A teapot is a vessel used for steeping tea leaves or a herbal mix in boiling or near-boiling water, for serving the resulting infusion, called tea. Dry tea is available either in tea bags or as loose tea, in which case a tea infuser or tea strainer may be of some assistance, either to hold the leaves as they steep or to catch the leaves inside the teapot when the tea is poured. Teapots have an opening with a lid at their top, where the dry tea and hot water are added, a handle for holding by hand and a spout through which the tea is served; some teapots have a strainer built-in on the inner edge of the spout. A small air hole in the lid is created to stop the spout from dripping and splashing when tea is poured. In modern times, a thermally insulating cover called a tea cosy may be used to enhance the steeping process or to prevent the contents of the teapot from cooling too rapidly; the teapot was invented in China during the Yuan Dynasty. It was derived from ceramic kettles and wine pots, which were made of bronze and other metals and were a feature of Chinese life for thousands of years.
Tea preparation during previous dynasties did not use a teapot. In the Tang Dynasty, a cauldron was used to boil ground tea, served in bowls. Song Dynasty tea was made by boiling water in a kettle pouring the water into a bowl with finely ground tea leaves. A brush was used to stir the tea. Written evidence of a teapot appears in the Yuan Dynasty text Jiyuan Conghua, which describes a teapot that the author, Cai Shizhan, bought from the scholar Sun Daoming. By the Ming Dynasty, teapots were widespread in China; the earliest example of a teapot that has survived to this day seems to be the one in the Flagstaff House Museum of Teaware. Early teapots are small by western standards because they are designed for a single drinker, the Chinese drank the tea directly from the spout; the size reflects the importance of serving single portions so that the flavours can be better concentrated and controlled repeated. From the end of the 17th century tea was shipped from China to Europe as part of the export of exotic spices and luxury goods.
The ships that brought the tea carried porcelain teapots. The majority of these teapots were painted in white underglaze. Porcelain, being vitrified, will withstand sea water without damage, so the teapots were packed below deck whilst the tea was stowed above deck to ensure that it remained dry. Tea drinking in Europe was the preserve of the upper classes, due the expense. Porcelain teapots were desirable because porcelain could not be made in Europe at that time, it wasn't until 1708 that Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus devised a way of making porcelain in Dresden and started the Meissen factory in 1710. When European potteries began to make their own tea wares they were inspired by the Chinese designs. In colonial America, Boston became the epicenter for silver artistry. Among the many artists in Boston there were four major families in the city's silver market: Edwards, Revere and Hurd, their works of art included silver teapots. To keep teapots hot after tea is first brewed, early English households employed the tea cosy, a padded fabric covering, much like a hat, that slips over the tea pot.
Decorated with lace or log cabin motifs in the early 1900s, the modern tea cosy has come back into fashion with the resurgence of loose leaf tea. One phenomenon that occurs with teapots is that of dripping or dribbling after pouring - a drop of tea appears on the outside of the spout and runs down the outside or drips. Different explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed at various times and different ways have been attempted to eradicate it including making the surface more hydrophobic, or changing the radius of curvature of the tip. In Morocco, stainless steel teapots are an essential to make Moroccan mint tea. Moroccan teapots can be put directly on the stove. With colorful tea glasses, they are part of the Moroccan tea ritual, their designs can go from minimalistic to decorated. A chocolate teapot is a teapot, it is supposed that such a teapot would melt, be impossible to use, therefore the term is used as an analogy for any useless item. Experimental researchers in 2001 did indeed fail to use a chocolate teapot they had made.
Research, however, by The Naked Scientists in 2008, showed that such a teapot could be used to make tea, provided that the walls of the teapot were more than one centimetre thick. Re-usable pots are now available online. A teapot has a rather distinctive shape, its fame may sometimes have little to do with its primary function; the Utah Teapot is a standard reference object of the computer graphics community, comparable to Hello, World for its popularity. It is included as a graphics primitive in many graphics packages, including AutoCAD, POV-Ray, OpenGL, Direct3D, 3ds Max. Russell's teapot, is an analogy, devised by Bertrand Russell, which attacks the unfalsifiability of religious claims, comparing them to the eponymous teapot; the concept in turn inspired the title of the 1973 album Flying Teapot by the Franco-British rock band Gong. The teapot has been featured in the American children's song from 1939, "I'm a Little Teapot". In Korea, the teapot is used as a serving container for various types of wines.
The first Saginaw River lighthouse was constructed from 1839 to 1841, in a period when large quantities of lumber were being harvested and shipped from the heart of Michigan via river and the Great Lakes to the East Coast of the United States via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. This connection to major eastern markets was critical to the development of central Michigan. In 1867 the United States Corps of Engineers dredged the Saginaw River to enable passage by larger ships upriver; this change required replacing the first light, in 1876 a pair of lighthouses were constructed in range light configuration to provide improved navigation. The front one was located on the west bank of the river and the rear range lighthouse was located south of the river mouth, it contained living quarters. In 1915, the two lighthouses were converted to electricity. Closed since the 1970s, the rear range lighthouse was listed in 1984 on the National Register of Historic Places. Dow Chemical Company, which owned the surrounding property, purchased the lighthouse and site in 1986 and boarded it up.
Since the turn of the 21st century, the lighthouse and site are being renovated by the Saginaw River Marine Historical Society for heritage tourism. European-American settlement along the Saginaw River began in the 1830s, critical to development in the region, as it was navigable inland. Construction of the Saginaw Bay Lighthouse, to mark the entrance to the river, was begun in July 1839 by Captain Stephen Wolverton; the project was completed under the direction of Levi Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio in the fall of 1841. In September 1841, the operations of the light were demonstrated. By this time, the lumber industry was growing and much timber was shipped downriver and through the Great Lakes and New York state's Erie Canal to eastern markets. In 1867, the United States Army Corps of Engineers dredged the Saginaw River channel so that larger vessels could navigate the river; when they were finished, the light was no longer well-positioned to allow boats navigation of the entrance. Funding requests, negotiations for land, contractual issues delayed work to replace the light until 1876.
That year a pair of lighthouses were erected in a range light configuration. The "front" range light was constructed on a square timber crib beside the western river bank, took the form of a 34-foot tall painted-white pyramid framework of timber similar in design to that being used for pierhead beacons throughout the district at the time. With its upper half sheathed, a small enclosed room was created beneath the gallery for the storage of oil and supplies, in which the keeper could seek shelter while tending the light during inclement weather conditions; the gallery was surrounded with an iron safety railing and capped with a prefabricated octagonal cast iron lantern. Seated atop a cast iron pedestal within the lantern, the light's sparkling new, fixed white sixth-order Fresnel lens sat at a focal plane of 37 feet, sending its light 8 1⁄2 nautical miles out into the bay; the "rear" range light was constructed 2,300 feet south of the mouth of the river. Eleventh district engineer Major Godfrey Weitzel's design for the combined rear range tower and dwelling was unique.
A large elevated concrete base was to support tower. Because of swampy ground, timber piles had to be driven deep into the ground to provide a solid foundation on which timber forms for the concrete base could be erected and filled. Atop this concrete foundation, a square two-story Cream City brick Lighthouse keeper's dwelling 26 feet 6 inches in plan was constructed. Integrated into the northwest corner of the dwelling, a tapered 53 feet -tall square tower with double walls housed a set of prefabricated cast iron spiral stairs. Winding from the cellar to the lantern, these stairs serve as the only means of access to the first and second floors by way of landings on each floor; each was outfitted with fitting arch-topped iron doors designed to stem the spread of fire between floors. A timber deck supported by timber columns encircled the dwelling at the first floor level, providing easy and dry access to all sides of the structure; the living quarters consisted of a kitchen and oil storage room on the first floor, three bedrooms above.
The tower was capped with a square iron gallery, supported by five cast iron corbels on each of its four sides. An octagonal cast iron lantern was installed at its center, with a fixed white fourth-order Fresnel lens placed at a focal plane of 61 feet; the range lights were converted to electricity in 1915. The rear range light stayed active, was used as the residence for men assigned to the associated US Coast Guard facility until the 1970s. At that time, the Coast Guard Station was moved across the river in order to have more space; the lighthouse remained empty until 1986. Dow Chemical Company, which owned the surrounding land, boarded it up. In 1999, the Saginaw River Marine Historical Society approached Dow to collaborate to restore the lighthouse and open it to tourists. Renovation is being done with Lighthouse Friends helping raise funding. In 2002, the Saginaw River Marine Historical Society "acquired a historic locomotive-style range lens of the type used in the lighthouse between 1930 and 1960."It is believed that the Saginaw River lighthouse was the first place where range lights were installed.
More details are available in the Wikipedia article on Lighthouses. According to Saginaw Future, the river still carries nearly 5 million tons of commerce in the 21st century; this lighthouse was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. According to US Government publication, "The American Practical
Mads Pieler Kolding is a Danish badminton player who specializes in doubles. He won the gold medal at the 2016 European Championships in the men's doubles event partnered with Mads Conrad-Petersen, he a part of the Denmark national team who won the 2016 Thomas Cup. Men's doubles Mixed doubles Boys' doubles Mixed doubles The BWF Superseries, launched on 14 December 2006 and implemented in 2007, is a series of elite badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation. BWF Superseries has two level such as Superseries Premier. A season of Superseries features twelve tournaments around the world, which introduced since 2011, with successful players invited to the Superseries Finals held at the year end. Men's doubles BWF Superseries Finals tournament BWF Superseries Premier tournament BWF Superseries tournament The BWF Grand Prix has two levels, the BWF Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold, it is a series of badminton tournaments sanctioned by the Badminton World Federation since 2007. Men's doubles Mixed doubles BWF Grand Prix Gold tournament BWF Grand Prix tournament Men's doubles Mixed doubles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series tournament Mads Pieler Kolding on Instagram Mads Pieler Kolding on Twitter Mads Pieler Kolding at BWF.tournamentsoftware.com