's Marian Goodman Gallery focused on the personal effects of the late U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, the architect of the Vietnam War. Looking to open up a dialogue about shared and private histories, Vō displayed or modified 14 items acquired at a Sotheby's auction—including the pen used to the sign the Gulf of Tonkin memo and a 1944 photograph by Ansel Adams. Vō won the 2012 Hugo Boss Prize, the BlauOrange Kunstpreis of Berlin's Deutschen Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken in 2007, was a nominee for the Preis der Nationalgalerie für junge Kunst in 2009. Vō had his first solo exhibition in 2005, at the Galerie Klosterfelde in Berlin, he participated in the Venice Biennale in 2013. His work has been exhibited at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis.

In 2014 he shared an exhibition with Carol Rama at the Nottingham Contemporary. On November 14, 2014, his exhibition "الحجارة وادي" opened at Museo Jumex in Mexico City. From February 9 through May 9, 2018, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is presenting Danh Vo: Take My Breath Away, the first comprehensive survey of the artist's work in the United States. M+ in partnership with the Isamu Noguchi Foundation and Garden Museum organised an exhibition of Isamu Noguchi and Danh Vō. Noguchi for Danh Vo: Counterpoint The exhibition take place in the M+ Pavilion, Hongkong. Today, Vō is represented by the Marian Goodman Gallery in New York City; until 2015, he worked with Isabella Bortolozzi Galerie, Berlin. In 2014, Dutch collector and entrepreneur Bert Kreuk filed a suit against Vō, claiming that the artist agreed in January 2013 to produce one or more new works for Kreuk’s exhibition, Transforming the Known, at the