The Piankeshaw Indians were Native Americans and members of the Miami Indians who lived apart from the rest of the Miami nation. They lived in an area that now includes western Indiana and Ohio, were allied with the Wea Indians. Piankeshaw villages have been reported along the White River in central Indiana, along the Vermilion River in Illinois, near Ouiatenon; the Piankashaw were living along the Vermilion river in 1743. The Piankeshaw are regarded as being "friendly" towards European settlers, they intermarried with French traders and were treated as equals by residents of New France in the Illinois Country. A principal Piankeshaw village was established on the Wabash River near. In fact, some have suggested that the land around the Grand Rapids Hotel that existed in the 1920s was part of a Piankeshaw Summer campground. Like their French neighbors, the Piankeshaw sided with the Americans during the American Revolution. Although part of the Wabash Confederacy, the Piankeshaw nation took no part in the Northwest Indian War that followed the American Revolution.
However, Piankeshaw suffered retaliation from Americans for attacks made by other native tribes. President George Washington issued a proclamation forbidding harm to the Piankeshaw. During the late 18th century, the Piankeshaw population began to decline. Many of the Piankeshaw left and joined other Miami tribes. After the Americans and French suffered setbacks in the Revolution, notably the disastrous LaBalme expedition, some Piankeshaw joined tribes aligned with the British. At that time, in the West, the British looked. Others left during the economic depression caused by a depreciated United States currency and stagnated fur trade; the Piankeshaw suffered when 1781 brought a severe Winter followed by a Summer drought. Despite overall good relations with the new United States, some Piankeshaw resented the new settlers encroaching on their territory, they joined with other tribes in attacking American settlers. This led to increasing tension at Vincennes, which peaked after an attack on the Embarras River by Kentucky resident Patrick Brown in August 1788.
A large exodus of Piankeshaw left Vincennes and moved to Terre Haute, where they joined the Wea, or moved to Kaskaskia, Illinois. By 1818, the Piankeshaw chief Chekommia signed a treaty selling rights to much of their land to the United States. There were not enough tribal members remaining to use it; the descendants of the Piankeshaw, along with the Kaskaskia and Wea, are enrolled in the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, a federally recognized tribe in Oklahoma. Beckwith, Hiram. Illinois and Indiana Indians. New York: Arno Press. Somes, Joseph Henry Vanderburgh. Old Vincennes. New York: Graphic Books. Libby, Dr. Dorothy.. "An Anthropological Report on the Piankashaw Indians". Dockett 99 ]: Glenn Black Laboratory of Archaeology and The Trustees of Indiana University. Archived from the original on 2008-03-15. Ohio History Central - Piankashaw Indians 1818 Treaty
Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but natural and artificial features, local history and culture; this meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, the identification of specific landforms; this is known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form, it is considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, relief shading. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place.
The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now called'local history'. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. Detailed military surveys in Britain were called Ordnance Surveys, this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps; the earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin; the earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812, which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, has been adopted by most other nations as standard.
In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used in medical fields such as neurology. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude and altitude. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are part of the field. A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. Which method to use depend on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, the quality of existing surveys. Surveying helps determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers.
Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. Though remote sensing has sped up the process of gathering information, has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program, the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data; this data must be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. The original American topographic surveys involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Besides their role in photogrammetry and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features.
They have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. Images can be in other spectrum. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images taken starting from different positions from different passes of an aerial photography flight. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be built from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of its rays which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori. Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital E
A dissected plateau is a plateau area, eroded so that the relief is sharp. Such an area may be referred to as mountainous, but dissected plateaus are distinguishable from orogenic mountain belts by the lack of folding, extensive faulting, or magmatic activity that accompanies orogeny; the Allegheny Plateau, the Cumberland Plateau, the Ozark Plateau, the Catskill Mountains in the United States and the Blue Mountains in Australia and the Deccan Plateau in India are examples of dissected plateaus formed after regional uplift. These older uplifts have been eroded by creeks and rivers to develop steep relief not distinguishable from mountains. Many areas of the Allegheny Plateau and the Cumberland Plateau, which are at the western edge of the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, are called "mountains" but are dissected plateaus. One can stand on the top of one of these high "mountains" and note that all the other tops are nearly the same height, which represents the original elevation profile of the plain before uplift, thereafter the subsequent weather erosion.
A dissected plateau may be formed, or created on a comparatively small scale, by the levelling of terrain by planing and deposition beneath an ice sheet or an ice cap. Subsequently, during the same or a glacial, the margins of the glacial till plain are removed by glaciers, leaving the plateau into which erosion by water incises valleys; such a plateau may be level or sloping but may be distinguished by the till caps on its hills. Glacial till is still known in Britain by the older name of boulder clay. Dissected volcanic plateaus include the Pajarito Plateau in New Mexico, on the skirt of the enormous Valles Caldera. Isolated portions of this plateau are known as mesas, long, connected portions are known as potreros. Summit accordance Syrt, denudational uplands or dissected plateaus in Turkic toponymy of Russia and Central Asia
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock. A clast is a fragment of geological detritus and smaller grains of rock broken off other rocks by physical weathering. Geologists use the term clastic with reference to sedimentary rocks as well as to particles in sediment transport whether in suspension or as bed load, in sediment deposits. Clastic sedimentary rocks are rocks composed predominantly of broken pieces or clasts of older weathered and eroded rocks. Clastic sediments or sedimentary rocks are classified based on grain size and cementing material composition, texture; the classification factors are useful in determining a sample's environment of deposition. An example of clastic environment would be a river system in which the full range of grains being transported by the moving water consist of pieces eroded from solid rock upstream. Grain size varies from clay in claystones; the Krumbein phi scale numerically orders these terms in a logarithmic size scale.
Siliciclastic rocks are clastic noncarbonate rocks that are composed exclusively of silicon, either as forms of quartz or as silicates. The composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks includes the chemical and mineralogical components of the framework as well as the cementing material that make up these rocks. Boggs divides them into four categories. Major minerals can be categorized into subdivisions based on their resistance to chemical decomposition; those that possess a great resistance to decomposition are categorized as stable, while those that do not are considered less stable. The most common stable mineral in siliciclastic sedimentary rocks is quartz. Quartz makes up 65 percent of framework grains present in sandstones and about 30 percent of minerals in the average shale. Less stable minerals present in this type of rocks are feldspars, including both potassium and plagioclase feldspars. Feldspars comprise a lesser portion of framework grains and minerals, they only make up about 15 percent of framework grains in 5 % of minerals in shales.
Clay mineral groups are present in mudrocks but can be found in other siliciclastic sedimentary rocks at lower levels. Accessory minerals are associated with those whose presence in the rock are not directly important to the classification of the specimen; these occur in smaller amounts in comparison to the quartz, feldspars. Furthermore, those that do occur are heavy minerals or coarse grained micas. Rock fragments occur in the composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and are responsible for about 10–15 percent of the composition of sandstone, they make up most of the gravel size particles in conglomerates but contribute only a small amount to the composition of mudrocks. Though they sometimes are, rock fragments are not always sedimentary in origin, they can be metamorphic or igneous. Chemical cements are predominantly found in sandstones; the two major types, are silicate carbonate based. The majority of silica cements are composed of quartz but can include, opal and zeolites. Composition includes the chemical and mineralogic make-up of the single or varied fragments and the cementing material holding the clasts together as a rock.
These differences are most used in the framework grains of sandstones. Sandstones rich in quartz are called quartz arenites, those rich in feldspar are called arkoses, those rich in lithics are called lithic sandstones. Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are composed of silicate particles derived by the weathering of older rocks and pyroclastic volcanism. While grain size and cementing material composition, texture are important factors when regarding composition, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are classified according to grain size into three major categories; the term clay is used to classify particles smaller than.0039 millimeters. However, term can be used to refer to a family of sheet silicate minerals. Silt refers to particles that have a diameter between.0039 millimeters. The term mud is used when silt particles are mixed in the sediment. Furthermore, particles that reach diameters between.062 and 2 millimeters fall into the category of sand. When sand is cemented together and lithified it becomes known as sandstone.
Any particle, larger than two millimeters is considered gravel. This category includes pebbles and boulders. Like sandstone, when gravels are lithified they are considered conglomerates. Conglomerates are coarse grained rocks dominantly composed of gravel sized particles that are held together by a finer grained matrix; these rocks are subdivided into conglomerates and breccias. The major characteristic that divides these two categories is the amount of rounding; the gravel sized particles that make up conglomerates are well rounded while in breccias they are angular. Conglomerates are common in stratigraphic successions of most, if not all ages but only make up one percent or less, by weight of the total sedimentary rock mass. In terms or origin and depositional mechanisms they are similar to sandstones; as a result, the two categories contain the same sedimentary structures. Sandstones are medium-grained rocks composed of rounded or angular fragments of sand size, that often
Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on one's back, while hiking for more than a day. It is but not always an extended journey, may or may not involve camping outdoors. In North America tenting is common, where simple shelters and mountain huts found in Europe are rare. In New Zealand, tramping is the term applied though overnight huts are used. Hill walking is an equivalent in Britain, though backpackers make use of all kinds of accommodation, in addition to camping. Backpackers use simple huts in South Africa. Similar terms used in other countries are bushwalking. Backpacking as a method of travel is a different activity, which utilizes public transport during a journey which can last months. Backpacking is an outdoor recreation; this can include food, bedding, clothing and cooking kit. Weight is key. Backpacking trips range from one night to weeks or months, sometimes aided by planned resupply points or drops. Backpacking camps are more spartan than campsites where gear is transported by car or boat.
In areas with heavy backpacker traffic, a hike-in campsite might have a fire ring, an outhouse, a wooden bulletin board with a map and information about the trail and area. Many hike-in camps are no more than level patches of ground free of underbrush. In remote wilderness areas hikers must choose their own site. Established camps are rare and the ethos is to "leave no trace" when gone. In some regions, varying forms of accommodation exist, from simple log lean-to's to staffed facilities offering escalating degrees of service. Beds and drinks may be had at Alpine huts scattered among well-traveled European mountains. Backpackers there can walk from hut-to-hut without leaving the mountains, while in places like the Lake District or Yorkshire Dales in England hill-walkers descend to stay in Youth hostels, farmhouses or guest houses. In the more remote parts of Great Britain Scotland, bothies exist to provide simple accommodation for backpackers. On the French system of long distance trails, Grande Randonnées, backpackers can stay in gîtes d'etapes, which are simple hostels provided for walkers and cyclists.
There are some simple shelters and occasional mountain hut provided in North America, including on the Appalachian trail. Another example is the High Sierra Camps in the Yosemite National Park. Long distance backpacking trails with huts exist in South Africa, including the 100 km plus Amatola Trail, in the Eastern Cape Province. Backpacking is popular in the Himalayas, where porters and pack animals are used. Backpacking gear proper both in size and fit. Backpacks in general fall into one of four categories: frameless, external frame, internal frame, bodypack. Clothing and footwear appropriate for expected conditions. Adequate food; some form of sleep system such as a sleeping bag and a foam pad. Survival gear. A shelter appropriate to expected conditions is next. Practical items not mentioned - cook kit, container for water, a means of purifying it - are characteristically but not always taken in some form. Depending on the trip ready-to-eat foods may suffice and suitable water be found along the way.
More minimalist backpackers find ways to do with less. Weight is always critical. A rule of thumb suggests a loaded backpack should weigh no more than 25% of a person's weight; every single item is scrutinized, many removed the first time. Lightweight gear is available, which may or may not sacrifice utility and durability but will always cost more. A wide variety utilizing carbon fiber, lightweight alloys, specialty plastics, impregnated fabrics is available. Proper hydration is critical to successful backpacking. Depending on conditions - which include weather, terrain and the hiker's age and fitness - a backpacker needs anywhere from 1/2 to 2 gallons, or more, per day. At 1 kilogram per 1 litre water is exceptionally heavy, it is impossible to carry more than a few days' supply. Thus provisions for adequate water on a backpacking trip must be made in advance, whether, knowing of potable sources such as lakes and springs en route or a means of filtering or purifying tainted water supplies as encountered.
In most pristine areas water needs treatment before consumption to protect against waterborne diseases carried by bacteria and protozoa. The chief treatment methods include: Boiling over fire, stove, or other heat source Treatment with chemicals such as chlorine or iodine Filtering Treatment with ultraviolet lightWater may be stored in appropriate bottles or collapsible plastic bladders. Hydration packs are popular. Backpacking is energy intensive, it is essential enough food is taken to maintain both health. As with gear, weight is critical. Items with high food energy, long shelf life, low mass and volume deliver the most utility. Satisfaction is another consideration, of lesser importance to all hikers. Only they can decide whether it's worth the effort to carry heavy, or luxury food items; the shorter the trip and easier the conditions the more feasible such treats become. In all cases, both kit and fuel necessary to prepare and serve foodstuffs selected is part of the equation. Small liquid and gas fueled.
Campfires are prohibited. While most backpackers consume at least some specially prepare
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, transports it to another location. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, ice, air, plants and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind erosion, zoogenic erosion, anthropogenic erosion; the particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; the rates at which such processes act control. Physical erosion proceeds fastest on steeply sloping surfaces, rates may be sensitive to some climatically-controlled properties including amounts of water supplied, wind speed, wave fetch, or atmospheric temperature.
Feedbacks are possible between rates of erosion and the amount of eroded material, carried by, for example, a river or glacier. Processes of erosion that produce sediment or solutes from a place contrast with those of deposition, which control the arrival and emplacement of material at a new location. While erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. At well-known agriculture sites such as the Appalachian Mountains, intensive farming practices have caused erosion up to 100x the speed of the natural rate of erosion in the region. Excessive erosion causes both "on-site" and "off-site" problems. On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers. In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification. Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses.
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation. Intensive agriculture, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. Rainfall, the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion. Splash erosion is seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process, followed by sheet erosion rill erosion and gully erosion. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles; the distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0.6 m vertically and 1.5 m horizontally on level ground. If the soil is saturated, or if the rainfall rate is greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil, surface runoff occurs.
If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles down the slope. Sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil particles by overland flow. Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes. Where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Flow depths in rills are of the order of a few centimetres or less and along-channel slopes may be quite steep; this means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics different from water flowing through the deeper, wider channels of streams and rivers. Gully erosion occurs when runoff water accumulates and flows in narrow channels during or after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth. Valley or stream erosion occurs with continued water flow along a linear feature; the erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
In the earliest stage of stream erosion, the erosive activity is dominantly vertical, the valleys have a typical V cross-section and the stream gradient is steep. When some base level is reached, the erosive activity switches to lateral erosion, which widens the valley floor and creates a narrow floodplain; the stream gradient becomes nearly flat, lateral deposition of sediments becomes important as the stream meanders across the valley floor. In all stages of stream erosion, by far the most erosion occurs during times of flood when more and faster-moving water is available to carry a larger sediment load. In such processes, it is not the water alone
An orogeny is an event that leads to both structural deformation and compositional differentiation of the Earth's lithosphere at convergent plate margins. An orogen or orogenic belt develops when a continental plate crumples and is pushed upwards to form one or more mountain ranges. Orogeny is the primary mechanism; the word "orogeny" comes from Ancient Greek. Although it was used before him, the term was employed by the American geologist G. K. Gilbert in 1890 to describe the process of mountain building as distinguished from epeirogeny; the formation of an orogen can be accomplished by the tectonic processes such as oceanic subduction or continental subduction convergence of two or more continents for collisional orogeny). Orogeny produces long arcuate structures, known as orogenic belts. Orogenic belts consist of long parallel strips of rock exhibiting similar characteristics along the length of the belt. Although orogenic belts are associated with subduction zones, subduction tectonism may be ongoing or past processes.
The subducting tectonism would consume crust, thicken lithosphere, produce earthquake and volcanoes, build island arcs in many cases. Geologists attribute the arcuate structure to the rigidity of the descending plate, island arc cusps relate to tears in the descending lithosphere; these island arcs may be added to a continental margin during an accretionary orogeny. On the other hand, subduction zones may be reworked at a time due to lithospheric rifting, leading to amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the thinned orogenic crust; the processes of orogeny can take tens of millions of years and build mountains from plains or from the seabed. The topographic height of orogenic mountains is related to the principle of isostasy, that is, a balance of the downward gravitational force upon an upthrust mountain range and the buoyant upward forces exerted by the dense underlying mantle. Rock formations that undergo orogeny are deformed and undergo metamorphism. Orogenic processes may push buried rocks to the surface.
Sea-bottom and near-shore material may cover all of the orogenic area. If the orogeny is due to two continents colliding high mountains can result. An orogenic event may be studied: as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event, as a chronological event. Orogenic events: cause distinctive structural phenomena related to tectonic activity affect rocks and crust in particular regions, happen within a specific period In general, there are two main types of orogens at convergent plate margins: accretionary orogens, which were produced by subduction of one oceanic plate beneath one continental plate to result in either continental arc magmatism or the accretion of island arc terranes to continental margins. An orogeny produces an orogen, but a range-foreland basin system is only produced on passive plate margins; the foreland basin forms ahead of the orogen due to loading and resulting flexure of the lithosphere by the developing mountain belt. A typical foreland basin is subdivided into a wedge-top basin above the active orogenic wedge, the foredeep beyond the active front, a forebulge high of flexural origin and a back-bulge area beyond, although not all of these are present in all foreland-basin systems.
The basin migrates with the orogenic front and early deposited foreland basin sediments become progressively involved in folding and thrusting. Sediments deposited in the foreland basin are derived from the erosion of the uplifting rocks of the mountain range, although some sediments derive from the foreland; the fill of many such basins shows a change in time from deepwater marine through shallow water to continental sediments. Although orogeny involves plate tectonics, the tectonic forces result in a variety of associated phenomena, including crustal deformation, crustal thickening, crustal thinning and crustal melting as well as magmatism and mineralization. What happens in a specific orogen depends upon the strength and rheology of the continental lithosphere, how these properties change during orogenesis. In addition to orogeny, the orogen is subject to other processes, such as erosion; the sequence of repeated cycles of sedimentation and erosion, followed by burial and metamorphism, by crustal anatexis to form granitic batholiths and tectonic uplift to form mountain chains, is called the orogenic cycle.
For example, the Caledonian Orogeny refers to a series of tectonic events due to the continental collision of Laurentia with Eastern Avalonia and other former fragments of Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic. The Caledonian Orogen resulted from these events and various others that are part of its peculiar orogenic cycle. In summary, an orogeny is an episode of deformation and magmatism at convergent plate margins, during which many geological processes play a role at convergent plate margins; every orogeny has its own orogenic cycle, but composite orogenesis is common at convergent plate margins. Erosion represents a subsequent phase of the orogenic cycle. Erosion removes much of the mountains