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List of heavy metal festivals

This is an incomplete list of heavy metal festivals. Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United States and the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock, the first heavy metal bands such as Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple attracted large audiences, during the late 1960s and mid-1970s these band and others in their genre were featured at a number of historic rock festivals. Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. After the genre fused with other related genres such as punk rock in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Saxon followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers", there were festivals worldwide, both touring and stationary, dedicated to heavy metal subgenres and heavy metal itself. During the 1980s, glam metal became a commercial force, while Underground scenes and extreme subgenres of metal such as death metal and black metal remained subcultural phenomena, though they have their own dedicated festivals as well.

Since the mid-1990s, popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre. Nova Rock Kaltenbach Open Air Rise up Festival Noize Fest Open Air GoatHell Metal Fest The following is an incomplete list of traveling metal festivals, both active and defunct: List of music festivals Heavy metal music All Metalfest - all metal festivals around the world Heavy metal festivals in Europe Festivalticker Metalstorm. Net Search events Metal festivals in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz Heavy - festivals and concerts Lords of Metal ezine - gig guide

Succinate—CoA ligase (GDP-forming)

In enzymology, a succinate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GTP + succinate + CoA ⇌ GDP + phosphate + succinyl-CoAThe 3 substrates of this enzyme are GTP, CoA, whereas its 3 products are GDP, succinyl-CoA. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases; the systematic name of this enzyme class is succinate:CoA ligase. Other names in common use include succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, succinate thiokinase, succinic thiokinase, succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, succinate-phosphorylating enzyme, P-enzyme, SCS, G-STK, succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, succinyl CoA synthetase, succinyl coenzyme A synthetase; this enzyme participates in the citric acid propanoate metabolism. As of late 2007, 6 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1EUC, 1EUD, 2FP4, 2FPG, 2FPI, 2FPP. Boyer, P. D. Lardy, H. and Myrback, K. The Enzymes, 2nd ed. vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, 1962, p. 387-399.

Kaufman S, Gilvarg C, Cori O, Ochoa S. "Enzymatic oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate and coupled phosphorylation". J. Biol. Chem. 203: 869–888. PMID 13084656. Mazumder R, Sanadi DR, Rodwell WV. "Purification and properties of hog kidney succinic thiokinase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2546–2550. PMID 13768680. SANADI DR, GIBSON M, AYENGAR P. "Guanosine triphosphate, the primary product of phosphorylation coupled to the breakdown of succinyl coenzyme A". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 14: 434–6. Doi:10.1016/0006-300290205-X. PMID 13181903

John Rollin Ridge

John Rollin Ridge, a member of the Cherokee Nation, is considered the first Native American novelist. Born in New Echota, Georgia, he was the son of John Ridge, the grandson of Major Ridge, both of whom were signatories to the Treaty of New Echota, which Congress affirmed in early 1836, ceding Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi River and leading to the Trail of Tears. At the age of twelve, Ridge witnessed his father's death at the hands of supporters of Cherokee leader John Ross, who had vehemently opposed the treaty, his mother, Sarah Bird Northrup, fled to Fayetteville, Arkansas. In 1843, he was sent to the Great Barrington School in Great Barrington, Massachusetts for two years, after which he returned to Fayetteville to study law, it was during this period. He published a poem, "To a Thunder Cloud," in the Arkansas State Gazette, he married Elizabeth Wilson, a white woman, in 1847. They had one daughter, Alice, in 1848. In 1849, he killed Ross sympathizer David Kell, whom he thought had been involved with his father's assassination, over a horse dispute.

Despite having a good argument for self-defense, he fled to Missouri to avoid prosecution. The next year, he disliked being a miner. While there, he was reunited with his daughter, his writing career began with poetry and essays for the Democratic Party before what is now considered the first Native American novel and the first novel written in California, The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta: The Celebrated California Bandit. A fictionalized version of the notorious bandit's story, the tale describes a young Mexican who comes to California to seek his fortune during the Gold Rush and turns to crime after his wife is raped and his brother murdered by white men; this novel, which condemned American racism towards Mexicans inspired the Zorro stories. Although popular, Ridge saw no money from the book's publication—by the time of his death it had not yet turned a profit. Ridge was a writer and the first editor of the Sacramento Bee and wrote for the San Francisco Herald, among other publications.

As an editor, he advocated assimilationist policies for American Indians as his father had, placing his trust in the federal government to protect their rights. At the same time, however, he was blind to the ways in which those rights were continually abused by the same government. Despite his novel's stance against racism, Ridge had owned slaves on his Arkansas property and felt that California Indians were inferior to those of other tribes. During the Civil War, Ridge supported the "Copperheads" and opposed both the election of Abraham Lincoln as well as the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, blaming the war on abolitionists. After the war, Ridge was invited by the federal government to head the Southern Cherokee delegation in postwar treaty proceedings. Despite his best efforts, the Cherokee region was not admitted as a state to the Union. In December 1866, he returned to his home in Grass Valley, where he died of "brain fever" on October 5, 1867, he was buried at Greenwood Memorial Park in Grass Valley.

Ridge's novel, one of the earliest by a Native American author, is curious both because it is written not about a Native American subject, but about a Mexican immigrant, because it is not original but based on a legendary figure discussed in the media of the day. Ridge presents the figure of Joaquin Murieta as that of a young and industrious man, hampered in his attempts to be successful in the United States by the racism of the people and by the 1850 Foreign Miner's Tax Law, which hampered the ability of Latinos to mine for gold. Ridge's version of Murieta becomes a bandit who attracts a large number of associates and who terrorizes the state of California for several months with his gruesome acts of violence. At the same time, Ridge's Murieta is a romantic figure showing kindness and relishing the stories about him as he keeps his identity so well secret that he can walk through town in broad daylight with no one recognizing him. Although the novel is fictional, many people took it as fact and some historians cited it when writing biographical materials on Murrieta.

The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta, the Celebrated California Bandit Poems, by a Cherokee Indian, with an Account of the Assassination of His Father, John Ridge The Lives of Joaquin Murieta and Tiburcio Vasquez. John Rollin Ridge: His Life and Works. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8780-1. Page images of The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta John Rollin Ridge at Find a Grave


Conocephalinae is an insect subfamily in the family Tettigoniidae. The Orthoptera Species File lists the following subtribes and genera: Redtenbacher, 1891 subtribe Agraeciina Redtenbacher, 1891 Agraecia Serville, 1831 subtribe Eumegalodontina Brongniart, 1892 Lesina Walker, 1869 subtribe Liarina Ingrisch, 1998 Labugama Henry, 1932 Liara Redtenbacher, 1891 Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888 subtribe Oxylakina Ingrisch, 1998 Oxylakis Redtenbacher, 1891 subtribe Salomonina Brongniart, 1897 Salomona Blanchard, 1853 subtribe undetermined Coptaspis Redtenbacher, 1891 Rentz, Su & Ueshima, 2012 Armadillagraecia Rentz, Su, Ueshima & Robinson, 2010 Kapalgagraecia Rentz, Su, Ueshima & Robinson, 2010 Lichenagraecia Rentz, Su & Ueshima, 2012 Gorochov, 2015 Acanthacara Scudder, 1869 Cestrophorus Redtenbacher, 1891 Rentz & Gurney, 1985 Coniungoptera Rentz & Gurney, 1985 Metholce Walker, 1871 Veria Walker, 1869 Auth: Burmeister, 1838 subtribe Karniellina Hemp & Heller, 2010 Acanthoscirtes Hemp, 2012 Chortoscirtes Hemp, 2010 Fulvoscirtes Hemp, 2012 Karniella Rehn, 1914 Melanoscirtes Hemp, 2010 Naskreckiella Ünal, 2005 Phlesirtes Bolívar, 1922subtribe not placed Conanalus Tinkham, 1943 Conocephalus Thunberg, 1815subgenus Amurocephalus Storozhenko, 2004: A. chinensis subgenus Anisoptera Latreille, 1829 subgenus Aphauropus: A. leptopterus Rehn & Hebard, 1915 subgenus Chloroxiphidion Hebard, 1922 subgenus Conocephalus Thunberg, 1815 subgenus Dicellurina Rehn & Hebard, 1938 subgenus Megalotheca Karny, 1907 subgenus Opeastylus Rehn & Hebard, 1915 subgenus Perissacanthus Rehn & Hebard, 1915 Elasmometopus Chopard, 1952 Enoplocephalacris Chopard, 1952 Euxiphidion Bruner, 1915 Fatuhivella Hebard, 1935 Lipotactomimus Naskrecki, 2000 Luzoniella Karny, 1926 Nukuhivella Hebard, 1935 Odontoxiphidium Morse, 1901 Orchelimum Serville, 1838 Paulianacris Chopard, 1952 Thyridorhoptrum Rehn & Hebard, 1915 Tympanotriba Piza, 1971 - monotypic: T. vittata Piza, 1971 Xiphelimum Caudell, 1906 - monotypic: X. amplipennis Caudell, 1906 Karny 1912 Acantheremus Karny, 1907 Apoecides Bolívar, 1914 Banza Walker, 1870 Belocephalus Scudder, 1875 Borinquenula Walker & Gurney, 1972 Bucrates Burmeister, 1838 Caulopsis Redtenbacher, 1891 Clasma Karsch, 1893 Conocephaloides Perkins, 1899 Copiphora Serville, 1831 Coryphodes Redtenbacher, 1891 Daedalellus Uvarov, 1940 Dorycoryphus Redtenbacher, 1891 Erioloides Hebard, 1927 Eriolus Bolívar, 1888 Eucaulopsis Hebard, 1931 Euconocephalus Karny, 1907 Eurymetopa Redtenbacher, 1891 Gryporhynchium Uvarov, 1940 Lamniceps Bolívar, 1903 Lanista Bolívar, 1890 Liliella Piza, 1980 Liostethus Redtenbacher, 1891 Lirometopum Scudder, 1875 Loboscelis Redtenbacher, 1891 Melanophoxus Karny, 1907 Metacaputus Naskrecki, 2000 Moncheca Walker, 1869 Montesa Walker, 1869 Mygalopsis Redtenbacher, 1891 Neoconocephalus Karny, 1907 Oxyprora Stål, 1873 Panacanthus Walker, 1869 Parabucrates Scudder, 1897 Paroxyprora Karny, 1907 Pedinostethus Redtenbacher, 1891 Phaneracra Uvarov, 1936 Phoxacris Karny, 1907 Plastocorypha Karsch, 1896 Pluviasilva Naskrecki, 2000 Poascirtus Saussure, 1899 Podacanthophorus Naskrecki, 2000 Pseudorhynchus Serville, 1838 Pyrgocorypha Stål, 1873 Ruspolia Schulthess Schindler, 1898 Santandera Koçak & Kemal, 2008 Sphodrophoxus Hebard, 1924 Vestria Stål, 1874 Xestophrys Redtenbacher, 1891 Gorochov, 1988 Amblylakis Redtenbacher, 1891 Colossopus Saussure, 1899 Euconchophora Brongniart, 1897 Odontolakis Redtenbacher, 1891 Oncodopus Brongniart, 1897 Ebneria Karny, 1920 Graminofolium Nickle, 2007 Nemoricultrix Mello-Leitão, 1940 Paraxiphidium Redtenbacher, 1891 Phlesirtes Bolívar, 1922 Gorochov, A.

V. 2011: Taxonomy of the katydids from east Asia and adjacent islands. Communication 2. Far Eastern Entomologist 227: 1-12. Ingrisch, S. 2015. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini and of some other species included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, part 3. Zootaxa 4046: 1–308. Doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4046.1.1 Media related to Conocephalinae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Conocephalinae at Wikispecies

New Church of the Theotokos

The New Church of the Theotokos was a Byzantine church erected in Jerusalem by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. Like the Nea Ekklesia in Constantinople, it is sometimes referred to in English as "The Nea"; the church was completed in 543 but was damaged or destroyed during the Persian conquest of the city in 614. It was further used as a source of building material by the Umayyads few decades later. Two contemporary accounts survive that describe the building of the Nea, but neither author has much to say about the shape and organization of the church complex. Cyril of Scythopolis, a Christian monk who lived in 525–558, records that the church was begun by the Patriarch Elias but left unfinished until Justinian allocated funds for its completion at the behest of St. Sabas in 531. A more detailed account of the church and its construction comes from Procopius, the principal historian of the sixth century and the primary source of information for the rule of the Emperor Justinian. In his De Aedificiis, he writes that “in Jerusalem he dedicated to the Mother of God a shrine with which no other can be compared.”

The Nea was situated on Mount Zion, the highest hill in the city, near the Church of the Holy Apostles and the Basilica of Hagia Sion. Due to the rugged topography, the architect Theodoros first had to extend the southeastern part of the hill and support the church with huge substructures; this account by Procopius corresponds with the excavations of Yoram Tsafrir, as well as a tablet uncovered on the vaulted subterranean cistern that securely dates the building to 543. Mount Zion was not a new site in Jerusalem for Christian patrons to erect their monuments, as a result of past projects, monasteries and cult sites existed there; the highest available spot for the Nea to be constructed was on the southeastern slope of the hill, a far way down from the hegemonic vistas afforded to the Basilica of Hagia Sion that perched on the mount's peak. Yet by choosing this site, Justinian was attempting to position the Nea within the hierarchical power structure, connected to the topographical highpoints of Jerusalem.

There are numerous motivations behind establishing a building such as the Nea on a height. The limited accessibility and semiotic significance of heights afford political and ideological control to its inhabitants, who maintain a panoptic view of control over those below. Heights traditionally held religious significance as well, as attested in the numerous theophanic accounts shared by Judaism and Islam; the decision to build on Mount Zion furthermore situated the Nea within the dialogue of the other two sacred religious buildings that occupied highpoints in the city, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Golgotha and the Basilica of Hagia Sion on Mount Zion. The Nea was a building of great complexity. Although the longitudinal basilican structure was a common typology for sixth-century churches in Palestine, the forecourt's arrangement, along with the placement of the adjoining hostel and monastery remains problematic. According to Procopius, exterior porticoes on the south and northern sides surrounded the structure.

Two huge columns stood in front of the western entrance, preceded by a colonnaded atrium. In front of the atrium was a round courtyard that opened onto the Cardo. Due to the sparse archaeological evidence and the obscurity of Procopius’ description, this plan is difficult to reconstruct. Despite the obscurity of literary details, Tsafrir has proposed that west of the atrium, there were monumental gates that opened into an area that contained a gatehouse and an arch. Beyond this, Tsafrir has hypothesized two semicircles: one would have connected the church complex to the Cardo, while the other was located across the street and provided access to the hospital and hospice. In the interior of the church, the nave terminated at a large apse, flanked by two symmetrical smaller rooms with apses inscribed in their eastern walls, it is unclear whether the nave of the Nea had three or five aisles, but due to the unprecedentedly large dimensions of the church, archaeologists Yoram Tsafrir and Nahman Avigad both agree that while only two rows of interior columns have been uncovered, two additional rows would have been needed to adequately support the roofing structure.

In addition to being the largest known basilica in Palestine, the Nea included a monastery and hospital, as attested by Antoninus of Piacenza, who visited the basilica of St. Mary in 570, “with its great congregation of monks, its guest houses for men and women. In catering for travelers they have a vast number of tables, more than three thousand beds for the sick.” It is unclear. Based on archaeological finds of a southern revetment wall of the Nea church complex, assuming that the complex was symmetrical, archaeologists estimate the overall width of the complex at 105 m. According to Graham, "The Nea gave architectural articulation to a theologoumenon in Jerusalem, conveyed, architecturally, a message regarding Justinian’s imperial policy, imperial presence in Palestine, a self-conception as a Christian emperor." In addition to the contemporary literary accounts and archaeological evidence, the Madaba Map preserves a sixth-century perception of the topography and monuments of the Mediterranean.

The mosaic was discovered on the floor of the Church of St. George in Madaba and has been dated from 560–565, less than twenty years after the inauguration of the Nea in 543, it is the oldest s