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Teachers College, Columbia University

Teachers College, Columbia University is a graduate school of education and psychology in New York City. Founded in 1887, it has served as the Faculty and Department of Education of Columbia University since its affiliation in 1898. Teachers College is the oldest and largest graduate school of education in the United States. For 2020, U. S. News & World Report ranked Teachers College #7 among all graduate schools of education in the United States. In 2008, 2002, 1998, 1997, 1996 Teachers College was ranked #1 by the publication. Teachers College alumni and faculty have held prominent positions in academia, music, non-profit and social science research just to name a few. Overall, Teachers College has over 90,000 alumni in more than 30 countries. Notable alumni and former faculty include John Dewey, Art Garfunkel, Dr. Ruth Westheimer, Carl Rogers, Margaret Mead, Bill Campbell, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edward Thorndike, Donna Shalala, William Schuman, Lee Huan, Shirley Chisholm, Mary Adelaide Nutting, Hamden L. Forkner, E. Gordon Gee.

In 1880, the Kitchen Education Association was founded by philanthropist Grace Hoadley Dodge, the daughter of wealthy businessman William Dodge. The association's focus was to replace miniature kitchen utensils for other toys that were age-appropriate for kindergarten-aged girls. In 1884, the KEA was rebranded to the Industrial Education Association, in the spirit of widening its mission to boys and parents. Three years it moved to the former Union Theological Seminary building on University Place, as well as founded a coeducational private school called the Horace Mann School. In 1887 William Vanderbilt Jr. offered a substantial financial sum to the IEA. With the support of Dodge, Vanderbilt appointed Nicholas Murray Butler, the future longest-serving president of Columbia University and Nobel Peace Prize recipient, as new president of the IEA; the IEA decided to provide schooling for the teachers of the poor children of New York City. Thus, in 1887–1888, it employed six instructors and enrolled thirty-six juniors in its inaugural class as well as eighty-six special students.

In order to reflect the broadening mission of education beyond the original philanthropic intent set forth by Dodge, the IEA changed its name to the New York School for the Training of Teachers, received its temporary charter from the New York State Board of Regents. By October 1890, the school's trustees were looking for a new campus, as the University Place campus was considered too small. After discussion with Columbia University president Seth Low, the trustees settled on a site in Morningside Heights, near where Columbia's campus was being built. In 1892, the name of the New York School for the Training of Teachers was again changed to Teachers College; the next year, Teachers College and Columbia University were affiliated with each other, the trustees acquired land for the new College campus in Morningside Heights. The buildings for the campus of the College were designed by William Appleton Potter; the first structure in the original complex, Main Hall, was completed in late 1894. The curriculum combined a humanitarian concern to help others with a scientific approach to human development.

The College was merged into Columbia University in 1898 as the University's Graduate School of Education. A new building for Horace Mann was erected in 1899, followed by the Frederick Ferris Thompson Memorial Hall in 1902–1904. Additionally, a four-wing dormitory building, called Whittier Hall, was built in 1900–1901. Enrollment increased quickly: the graduating class of 1911 contained 686 students, as opposed to the 26 students in the first graduating class; the founders early recognized that professional teachers need reliable knowledge about the conditions under which children learn most effectively. As a result, the college's program from the start included such fundamental subjects as educational psychology and educational sociology; the founders insisted that education must be combined with clear ideas about ethics and the nature of a good society. As the number of school children increased during the twentieth century, the problems of managing the schools became more complex; the college took on the challenge and instituted programs of study in areas of administration and politics.

Other programs developed in such emerging fields as clinical and counseling psychology, organizational psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, curriculum development, instructional technology, media studies and school health care. Teachers College was associated with philosopher and public intellectual John Dewey, who served as president of the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association, was a professor at the facility from 1904 until his retirement in 1930; the school offers Master of Arts, Master of Education, Master of Science, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Philosophy degrees in over sixty programs of study. Despite the college's name, less than one-third of students are preparing to become teachers. Graduates pursue careers, for example, in the social sciences and health promotion, educational policy, technology and comparative education, as well as educational leadership. According to former president Susan Fuhrman, Teachers

1897 Colonial Conference

The 1897 Colonial Conference was a conference between the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the 11 self-governing colonies of the British Empire. The conference was convened in London by Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain in 1897 on the occasion of Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Chamberlain's intention was to draw the self-governing colonies into closer co-operation with the United Kingdom. Delegates were sent to the conference by Canada, Newfoundland Colony, New Zealand the Australian self-governing colonies of New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia, the South African colonies of Cape Colony and the Colony of Natal. Chamberlain proposed the creation of a permanent Imperial Council made up of delegates from the colonies to act as an Empire-wide parliament with the power to bind the colonies on imperial matters but this was rejected by the colonies due to fears of loss of autonomy. Chamberlain propose that colonies increase their contributions to the Royal Navy but only some colonies agreed to increase their contributions and no permanent arrangement was agreed to.

Chamberlain proposed a customs union between the colonies and Britain while Canada proposed preferential trade but no decision was made by the delegates. The conference was hosted by Queen Victoria, with her Colonial Secretary and the Premiers of various colonies: Imperial Conference Minutes of the 1911 Imperial Conference

Fort Reno (Oklahoma)

Fort Reno is a former United States Army cavalry post west of El Reno, Oklahoma. It is named for General Jesse L. Reno, who died at the Battle of South Mountain in the American Civil War. Fort Reno began as a temporary camp in July 1874 near the Darlington Agency, which needed protection from an Indian uprising that led to the Red River War. After the conflict ended, the post remained to control and protect the Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho reservation, Fort Reno was established as a permanent fort on July 15, 1874. Soldiers from Fort Reno attempted to control Boomer and Sooner activity during the rush to open the Unassigned Lands for settlement. Among the units stationed here were the famed Ninth Cavalry of Buffalo Soldiers; the fort lent its name to the city of El Reno, which still exists, as well as Reno City, abandoned before Oklahoma statehood. After Oklahoma statehood in 1907, the post was abandoned on February 24, 1908, but remained as a quartermaster remount depot. During World War II, German and Italian prisoners of war were housed on the grounds.

In 1949, the fort was abandoned by the Army and transferred to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, which uses it as its Grazinglands Research Laboratory; the laboratory's mission is to develop and deliver improved technologies, management strategies, strategic and tactical planning tools which help evaluate and manage economic and environmental risks and tradeoffs, for integrated crop and livestock systems under variable climate and market conditions. The remains of German and Italian prisoners of war, residents of the fort, pioneer settlers, military personnel are interred in the fort's cemetery. Ben Clark, a frontier scout for George Armstrong Custer and Philip Sheridan, is buried there; the fort has a visitor's center with fort memorabilia and exhibits. Fort Reno was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. An executive order in 1883 identified the area assigned to Fort Reno as 9,493 acres in the Cheyenne and Arapaho reserve, "setting apart for military purposes of the tract of land herein described."

A presidential proclamation signed April 12, 1892 by Benjamin Harrison extinguished all Cheyenne-Arapaho claims to their reserve except for individual allotments, including any claims to Fort RenoFor several years the combined Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes have been trying to re-acquire the lands the fort occupied. In 1996, they donated US$107,000 to the Democratic National Committee with a memo titled "Fort Reno," and at the same time asked the Clinton administration to get an opinion from the Department of the Interior on their claims; the U. S. Senate investigated them for their actions in 1997 but the tribes refused to appear without a grant of immunity. In 1999 the Interior Department issued an opinion saying that the tribes did have a credible argument that they did not cede the lands that were used by the military. Several attempts have been made by Democratic politicians to aid the Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes, most notably Eni Fa'aua'a Hunkin Faleomavaega, Jr. of American Samoa in 1997 and by Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii in 2000.

In 2005, Oklahoma Senator Jim Inhofe, co-sponsored by Senator Tom Coburn, introduced a bill to authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to lease oil and gas resources under the fort to fund preservation of the historic site and buildings. The bill received a committee hearing but no further action. Wright, Murial H.. Mark of Heritage Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1976. Historic Fort Reno, Inc. Fort Reno info and video on Official travel and tourism website for the State of Oklahoma Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory

Possession (video game)

Possession was a vaporware video game, intended for release for seventh-generation video game consoles. The story would have followed a man turned into a zombie via exposure to experimental chemicals from a laboratory into which he had broken. Retaining his intelligence, he sets out on a mission to destroy the Prometheus Corporation which made the chemicals. To do this, he amasses a vast number of zombie warriors to take control of the futuristic Restoration City, headquarters of the shadowy Prometheus Corporation; the game was designed as a real-time strategy title, wherein the player commanded their zombie army directly and makes tactical use of special unit types to achieve objectives. There was planned to be online play where one player sends waves of zombies into the city, while several other players have to fight them off. While not cancelled, updates on the game's development ceased in 2006. In response to several questions about Possession, Blitz/Volatile sent out the same message to any person who requested the status of the game.

"Hi there, Thanks for your interest in Possession. We still haven't managed to secure a publisher to take on the project. We haven't given up on Possession we want to see it made as much as you do. We are pursuing other games at the moment though. Best regards, PR Dept, Volatile Games" The website the game's homepage, was abandoned and purchased by a different organization. In a 2019 retrospective interview with Volatile Games' co-founder about the development of Reservoir Dogs, he revealed that Possession was pitched to Bandai Namco but they refused to fund it due to it being "very expensive", they instead invited Volatile to work on a pitch for a new Dead to Rights game that would become Dead to Rights: Retribution. IGN: PS3, X360, Windows

Winthrop Mills Company

The Winthrop Mills Company is a historic textile mill complex at 149-151 Main Street in Winthrop, Maine. Developed between the late 19th and mid-20th centuries, it was the nation's largest manufacturer of woolen blankets for many years, a major local employer for about 150 years, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. The former Winthrop Mills Company complex is located in the town center of Winthrop, on the banks of Maranacook Stream, between the Maranacook and Anabessacook Lakes; the complex includes five buildings, as well as a power canal and dam that first went into operation in 1866. Four of the five buildings are of brick construction, between three and five stories in height, with additions of various sizes and materials; these buildings were built using slow-burning construction methods used for mill construction of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The mill office building is a single-story brick structure located near Main Street. Textile production began in Winthrop in the early 19th century, with the construction of a woolen and cotton mill in 1814.

The Winthrop Mills Company was founded in 1866 by investors from Boston and operated on this site until 1938, when the business was purchased by the Wilton Woolen Company. It continued to operated under the Winthrop Mills name, producing both cotton and wool products until 1954, it was sold, operated as the Carleton Woolen Company, producing woolens until 2002, when it closed. It was one of the last woolen mills to operate in the state. National Register of Historic Places listings in Kennebec County, Maine Winthrop Mills Records at Baker Library Special Collections, Harvard Business School

Filter factor

In photography, filter factor refers to the multiplicative amount of light a filter blocks. The table below illustrates the relationship between filter factor, the amount of light, allowed through the filter, the number of stops this corresponds to; the number of f-stops required to correct the exposure with a given filter may be calculated using the formula: Filter factor = 2X where the exponent "X" is the number of f-stop increases required. An example: A deep red filter with a filter factor of 8 8 = 23 The normal exposure will be increased by three stops with this filter; as a consequence of this relationship, filter factors should be multiplied together when such filters are stacked, as opposed to stop adjustments, which should be added together. The table below gives approximate filter factors for a variety of common photographic filters, it is important to note that filter factors are dependent on the spectral response curve of the film being used. Thus, filter factors provided by the film manufacturer should be preferred over the ones documented below.

Furthermore, note well that these factors are for daylight color temperature. Filter Filter Wratten number Exposure F-number Notes Further readingHoya Corporation, Filters for imaging Cokin S. A. Cokin Creative Filter System