Herman Johannes Lam
Herman Johannes Lam was a Dutch botanist. Lam studied at Utrecht University, where he was awarded a Doctor of Biology in 1919, Lam was the appointed the director of the Rijksherbarium in 1933. He retired from work in 1962. He was member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1960
Therefore, members of a group are assumed to share a common history and are considered to be closely related. The techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines, Cladistics in the original sense refers to a particular set of methods used in phylogenetic analysis, although it is now sometimes used to refer to the whole field. What is now called the cladistic method appeared as early as 1901 with a work by Peter Chalmers Mitchell for birds and subsequently by Robert John Tillyard in 1921, Hennig referred to his own approach as phylogenetic systematics. Phenetics was championed at this time by the numerical taxonomists Peter Sneath and Robert Sokal, originally conceived, if only in essence, by Willi Hennig in a book published in 1950, cladistics did not flourish until its translation into English in 1966. Today, cladistics is the most popular method for constructing phylogenies from morphological, unlike phenetics, cladistics is specifically aimed at reconstructing evolutionary histories.
The way for computational phylogenetics was paved by phenetics, a set of commonly used from the 1950s to 1980s. Phenetics did not try to reconstruct phylogenetic trees, rather, it tried to build dendrograms from similarity data, the cladistic method interprets each character state transformation implied by the distribution of shared character states among taxa as a potential piece of evidence for grouping. The outcome of an analysis is a cladogram – a tree-shaped diagram that is interpreted to represent the best hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. Cladists contend that these models are unjustified, every cladogram is based on a particular dataset analyzed with a particular method. Different datasets and different methods, not to mention violations of the mentioned assumptions, only scientific investigation can show which is more likely to be correct. Since the cladograms provide competing accounts of events, at most one of them is correct. Within the primates, all anthropoids are hypothesized to have had a common ancestor all of whose descendants were anthropoids, the prosimians, on the other hand, form a paraphyletic taxon.
When two or more taxa that are not nested within each other share a plesiomorphy, it is a symplesiomorphy, symplesiomorphies do not mean that the taxa that exhibit that character state are necessarily closely related. For example, Reptilia is traditionally characterized by being cold-blooded, whereas birds are warm-blooded, an apomorphy or derived state is an innovation. It can thus be used to diagnose a clade – or even to help define a clade name in phylogenetic nomenclature, features that are derived in individual taxa are called autapomorphies. Autapomorphies express nothing about relationships among groups, clades are identified by synapomorphies, for example, the possession of digits that are homologous with those of Homo sapiens is a synapomorphy within the vertebrates. The tetrapods can be singled out as consisting of the first vertebrate with such digits homologous to those of Homo sapiens together with all descendants of this vertebrate and it is therefore inferred to have evolved by convergence or reversal.
Both mammals and birds are able to maintain a constant body temperature
In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. The term is synonymous with the uncommon term holophyly, monophyletic groups are typically characterized by shared derived characteristics. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly, as shown in the second diagram, a paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. These definitions have taken time to be accepted. When the cladistic school of thought became mainstream in the 1960s, taxonomists sometimes used terms without defining them, leading to confusion in the early literature, a confusion which persists. On the broadest scale, definitions fall into two groups, willi Hennig defined monophyly as groups based on synapomorphy. Some authors have sought to define monophyly to include paraphyly as any two or more groups sharing a common ancestor, this broader definition encompasses both monophyletic and paraphyletic groups as defined above.
Therefore, most scientists today restrict the term monophyletic to refer to groups consisting of all the descendants of one common ancestor, when considering taxonomic groups such as genera and species, the most appropriate nature of their common ancestor is unclear. Assuming that it would be one individual or mating pair is unrealistic for sexually reproducing species, some argue that using a broader definition, such as a species and all its descendants, does not really work to define a genus. According to D. M. Glossary of scientific naming Clade Paraphyly Polyphyly Crown group Abbey, graphical explanation of basic phylogenetic terms. Carr, Steven M. Concepts of monophyly, polyphyly & paraphyly
A folk taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, and can be contrasted with scientific taxonomy. Folk taxonomies are generated from social knowledge and are used in everyday speech and they are distinguished from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal. Anthropologists have observed that taxonomies are generally embedded in cultural and social systems. Arguably, the most well-known and influential study of folk taxonomies is Émile Durkheims The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Folk taxonomies exist to allow popular identification of classes of objects, and apply to all areas of human activity. All parts of the world have their own systems of naming local plants and these naming systems are a vital aid to survival and include information such as the fruiting patterns of trees and the habits of large mammals. These localised naming systems are folk taxonomies, theophrastus recorded evidence of a Greek folk taxonomy for plants, but formalized botanical taxonomies were laid out in the 18th century by Carl Linnaeus.
Critics of the concept of race in humans argue that race is a folk taxonomy rather than a scientific classification, cognition 84, 1-53 Berlin, Brent Speculations on the growth of ethnobotanical nomenclature, Language in Society,1, 51-86. Berlin, Brent & Dennis E. Breedlove & Peter H. Raven Folk taxonomies and biological classification, Science,154, 273-275. Berlin, Brent & Dennis E. Breedlove & Peter H. Raven General principles of classification and nomenclature in biology, American Anthropologist,75. Unique beginners and covert categories in folk biological taxonomies, American Anthropologist,76, Cecil H. & John Kolar & Barbara J. Torrey & Tipawan Truoong-Quang & Phillip Volkman. ‘Some general principles of biological and non-biological folk classification’, American Ethnologist,3,1, ‘The growth of ethnobiological nomenclature’, Current Anthropology,27,1, 1-19
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, growth, distribution and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain unifying concepts within it that consolidate it into single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity. It is understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable, the term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios and the suffix -λογία, -logia, study of. The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica, the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotles successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks dramatic improvement of the microscope.
It was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, infusoria, investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the importance of the cell. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians
In biodiversity informatics, a chresonym refers to the cited use of a taxon name, usually a species name, within a publication. The term is derived from the Greek chresis meaning a use, the technical meaning of the related term synonym is for different names that refer to the same object or concept. As noted by Hobart and Rozella Smith, zoological systematists had been using the term in another sense as well, such a synonymy could include multiple listings, one for each place the author found a name used, rather than a summarized list of different synonyms. The term chresonym was created to distinguish this second sense of the term synonym, the concept of synonymy is furthermore different in the zoological and botanical codes of nomenclature. A name that refers to a taxon is further termed an orthochresonym while one that is applied incorrectly for a given taxon may be termed a heterochresonym. Species names consist of a part and a species part to create a binomial name. Species names often include a reference to the publication of the name by including the author.
As an example, the whale, Physeter catodon, was first described by Linnaeus in the 10th edition Systema Naturae published in 1758. Thus, the name may be referenced as Physeter catodon Linnaeus 1758 and that name was used by Harmer in 1928 to refer to the species in the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London and of course, it has appeared in numerous other publications since then. Hershkovitz, for example refers to Physeter catodon Harmer 1928, which can cause confusion as this name+author combination really refers to the name that Linnaeus first published in 1758. Nepenthes rafflesiana, a species of plant, was described by William Jack in 1835. The name Nepenthes rafflesiana as used by Hugh Low in 1848 is a heterochresonym and Jebb explain the situation thus, Low. Accidentally, or otherwise, had described what we know as N. rafflesiana as Nepenthes × hookeriana and vice versa in his book Sarawak, its Inhabitants, Masters was the first author to note this in the Gardeners Chronicle. Where he gives the first full description and illustration of Nepenthes × hookeriana, the description that Maxwell Tylden Masters provided in 1881 for the taxon that had previously been known to gardeners as Nepenthes hookeriana differs from Lows description.
Since the descriptions differ and Masters name have different types, Masters therefore created a homonym, according to the rules of the code is illegitimate. Biodiversity Synonym Glossary of scientific naming
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising todays turtles, snakes, lizards and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of amphibians, is called herpetology. Because some reptiles are more related to birds than they are to other reptiles. For this reason, many scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well. Some early examples include the lizard-like Hylonomus and Casineria, in addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In particular, the K–Pg extinction wiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs and sauropods, as well as species of theropods, crocodyliforms. Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica, several living subgroups are recognized, approximately 400 species, Sphenodontia,1 species, over 9,600 species, Crocodilia,25 species, and Aves,10,000 species. Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates, creatures that either have four limbs or, unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage.
As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. In the 18th century, the reptiles were, from the outset of classification, the terms reptile and amphibian were largely interchangeable, reptile being preferred by the French. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to use the term Reptilia for an expanded selection of reptiles. Today, the two groups are commonly treated under the same heading as herptiles. He subsequently proposed the names of Sauropsida and Ichthyopsida for the two groups. In 1866, Haeckel demonstrated that vertebrates could be divided based on their strategies, and that reptiles, birds. The terms Sauropsida and Theropsida were used again in 1916 by E. S, Goodrich to distinguish between lizards and their relatives on the one hand and mammals and their extinct relatives on the other.
Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, according to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, Protosauria in which he included some animals today considered reptile-like amphibians, as well as early reptiles. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged very early in history, so he divided Goodrichs Protosauria between them. He reinterpreted Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals, thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Millerosauria, Squamata, Crocodilia, non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs and sauropterygians
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants and other gymnosperms, clubmosses, liverworts and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.
They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts. When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown and green algae. Each of these groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.
At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the groups last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups, the term is commonly used in phylogenetics and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish and lizards, if many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic. A paraphyletic group cannot be a clade, which is a monophyletic group, groups that include all the descendants of a common ancestor are said to be monophyletic. A paraphyletic group is a group from which one or more subsidiary clades is excluded to form a separate group.
Ereshefsky has argued that paraphyletic taxa are the result of anagenesis in the group or groups. For example, dinosaurs are paraphyletic with respect to birds because birds possess many features that dinosaurs lack, a group whose identifying features evolved convergently in two or more lineages is polyphyletic. More broadly, any taxon that is not paraphyletic or monophyletic can be called polyphyletic and these terms were developed during the debates of the 1960s and 70s accompanying the rise of cladistics. The prokaryotes, because they exclude the eukaryotes, a descendant group and Archaea are prokaryotes, but archaea and eukaryotes share a common ancestor that is not ancestral to the bacteria. The prokaryote/eukaryote distinction was proposed by Edouard Chatton in 1937 and was accepted after being adopted by Roger Stanier. The botanical code abandoned consideration of bacterial nomenclature in 1975, dicotyledons are paraphyletic because the group excludes monocotyledons. Dicotyledon has not been used as an ICBN classification for decades, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the monocots are a development from a dicot ancestor.
Excluding monocots from the dicots makes the latter a paraphyletic group, the order Artiodactyla, because it excludes Cetaceans. In the ICZN Code, the two taxa are orders of equal rank, molecular studies, have shown that the Cetacea descend from the Artiodactyl ancestors, although the precise phylogeny within the order remains uncertain. Without the Cetacean descendants the Artiodactyls must be paraphyletic, the class Reptilia as traditionally defined, because it excludes birds and mammals. In the ICZN Code, the three taxa are classes of equal rank, mammals hail from the synapsids and birds are descended from the dinosaurs, both of which are reptiles
Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name, more informally it is called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs, for example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. The formal introduction of system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus. Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. Similarly, both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned. In zoology Patella vulgata Linnaeus,1758, the original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica, the parentheses indicate that the species is now considered to belong in a different genus.
The ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, in botany Amaranthus retroflexus L. – L. is the standard abbreviation used in botany for Linnaeus. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica, Rothmaler transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides, the ICN does not require that the dates of either publication be specified. Prior to the adoption of the binomial system of naming species. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature and these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description, such polynomial names may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. For example, Gerards herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort, The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort, is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia. The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels, the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words.
The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné. It was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word trivial name together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as an epithet or specific name
The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning, experiments need to be designed to test hypotheses. The most important part of the method is the experiment. The scientific method is a process, which usually begins with observations about the natural world. Human beings are naturally inquisitive, so often come up with questions about things they see or hear. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways, in general, the strongest tests of hypotheses come from carefully controlled and replicated experiments that gather empirical data. Depending on how well the tests match the predictions, the hypothesis may require refinement. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported a theory may be developed. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, identifiable features are shared in common between them.
The overall process of the method involves making conjectures, deriving predictions from them as logical consequences. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while formulating the question, the hypothesis might be very specific or it might be broad. Scientists test hypotheses by conducting experiments, the purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take anywhere from a college lab to CERNs Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is presented as a fixed sequence of steps. Not all steps take place in scientific inquiry, and are not always in the same order. Some philosophers and scientists have argued there is no scientific method, such as Lee Smolin. Nola and Sankey remark that For some, the idea of a theory of scientific method is yester-years debate