A technical, in professional military parlance called a non-standard tactical vehicle, is a light improvised fighting vehicle an open-backed civilian pickup truck or four-wheel drive vehicle mounting a machine gun, anti-aircraft gun, rotary cannon, anti-tank weapon, anti-tank gun, ATGM, multiple rocket launcher, recoilless rifle or other support weapon, somewhat like a light military gun truck. The neologism technical describing such a vehicle is believed to have originated in Somalia during the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s. Barred from bringing in private security, non-governmental organizations hired local gunmen to protect their personnel, using money defined as "technical assistance grants"; the term broadened to include any vehicle carrying armed men. However, an alternative account is given by Michael Maren, who says the term began in Somalia in the 80s, after engineers from Russian arms manufacturer Tekniko began mounting weapons on vehicles for the Somali National Movement. Technicals have been referred to as battlewagons, gunwagons, or gunships.
Among irregular armies centered on the perceived strength and charisma of warlords, the prestige of technicals is strong. According to one article, "The Technical is the most significant symbol of power in southern Somalia, it is a small truck with large tripod machine guns mounted on the back. A warlord's power is measured by how many of these vehicles he has." Technicals are not used by well-funded armies that are able to procure purpose-built combat vehicles, because the soft-skinned civilian vehicles that technicals are based on do not offer good protection to their crew and passengers. Technicals fill the niche of traditional light cavalry, their major asset is speed and mobility, as well as their ability to strike from unexpected directions with automatic fire and light troop deployment. Further, the reliability of vehicles such as the Toyota Hilux is useful for forces that lack the repair-related infrastructure of a conventional army. However, in direct engagements they are no match such as tanks or other AFVs.
Light improvised fighting vehicles date back to the first use of automobiles, to the horse-drawn tachankas mounting machine guns in eastern Europe and Russia. At the Bombardment of Papeete during World War I, the French armed several Ford trucks with 37 mm guns to bolster their defense of the city. During the Spanish Civil War, field guns were fixed to lorries to act as improvised self-propelled guns, while improvised armoured cars were constructed by attaching steel plates to trucks. During World War II, various British and Commonwealth units, including the Long Range Desert Group, the No. 1 Demolition Squadron or'PPA', the Special Air Service were noted for their exploits in the deserts of Egypt and Chad using unarmored motor vehicles fitted with machine guns. Examples of LRDG vehicles include the Chevrolet WB 30 cwt the Willys MB Jeep; the SAS' use of armed Land Rovers continued post war with their use of Series 1 Land Rovers and Series 11A 1968 Land Rovers in the Dhofar Rebellion. The SAS painted their Land Rovers pink as it was found to provide excellent camouflage in the desert and they were nicknamed'Pink Panthers' or Pinkies.
The SAS used a more modern Land Rover Desert Patrol Vehicle during Gulf War 1. Tactics for employing technicals were pioneered by the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army, the armed wing of the Polisario Front, fighting for independence against Mauritania and Morocco from headquarters in Tindouf, Algeria. Algeria provided arms and Land Rovers to Sahrawi guerrillas, who used them in long-range desert raids against the less agile conventional armies of their opponents, recalling Sahrawi tribal raids of the pre-colonial period. Polisario gained access to heavier equipment, but four-wheel drive vehicles remain a staple of their arsenal; the Moroccan army changed their strategy and created mounted units using technicals to challenge Polisario speed and hit & run strategies in the large desert, where they proved their efficiency. In 1987, Chadian troops equipped with technicals drove the mechanized Libyan army from the Aozou Strip; the vehicles were instrumental in the victory at the Battle of Fada, were driven over 150 km into Libya to raid military bases.
It was discovered that these light vehicles could ride through anti-tank minefields without detonating the mines when driven at speeds over 100 km/h. The vehicles had become so famous that, in 1984, Time dubbed early stages of the conflict the "Great Toyota War"; the Toyota War was unusual in that the force equipped with improvised vehicles prevailed over the force equipped with purpose-built fighting vehicles. MILAN anti-tank guided missiles provided by France were key to the Chadian success, while the Libyan forces were poorly deployed and organized. Technicals played an important role in the War in Somalia. After the fall of the Siad Barre regime and the collapse of the Somali National Army, it was rare for any Somali force to field armored fighting vehicles. However, technicals were common. Somali faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid used 30 technicals along with a force of 600 militia to capture Baidoa in September 1995. After he was killed in clan fighting in 1996, his body was carried to his funeral on a Toyota pickup.
Proving their susceptibility to heavy weapons and their value as a military prize, the Islamic Courts Union was able to capture 30 "battlewagons" during the defeat of warlord Abdi Qeybdid's militia at the Second Battle of Mogadishu in 2006. That September, an impressive a
Nakagawa Station is an underground metro station located in Tsuzuki-ku, Kanagawa Prefecture, operated by the Yokohama Municipal Subway's Blue Line. There is a sub-name called "Tokyo Metropolitan University Yokohama Campus". Nakagawa Station is served by the Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line, is 38.4 kilometers from the terminus of the Blue Line at Shōnandai Station. Nakagawa Station has two opposed side platforms serving two tracks. Nakagawa Station opened on March 18, 1993. Platform screen doors were installed in April 2007. Tokyo City University Yokohama Campus Harris, Ken. Jane's World Railways 2008-2009. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2861-9. Official website
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973; the U. S. Supreme Court called it “the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species enacted by any nation.” The purposes of the ESA are two-fold: to prevent extinction and to recover species to the point the law's protections are not needed. It therefore “protect species and the ecosystems upon which they depend" through different mechanisms. For example, section 4 requires the agencies overseeing the Act to designate imperiled species as threatened or endangered. Section 9 prohibits unlawful ‘take,’ of such species, which means to “harass, hunt...” Section 7 directs federal agencies to use their authorities to help conserve listed species.
The Act serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The U. S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. FWS and NMFS have been delegated the authority to promulgate rules in the Code of Federal Regulations to implement the provisions of the Act. Calls for wildlife conservation in the United States increased in the early 1900s because of the visible decline of several species. One example was the near-extinction of the bison; the extinction of the passenger pigeon, which numbered in the billions caused alarm. The whooping crane received widespread attention as unregulated hunting and habitat loss contributed to a steady decline in its population.
By 1890, it had disappeared from its primary breeding range in the north central United States. Scientists of the day played a prominent role in raising public awareness about the losses. For example, George Bird Grinnell highlighted bison decline by writing articles in Forest and Stream. wrote articles on the subject in the magazine Forest and Stream. To address these concerns, Congress enacted the Lacey Act of 1900; the Lacey Act was the first federal law. It prohibited the sale of illegally killed animals between states. Other legislation followed, including the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, a 1937 treaty prohibiting the hunting of right and gray whales, the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940. Despite these treaties and protections, many populations still continued to decline. By 1941, only an estimated. By 1963, the bald eagle, the U. S. national symbol, was in danger of extinction. Only around 487 nesting pairs remained. Loss of habitat, DDT poisoning contributed to its decline; the U.
S. Fish and Wildlife Service tried to prevent the extinction of these species. Yet, it lacked funding. In response to this need, Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act (P. L. 89-669 on October 15, 1966. The Act initiated a program to conserve and restore select species of native fish and wildlife; as a part of this program, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Interior to acquire land or interests in land that would further the conservation of these species. The Department of Interior issued the first list of endangered species in March 1967, it included 14 mammals, 36 birds, 6 reptiles, 6 amphibians, 22 fish. A few notable species listed in 1967 included the grizzly bear, American alligator, Florida manatee, bald eagle; the list included only vertebrates at the time because the Department of Interior's limited definition of "fish and wildlife." The Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 amended the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. It established a list of species in danger of worldwide extinction.
It expanded protections for species covered in 1966 and added to the list of protected species. While the 1966 Act only applied to ‘game’ and wild birds, the 1969 Act protected mollusks and crustaceans. Punishments for poaching or unlawful importation or sale of these species were increased. Any violation could result in up to one year of jail time. Notably, the Act called for treaty to conserve endangered species. A 1963 IUCN resolution called for a similar international convention. In February, 1973 a meeting in Washington D. C. was convened. This meeting produced the comprehensive multilateral treaty known as CITES or the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 provided a template for the Endangered Species Act of 1973 by using the term “based on the best scientific and commercial data.” This standard is used as a guideline to determine. In 1972, President Richard Nixon declared current species conservation efforts to be inadequate.
He called on the 93rd United States Congress to pass comprehensive endangered species legislation. Congress responded with the Endangered Species Act of 1973, signed into law by Nixon on December 28, 1973; the ESA is considered a landmark conservation law. Academic researchers have referred to it as “one of the nation's most significant environmental laws.” It has been called “o
The Falls of Lora is a tidal race which forms at the mouth of Loch Etive when a high tide runs out from the loch. They form side of the spring tides; the falls of Lora are generated when the water level in the Firth of Lorn drops below the level of the water in Loch Etive as the tide goes out. As the seawater in Loch Etive pours out through the narrow mouth of the loch, it passes over a rocky shelf which causes the rapids to form; as the tide rises again there is a period of slack water when the levels are the same on either side. However, due to the narrow entrance to the Loch, the tide rises more than the water can flow into the Loch, thus there is still considerable turbulence at high tide caused by flow into the Loch. Thus, unlike most situations where slack water is at high and low tides, in the case of the Falls of Lora slack water occurs when the levels on either side are the same, not when the tidal change is at its least; as a result, the tidal range is much greater on the coast. A 3 metres range at Oban may produce only a 1.3 metres range at Bonawe on the loch shore.
The loch mouth is spanned by Connel Bridge. The race is popular with white water divers as well as tourists and photographers; the Falls of Lora information website Kayakers' Guide to the Falls of Lora Diving the Falls of Lora
Joe Dowling is an Artistic Director. He was artistic director for the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, United States, he is well known for his work as Artistic Director of the Abbey Theatre in Ireland and his production involvement can be found in the Abbey Theatre archives. He has directed plays in all the major theatres in Ireland as well as theatres in London, New York, Washington D. C. Montreal, Alberta. In 1975 he directed "Katie Roche" by Irish playwright Teresa Deevy. Founded the Gaiety School of Acting in 1986 in Dublin, Ireland. Educated at the Catholic University School, Colaiste na Rinne and at University College Dublin, Dowling has been long connected with Irish theatre having founded Ireland's premier drama school, the Gaiety School of Acting, served as artistic director of the Irish Theatre Company and the Peacock theatre and founded the Young Abbey, Ireland's first theater-in-education group, he became the Guthrie's Artistic Director in 1995 and has directed productions of A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Playboy of the Western World, Much Ado About Nothing, The Importance of Being Earnest, Julius Caesar, Twelfth Night and Juliet, Macbeth and Amadeus.
He directed Hamlet, the Guthrie's last production in its original location next to the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis. Hamlet was the first play produced by the Guthrie in 1963, directed by Sir Tyrone Guthrie himself, his first production at the theater's new location was The Real Thing by Tom Stoppard. As part of the 2007/2008 season, he directed the American premiere of The Home Place by Brian Friel and in the 2009/2010 season, he directed and performed in Friel's play Faith Healer. Following the announcement of the 2012 Guthrie Theatre lineup, Dowling was criticized for the lack of diversity in the selection of directors and playwrights. In an interview with MPR, he said "this kind of drip drip drip of complaints about the Guthrie - I'm not certain that it's constructive."In April 2014, Dowling announced that he would be retiring from the Guthrie Theater after the 2014/2015 season. Dowling himself will direct productions of A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Crucible and finishing with Juno and the Paycock, which he had directed on Broadway in 1988.
Joseph Haj, artistic director of Guthrie Katie Roche 1973 Arts USA Gaiety School of Acting JoeDowling at The Teresa Deevy Archive Joe Dowling at The Abbey Theatre Archive
Charlotte Country Day School is a private, secular school in Charlotte, North Carolina, with classes in grades Kindergarten-12. A junior kindergarten program is offered. Charlotte Country Day is located on two campuses. Cannon Campus is the main campus and home to the Lower School and the Upper School, as well as administrative offices. Bissell Campus, located on Green Rea Road, is designed for the education and development of Middle School students. Founded in 1941 by Dr. Thomas Burton, the school faced initial problems in securing a permanent location large enough to house its student body. By July 1944, the school was able to buy a 2,000-volume library from the Aiken School in South Carolina; this acquisition qualified Country Day for accreditation under the guidelines of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. In September 1960, the school began holding classes on the current site of Cannon Campus. In 1979, Carmel Academy partnered with Country Day, merging with CCDS soon thereafter, its former campus became the Bissell Campus.
Grades 5 through 8 are taught at this site. Country Day became an International Baccalaureate World School in August 1992. Cannon Campus for grades JK-4 and 9-12 has 15 buildings, including a full-service dining hall, two libraries, a 400-seat theater, two reading gardens, multiple computer labs; the newest building is the Hance Fine Arts Center, completed in August 2004. The campus houses the Bruton Smith Athletic Center; the Cannon campus was newly renovated at the end of 2018. The Purdy Math and Science building is the newest addition to the Cannon campus. Bissell Campus, where CCDS students in grades 5-8 attend classes, underwent extensive renovations in 2009; the 23,000-square-foot Dowd Science Building was completed, which added eight science lecture/lab classrooms and two general purpose classrooms. The old science building was renovated to create six foreign language classrooms. Grounds enhancements included a new entryway and fencing, a new front courtyard, new tennis courts and practice fields.
Elsewhere on Bissell Campus, the Sklut Center has three art rooms, the cafeteria, the general music room. A separate building is dedicated to the natural sciences. Head of School: Mark E. Reed Head of Upper School: Matthew Less Head of Middle School: Warren Sepkowitz Head of Lower School: Bill Mulcahy Molly Barker - founder of Girls on the Run - which got its start in 1996 on the Charlotte Country Day track William Byron - NASCAR driver Ed Cash - producer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist Mike Cofer - NFL placekicker, a 2x Super Bowl champion and NASCAR driver Brian Huskey - actor and comedian Tracey Ann Kelly - award-winning American television soap opera script writer Kristen Anderson-Lopez - oscar-winning songwriter best known for co-writing the song "Let It Go" in the movie Frozen Ross McElwee - documentary filmmaker, including Sherman’s March, the 1986 Best Documentary at the Sundance Film Festival, National Board of Film Critics Five Best Films of 1986, selected for preservation by the Library of Congress National Film Registry for its historical significance Brandon Miller - professional soccer player Alvin Pearman - NFL running back Marcus Smith - president and CEO of Speedway Motorsports, Inc.