B. F. Skinner
Burrhus Frederic Skinner known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, author and social philosopher, he was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. Skinner considered free will an illusion and human action dependent on consequences of previous actions. If the consequences are bad, there is a high chance. Skinner called this the principle of reinforcement. To strengthen behavior, Skinner used operant conditioning, he considered the rate of response to be the most effective measure of response strength. To study operant conditioning, he invented the operant conditioning chamber known as the Skinner Box, to measure rate he invented the cumulative recorder. Using these tools, he and C. B. Ferster produced his most influential experimental work, which appeared in their book Schedules of Reinforcement. Skinner developed behavior analysis, the philosophy of that science he called radical behaviorism, founded a school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior.
He imagined the application of his ideas to the design of a human community in his utopian novel, Walden Two, his analysis of human behavior culminated in his work, Verbal Behavior. Skinner was a prolific author who published 180 articles. Contemporary academia considers Skinner a pioneer of modern behaviorism, along with John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov. A June 2002 survey listed Skinner as the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. Skinner was born in Pennsylvania, to Grace and William Skinner, his father was a lawyer. He became an atheist after a Christian teacher tried to assuage his fear of the hell that his grandmother described, his brother Edward, two and a half years younger, died at age sixteen of a cerebral hemorrhage. Skinner's closest friend as a young boy was Raphael Miller, whom he called Doc because his father was a doctor. Doc and Skinner became friends due to their parents’ religiousness and both had an interest in contraptions and gadgets, they had set up a telegraph line between their houses to send messages to each other, although they had to call each other on the telephone due to the confusing messages sent back and forth.
During one summer and Skinner started an elderberry business to gather berries and sell them door to door. They had found out that when they picked the ripe berries, the unripe ones came off the branches too, so they built a device, able to separate them; the device was a bent piece of metal to form a trough. They would pour water down the trough into a bucket, the ripe berries would sink into the bucket and the unripe ones would be pushed over the edge to be thrown away, he attended Hamilton College in New York with the intention of becoming a writer. He found himself at a social disadvantage at Hamilton College because of his intellectual attitude. While attending, he joined Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity. Hamilton was known for being a strong fraternity college. Skinner had thought that his fraternity brothers were respectful and did not haze or mistreat the newcomers, they helped out the other boys with courses or other activities. Freshmen were called “‘slimers’” who had to wear small green knit hats and greet everyone that they passed for punishment.
The year before Skinner entered Hamilton, there was a hazing accident that caused the death of a student. The freshman was asleep in his bed when he was pushed onto the floor, where he smashed his head, resulting in his death. Skinner had a similar incident where two freshmen captured him and tied him to a pole, where he should have stayed all night, but he had a razor blade in his shoe for emergency and managed to cut himself free, he wrote for the school paper, but, as an atheist, he was critical of the traditional mores of his college. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts in English literature in 1926, he attended Harvard University, where he would research and become a prestigious board member. While he was at Harvard, a fellow student, Fred Keller, convinced Skinner that he could make an experimental science from the study of behavior; this led Skinner to invent his prototype for the Skinner Box and to join Keller in the creation of other tools for small experiments. After graduation, he unsuccessfully tried to write a great novel while he lived with his parents, a period that he called the Dark Years.
He became disillusioned with his literary skills despite encouragement from the renowned poet Robert Frost, concluding that he had little world experience and no strong personal perspective from which to write. His encounter with John B. Watson's Behaviorism led him into graduate study in psychology and to the development of his own version of behaviorism. Skinner received a PhD from Harvard in 1931, remained there as a researcher until 1936, he taught at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis and at Indiana University, where he was chair of the psychology department from 1946–1947, before returning to Harvard as a tenured professor in 1948. He remained at Harvard for the rest of his life. In 1973, Skinner was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto II. In 1936, Skinner married Yvonne Blue; the couple had two daughters and Deborah. Yvonne Skinner died in 1997, is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery, Massachusetts. Skinner's public exposure had increased in the 1970s, he remained active after his retirement in 1974, until his death.
In 1989, Skinner was diagnosed with leukemia and died on August 18, 1990, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Ten days before his death
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". Educational technology is the use of educational theoretic, it encompasses several domains including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning. Educational technology as technological tools and media, for instance massive online courses, that assist in the communication of knowledge, its development and exchange; this is what people are referring to when they use the term "EdTech". Educational technology for learning management systems, such as tools for student and curriculum management, education management information systems.
Educational technology as back-office management, such as training management systems for logistics and budget management, Learning Record Store for learning data storage and analysis. Educational technology itself as an educational subject; the Association for Educational Communications and Technology defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". It denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, utilization and evaluation of processes and resources for learning"; as such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not imply physical technology. Educational technology is the process of integrating technology into education in a positive manner that promotes a more diverse learning environment and a way for students to learn how to use technology as well as their common assignments.
Educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology but is anything that enhances classroom learning in the utilization of blended, face to face, or online learning. An educational technologist is someone, trained in the field of educational technology. Educational technologists try to analyze, develop and evaluate process and tools to enhance learning. While the term educational technologist is used in the United States, learning technologist is synonymous and used in the UK as well as Canada. Modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today. Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology and communication technology in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning, computer-based instruction, computer managed instruction, computer-based training, computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction, internet-based training, flexible learning, web-based training, online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments, m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education.
Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates. However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously. Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle. For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location and context of learning. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect, emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology. "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world, for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder. In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course, not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn.
Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, videoconferencing. Virtual education and simulated learning opportunities, such as games or dissections, offer opportunities for students to connect classroom content to authentic situations. Educational conte
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior, longer duration, greater magnitude, or shorter latency. There are two types of reinforcement, known as negative reinforcement. Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers. Reinforcement does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs. However, there is negative reinforcement, characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus. Changing someone's job might serve as a negative reinforcer to someone whom suffers from back problems, i.e. Changing from a labourers job to an office position for instance. In most cases, the term "reinforcement" refers to an enhancement of behavior, but this term is sometimes used to denote an enhancement of memory.
The memory-enhancing stimulus can be one whose effects are directly rather than only indirectly emotional, as with the phenomenon of "flashbulb memory," in which an highly intense stimulus can incentivize memory of a set of a situation's circumstances well beyond the subset of those circumstances that caused the significant stimulus, as when people of appropriate age are able to remember where they were and what they were doing when they learned of the assassination of John F. Kennedy or of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Reinforcement is an important part of instrumental conditioning. Main section: Reinforcement#Operant conditioningIn the behavioral sciences, the terms "positive" and "negative" refer when used in their strict technical sense to the nature of the action performed by the conditioner rather than to the responding operant's evaluation of that action and its consequence. "Positive" actions are those that add a factor, be it pleasant or unpleasant, to the environment, whereas "negative" actions are those that remove or withhold from the environment a factor of either type.
In turn, the strict sense of "reinforcement" refers only to reward-based conditioning. Thus, "positive reinforcement" refers to the addition of a pleasant factor, "positive punishment" refers to the addition of an unpleasant factor, "negative reinforcement" refers to the removal or withholding of an pleasant factor, "negative punishment" refers to the removal or withholding of an unpleasant factor; this usage is at odds with some non-technical usages of the four term combinations in the case of the term "negative reinforcement,", used to denote what technical parlance would describe as "positive punishment" in that the non-technical usage interprets "reinforcement" as subsuming both reward and punishment and "negative" as referring to the responding operant's evaluation of the factor being introduced. By contrast, technical parlance would use the term "negative reinforcement" to describe encouragement of a given behavior by creating a scenario in which an unpleasant factor is or will be present but engaging in the behavior results in either escaping from that factor or preventing its occurrence, as in Martin Seligman's experiments involving dogs' learning processes regarding the avoidance of electric shock.
B. F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism. Skinner defined reinforcers according to the change in response strength rather than to more subjective criteria, such as what is pleasurable or valuable to someone. Accordingly, foods or items considered pleasant or enjoyable may not be reinforcing. Stimuli and activities only fit the definition of reinforcers if the behavior that precedes the potential reinforcer increases in similar situations in the future. If the frequency of "cookie-requesting behavior" increases, the cookie can be seen as reinforcing "cookie-requesting behavior". If however, "cookie-requesting behavior" does not increase the cookie cannot be considered reinforcing; the sole criterion that determines if a stimulus is reinforcing is the change in probability of a behavior after administration of that potential reinforcer. Other theories may focus on additional factors such as whether the person expected a behavior to produce a given outcome, but in the behavioral theory, reinforcement is defined by an increased probability of a response.
The study of reinforcement has produced an e
Multiple choice or objective response is a form of an objective assessment in which respondents are asked to select only correct answers from the choices offered as a list. The multiple choice format is most used in educational testing, in market research, in elections, when a person chooses between multiple candidates, parties, or policies. Although E. L. Thorndike developed an early scientific approach to testing students, it was his assistant Benjamin D. Wood who developed the multiple choice test. Multiple choice testing increased in popularity in the mid-20th century when scanners and data-processing machines were developed to check the results. Christopher P Sole created the first multiple-choice-Exam for computers on a Sharp Mz 80 computer in 1982, it was developed to aid in Agriculture Engineering, where Latin plant names were difficult to understand and write, so it was developed to aid people with dyslexia. The first complete exam was developed at St Edwards School in Hants. Multiple choice items consist of a stem and several alternative answers, among which are the correct answer and one or more incorrect answers.
The stem is the beginning part of the item that presents the item as a problem to be solved, a question asked of the respondent, or an incomplete statement to be completed, as well as any other relevant information. The options are the possible answers that the examinee can choose from, with the correct answer called the key and the incorrect answers called distractors. Only one answer can be keyed as correct; this contrasts with multiple response items. A correct answer earns a set number of points toward the total mark, an incorrect answer earns nothing. However, tests may award partial credit for unanswered questions or penalize students for incorrect answers, to discourage guessing. For example, the SAT Subject tests remove a quarter point from the test taker's score for an incorrect answer. For advanced items, such as an applied knowledge item, the stem can consist of multiple parts; the stem can include extended or ancillary material such as a vignette, a case study, a graph, a table, or a detailed description which has multiple elements to it.
Anything may be included as long as it is necessary to ensure the utmost validity and authenticity to the item. The stem ends with a lead-in question explaining. In a medical multiple choice items, a lead-in question may ask "What is the most diagnosis?" or "What pathogen is the most cause?" in reference to a case study, presented. The items of a multiple choice test are colloquially referred to as "questions," but this is a misnomer because many items are not phrased as questions. For example, they can be presented as analogies, or mathematical equations. Thus, the more general term "item" is a more appropriate label. Items are stored in an item bank. Ideally, the multiple choice question should be asked as a "stem", with plausible options, for example: If a=1 and b=2, what is a+b?12 3 4 10 In the equation 2 x + 3 = 4, solve for x.4 10 0.5 1.5 8 The city known as the "IT capital" of India isBangalore Mumbai Mexico HyderabadThe correct answers are B, C and A respectively. A well written multiple-choice question avoids wrong or silly distractors, so that the question makes sense when read with each of the distractors as well as with the correct answer.
A more difficult and well-written multiple choice question is as follows: Consider the following: An eight-by-eight chessboard. An eight-by-eight chessboard with two opposite corners removed. An eight-by-eight chessboard with all four corners removed. Which of these can be tiled by two-by-one dominoes? I only II only I and II only I and III only I, II, III There are several advantages to multiple choice tests. If item writers are well trained and items are quality assured, it can be a effective assessment technique. If students are instructed on the way in which the item format works and myths surrounding the tests are corrected, they will perform better on the test. On many assessments, reliability has been shown to improve with larger numbers of items on a test, with good sampling and care over case specificity, overall test reliability can be further increased. Multiple choice tests require less time to administer for a given amount of material than would tests requiring written responses. Multiple choice questions lend themselves to the development of objective assessment items, but without author training, questions can be subjective in nature.
Because this style of test does not require a teacher to interpret answers, test-takers are graded purely on their selections, creating a lower likelihood of teacher bias in the results. Factors irrelevant to the assessed material do not come into play in a multiple-choice assessment, so the candidate is graded purely on their knowledge of the topic. If test-takers are aware of how to use answer sheets or online examination tick boxes, their responses can be relied upon with clarity. Overall, multiple choice tests are the strongest predictors of overall student performance compared with other forms of evaluations, such as in-class participation, case exams, written assignments, simulation games; the most serious disadvantage is the limited types of knowledge that can be assessed by multiple choice tests. Multiple choice tests are best adapted for testing lower-order skills. Problem-solving and higher-order reasoning