Taxonomy (biology)

In biology, taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; the principal ranks in modern use are domain, phylum, order, family and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct; the exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the discipline remains: the conception and classification of groups of organisms. As points of reference, recent definitions of taxonomy are presented below: Theory and practice of grouping individuals into species, arranging species into larger groups, giving those groups names, thus producing a classification.

A field of science that encompasses description, identification and classification The science of classification, in biology the arrangement of organisms into a classification "The science of classification as applied to living organisms, including study of means of formation of species, etc." "The analysis of an organism's characteristics for the purpose of classification" "Systematics studies phylogeny to provide a pattern that can be translated into the classification and names of the more inclusive field of taxonomy" The varied definitions either place taxonomy as a sub-area of systematics, invert that relationship, or appear to consider the two terms synonymous. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, or a part of systematics outside taxonomy. For example, definition 6 is paired with the following definition of systematics that places nomenclature outside taxonomy: Systematics: "The study of the identification and nomenclature of organisms, including the classification of living things with regard to their natural relationships and the study of variation and the evolution of taxa".

A whole set of terms including taxonomy, systematic biology, biosystematics, scientific classification, biological classification, phylogenetics have at times had overlapping meanings – sometimes the same, sometimes different, but always related and intersecting. The broadest meaning of "taxonomy" is used here; the term itself was introduced in 1813 by de Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique. A taxonomic revision or taxonomic review is a novel analysis of the variation patterns in a particular taxon; this analysis may be executed on the basis of any combination of the various available kinds of characters, such as morphological, palynological and genetic. A monograph or complete revision is a revision, comprehensive for a taxon for the information given at a particular time, for the entire world. Other revisions may be restricted in the sense that they may only use some of the available character sets or have a limited spatial scope. A revision results in a conformation of or new insights in the relationships between the subtaxa within the taxon under study, which may result in a change in the classification of these subtaxa, the identification of new subtaxa, or the merger of previous subtaxa.

The term "alpha taxonomy" is used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, the products of research through the end of the 19th century. William Bertram Turrill introduced the term "alpha taxonomy" in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937 in which he discussed the philosophy and possible future directions of the discipline of taxonomy. … there is an increasing desire amongst taxonomists to consider their problems from wider viewpoints, to investigate the possibilities of closer co-operation with their cytological and genetics colleagues and to acknowledge that some revision or expansion of a drastic nature, of their aims and methods, may be desirable … Turrill has suggested that while accepting the older invaluable taxonomy, based on structure, conveniently designated "alpha", it is possible to glimpse a far-distant taxonomy built upon as wide a basis of morphological and physiological facts as possible, one in which "place is found for all observational and experimental data relating if indirectly, to the constitution, subdivision and behaviour of species and other taxonomic groups".

Ideals can, it may be said, never be realized. They have, however, a great value of acting as permanent stimulants, if we have some vague, ideal of an "omega" taxonomy we may progress a little way down the Greek alphabet; some of us please ourselves by thinking. Turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology, he further excludes phyloge


Arvieu is a commune in the Aveyron department in the Occitanie region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arvieunoises. Arvieu is located some 23 km south by 7 km north of Alrance. Access to the commune is by the D56 road from Pont-de-Salars in the north-east passing through the commune and the village and continuing south to Durenque; the D82 goes north to Flavin. The D577 goes west to Salmiech; the commune is farmland except for some small patches of forest. The eastern border of the commune is the Lac de Pareloup; the Céor river rises in the east of the commune and flows west through the village south forming part of the western border before continuing west to join the Viaur at Saint-Just-sur-Viaur. The Ruisseau de Glauzeilles rises in the north of the commune flowing west south-west, forming the north-eastern border of the commune, to join the Céor; the Ruisseau de Calieres rises in the east of the commune and flows north to join the Vioulou just north of the commune.

There are traces of the Gallo-Romans In the 16th century the village was besieged In the 18th century the Vigouroux family of Rodez bought the Lordship The Arvieu Affair: The village was attacked by a band of counter-revolutionaries from the former Army of Charrié who hid in the Palanges Forest. The house of Citizen Bonnefous, the leading citizen of the commune, was pillaged. Many people were accused of supporting the attackers who were from the de Barrau family of Carcenac-Salmiech; the ramparts were destroyed in the 19th century. List of Successive Mayors Mayors from 1941 A Feudal Château Sainte-Famille; the Château of Saint-Louis. The Château of Montfranc. A Pond and Lavoir at Arvieu; the Church of Notre-Dame d'Aures is registered as an historical monument. The church contains a Statue of Saint Foy, registered as an historical object; the Parish Church of Saint-Amans at Arvieu had a Painting: The Assumption of the Virgin, registered as an historical object. The Church of Saint-Saturnin or Saint-Sernin at Caplongue.

The Church of Saint-Martin at Faux. The Chapel of Saint-André at Clauzelles. Jean Dupin, former senior Post Office official, wrote seven novels set in Lévézou from Arvieu village. Joël Serin, former secretary in the Town Hall. Henri Grimal, born in Arvieu in 1910, academic and historian. Communes of the Aveyron department Christian-Pierre Bedel, preface by Bernard Destours, Cassanhas: Arviu, Caumont, La Grand'Vila, Saumièg, Senta-Jaleda or Christian-Pierre Bedel e los estatjants del canton de Cassanhas, Mission départementale de la culture, 1996, Al canton collection, 240 pages, ill. Couv. ill. 28 cm, ISBN 2-907279-30-0, ISSN 1151-8375, BnF 366930046 / Arvieu official website Arvieu tourism website Arvieu on the National Geographic Institute website Arvieu on Lion1906 Arvieu on Google Maps Arvieu on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Arvieu on the 1750 Cassini Map Arvieu on the INSEE website INSEE

Zlatko Pejaković

Zlatko Pejaković is a Croatian singer. He has released 27 albums over his five decade long career, he started his music career in 1967 with local bands in Osijek. In 1972 he joined Korni Grupa; the breakup of the band in 1974 kickstarted his solo career. Pejaković was born in Osijek to Bosnian Croats from Travnik, he sang in bands Čarobnjaci, Dinamiti, Zlatni Akordi, Grupa Had and Korni Grupa. His songs include "Ove noći jedna žena", "Lagala je da me voli", the country-influenced "Plavo pismo". In 1996 he married his longtime girlfriend Marija, a musician, his cousin Josip Pejaković is an actor and his son Marko is a DJ in Slovenia. Lice Zlatko Pejaković Tebi ljubavi Dilema Ti nisi ta Trn Smiri se srce Sve je u redu Zlatko Pejaković Kad prođe sve Tamburicu ja, mandolinu ti Zlatko'93 Zlatko'94 U se, na se... zna se Večeras će zvoniti zvona - Čestit Božić Sve najbolje Best of 69/96 Ni na nebu ni na zemlji Koncert Dom Sportova, Zagreb'98 Zlatko 2000 Pijem da je zaboravim Bezobrazno zelene U ranu zoru Zlatko 2004 Ala je divan taj podravski kraj Pjevat će Slavonija Ličanin sam, govor me odaje The platinum collection Zlatko 2010