Hartlepool is a town in County Durham, England. The town lies on the North Sea coast, 7 1⁄2 miles north of Middlesbrough and 17 miles south of Sunderland; the town is governed as part of the Borough of Hartlepool, a unitary authority which controls outlying villages such as Seaton Carew and Elwick. Hartlepool was founded around the monastery of Hartlepool Abbey; the village grew in the Middle Ages and its harbour served as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham. After a railway link from the north was established from the South Durham coal fields, an additional link from the south, in 1835, together with a new port, resulted in further expansion, with the new town of West Hartlepool. Industrialisation and the start of a shipbuilding industry in the part of the 19th century caused Hartlepool to be a target for the Imperial German Navy at the beginning of the First World War. A bombardment of 1,150 shells on 16 December 1914 resulted in the death of 117 people. A severe decline in heavy industries and shipbuilding following the Second World War caused periods of high unemployment until the 1990s when major investment projects and the redevelopment of the docks area into a marina saw a rise in the town's prospects.
The place name derives from Old English heort, referring to stags seen, pōl, a pool of drinking water which they were known to use. Records of the place-name from early sources confirm this: 649: Hereteu. 1017: Herterpol, or Hertelpolle. 1182: Hierdepol. The 8th Century Northumbrian chronicler Bede referred to the spot on which today's town is sited upon as "the place where deer come to drink", in this period the Headland was named by the Angles as Heruteu. At the beginning of the 11th Century the name had evolved into Herterpol, post Norman Conquest the name of the village sited there evolved in Middle English as: Hart-le-pool. Archaeological evidence has been found below the current high tide mark that indicates that an ancient post-glacial forest by the sea existed in the area during this period. Hartlepool is located in north of Middlesbrough and south of Sunderland. Nearby towns and cities include: Billingham: Darlington; the monument at Eston Nab can be seen, to the south. After the Roman Empire abandoned its province of Britannia in the early 5th Century, its North-Eastern sea coast began to be piratically raided by the Angles from across the North Sea in Scandinavia.
They subsequently began crossing the North Sea and settled in the area, creating the Kingdom of Northumbria. Hartlepool began as an Anglian settlement, a town developed in the 7th Century A. D. sited around Hartlepool Abbey, founded in 640 A. D. by the Irish Christian priest Saint Aidan upon a headland overlooking a natural harbour and the North Sea. The monastery became powerful under St Hilda, who served as its abbess from 649–657 A. D; the Abbey fell into decline with the loss of Northumbrian power in the early 8th Century, it was destroyed during a sea raid by Vikings on Hartlepool in the 9th Century. In March 2000, the archaeological investigation television programme Time Team located the foundations of the lost monastery in the grounds of St Hilda's Church. During the Norman Conquest the De Brus family gained over-lordship of the land surrounding Hartlepool. William the Conqueror subsequently ordered the construction of Durham Castle, the villages under their rule were mentioned in records in 1153 when Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale became Lord of Hartness.
The town's first charter was received before 1185, for which it gained its first mayor, an annual two-week fair and a weekly market. By the Middle Ages Hartlepool was growing into an important market town, one of the reasons for its escalating wealth being that its harbour was serving now as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham; the main industry of the town at this time was fishing, Hartlepool in this period established itself as one of the primary ports upon England's Eastern coast. In 1306, Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland, became the last Lord of Hartness. Angered, King Edward I confiscated the title to Hartlepool, began to improve the town's military defences in expectation of war. In 1315, before they were completed, a Scottish army under Sir James Douglas attacked and looted the town. In the late 15th Century a pier was constructed to assist in the harbour's workload. Hartlepool was once again militarily occupied by a Scottish incursion, this time in alliance with the Parliamentary Army during the English Civil War, which after 18 months was relieved by an English Parliamentarian garrison.
In 1795 Hartlepool artillery emplacements and defences were constructed in the town as a defensive measure against the threat of French attack from seaborne Napoleonic forces. During the Crimean War two coastal batteries were constructed close together in the town to guard against the threat of seaborne attacks from the Imperial Russian Navy, they were entitled the Lighthouse Battery and the Heugh Battery. Hartlepool in the 18th Century became known as a town with medicinal springs the Chalybeate Spa near the Westgate; the poet Thomas Gray visited the town in July 1765 to "take the waters", wrote to his friend Dr. Wharton: A few weeks he wrote in greater detail: By the early nineteenth century, Hartlepool was still a small town of around 900 people, with a de
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is a cathedral city; the largest settlement is Darlington followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south; the county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due to the presence of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham; the county has a mixture of mining and heavy railway heritage, with the latter noteworthy in the southeast of the county, in Darlington and Stockton It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination. Many counties are named after their principal town, the expected form here would be Durhamshire, but this form has never been in common use.
The ceremonial county is named Durham, but the county has long been known as County Durham and is the only English county name prefixed with "County" in common usage. Its unusual naming is explained to some extent by the relationship with the Bishops of Durham, who for centuries governed Durham as a county palatine, outside the usual structure of county administration in England; the situation regarding the formal name in modern local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to "the county of County Durham" and names the new unitary district "County Durham" too. However, a amendment to that legislation, refers to the "county of Durham" and the amendment allows for the unitary council to name itself "The Durham Council". In the event the council retained the name of Durham County Council. With either option, the name does not include County Durham; the former postal county was named "County Durham" to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities. The ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. County Durham: the unitary district was formed on 1 April 2009 replacing the previous two-tier system of a county council providing strategic services and seven district councils providing more local facilities, it has 126 councillors. The seven districts abolished were:Chester-le-Street, including the Lumley and Sacriston areas Derwentside, including Consett and Stanley City of Durham, including Durham city and the surrounding areas Easington, including Seaham and the new town of Peterlee Borough of Sedgefield, including Spennymoor and Newton Aycliffe Teesdale, including Barnard Castle and the villages of Teesdale Wear Valley, including Bishop Auckland, Willington and the villages along Weardale The Borough of Darlington: before 1 April 1997, Darlington was a district in a two-tier arrangement with Durham County Council.
The Borough of Hartlepool: until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the short-lived county of Cleveland, abolished. The part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees, north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that county's abolition in 1996; the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The county is parished. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012; the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Fire service areas follow the same areas as the police with County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service serving the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington and Cleveland Fire Brigade covering the rest. County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service is under the supervision of a combined fire authority consisting of 25 local councillors: 21 from Durham County Council and 4 from Darlington Borough Council.
The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust are responsible for providing NHS ambulance services throughout the ceremonial county, plus the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, which are south of the River Tees and therefore in North Yorkshire, but are part of the North East England region. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance; the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area. Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, are based at Sniperly Farm in Durham City and respond to search and rescue incidents in the county. Around AD 547, an Angle named Ida founded the kingdom of Bernicia after spotting the defensive potential of a large rock at Bamburgh, upon which many a fortification was thenceforth built. Ida was able to forge and consolidate the kingdom. In AD 604, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith forcibly merged Bernicia and Deira to create the Kingdom of Northumbria. In time, the realm was expanded through warfare
Middlesbrough is a large post-industrial town on the south bank of the River Tees in North Yorkshire, northeast England, founded in 1830. The local council, a unitary authority, is Middlesbrough Borough Council; the 2011 Census recorded the borough's total resident population as 138,400 and the wider urban settlement with a population of 174,700, technically making Middlesbrough the largest urban subdivision in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. Middlesbrough is part of the larger built-up area of Teesside which had an overall population of 376,333 at the 2011 Census. Middlesbrough became a county borough within the North Riding of Yorkshire in 1889. In 1968, the borough was merged with a number of others to form the County Borough of Teesside, absorbed in 1974 by the county of Cleveland. In 1996, Cleveland was abolished, Middlesbrough Borough Council became a unitary authority within North Yorkshire. Erimus was chosen as Middlesbrough's motto in 1830, it recalls Fuimus the motto of the Norman/Scottish Bruce family, who were lords of Cleveland in the Middle Ages.
The town's coat of arms is an azure lion, from the arms of the Bruce family, a star, from the arms of Captain James Cook, two ships, representing shipbuilding and maritime trade. In 686, a monastic cell was consecrated by St. Cuthbert at the request of St. Hilda, Abbess of Whitby and in 1119 Robert Bruce, Lord of Cleveland and Annandale and confirmed the church of St. Hilda of Middleburg to Whitby. Up until its closure on the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII in 1537, the church was maintained by 12 Benedictine monks, many of whom became vicars, or rectors, of various places in Cleveland; the importance of the early church at "Middleburg" known as Middlesbrough Priory, is indicated by the fact that, in 1452, it possessed four altars. After the Angles, the area became home to Viking settlers. Names of Viking origin are abundant in the area – for example, Stainsby and Tollesby were once separate villages that belonged to Vikings called Orm, Steinn and Toll, but now form suburbs of Middlesbrough.
The name Mydilsburgh is the earliest recorded form of Middlesbrough's name and dates from the Anglo-Saxon era, while many of the aforementioned villages are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Other links persist in the area through school or road names, to now-outgrown or abandoned local settlements, such as the medieval settlement of Stainsby, deserted by 1757, which amounts to little more today than a series of grassy mounds near the A19 road. In 1801, Middlesbrough was a small farm with a population of just 25. During the latter half of the 19th century, however, it experienced rapid growth; the Stockton and Darlington Railway had been developed to transport coal from Witton Park Colliery and Shildon in County Durham, to the River Tees in the east. It had always been assumed by the investors that Stockton as the lowest bridging point on the River Tees would be suitable to take the largest ships at the required volume. However, as the trade developed, with competition from the Clarence Railway which had established a new port on the north side of the river at Port Clarence, a better solution was required on the south side of the river.
In 1828 the influential Quaker banker, coal mine owner and S&DR shareholder Joseph Pease sailed up the River Tees to find a suitable new site down river of Stockton on which to place new coal staithes. As a result, in 1829 he and a group of Quaker businessmen bought the Middlesbrough farmstead and associated estate, some 527 acres of land, established the Middlesbrough Estate Company. Through the company, the investors set about the development of a new coal port on the banks of the Tees nearby, a suitable town on the site of the farm to supply the port with labour. By 1830 the S&DR had been extended to Middlesbrough and expansion of the town was assured; the small farmstead became the site of such streets as North Street, South Street, West Street, East Street, Commercial Street, Stockton Street and Cleveland Street, laid out in a grid-iron pattern around a market square, with the first house being built in West Street in April 1830. The town of Middlesbrough was born. New businesses bought up premises and plots of land in the new town and soon shippers, butchers, joiners, tailors and painters were moving in.
By 1851 Middlesbrough's population had grown from 40 people in 1829 to 7,600. The first coal shipping staithes at the port were constructed just to the west of the site earmarked for the location of Middlesbrough; the port was linked to the S&DR on 27 December 1830 via a branch that extended to an area just north of the current Middlesbrough railway station. The success of the port meant it soon became overwhelmed by the volume of imports and exports, in 1839 work started on Middlesbrough Dock. Laid out by Sir William Cubitt, the whole infrastructure was built by resident civil engineer George Turnbull. After three years and an expenditure of £122,000, first water was let in on 19 March 1842, the formal opening took place on 12 May 1842. On completion, the docks were bought by the S&DR; the Iron and Steel industry dominated the Tees area since Iron production started in Middlesbrough during the 1840s. In 1841, Henry Bolckow, who had come to England in 1827, formed a partnership with John Vaughan of Worcester, started an iron foundry and rolling mill at Vulcan Street in the town.
It was Vaughan who realised the economic potential of local ironstone deposits when he discovered Ironstone in the Eston Hills in
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.
Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.
In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In the United Kingdom, "unitary authorities" are English local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not Unitary Authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.
Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils. Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions; the collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency.
Category: Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name. The Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle; the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, although the term is encountered in publications and in use by United Kingdom government departments. Local authorities in Wales are unitary in nature but are described by the Local Government Act 1994 as "principal councils", their areas as principal areas. Various other legislation (e.g. s.9
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county and largest ceremonial county in England. It is located in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber but in the region of North East England; the estimated population of North Yorkshire was 602,300 in mid 2016. Created by the Local Government Act 1972, it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres, making it the largest county in England; the majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks. The largest towns are Middlesbrough, York and Scarborough; the area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts: Craven, Harrogate, Ryedale and Selby. The Department for Communities and Local Government considered reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority; the changes were planned to be implemented no than 1 April 2009.
This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so District Council structure will remain. The largest settlement in the administrative county is the second largest is Scarborough. Within the ceremonial county, the largest is the Middlesbrough built-up area. York is the most populous district in the ceremonial county. York and Redcar and Cleveland are unitary authority boroughs which form part of the ceremonial county for various functions such as the Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire, but do not come under county council control. Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Tees is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose. Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region; the ceremonial county area, including the unitary authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire to the east/south east, South Yorkshire to the south, West Yorkshire to the west/south west, Lancashire to the west, Cumbria to the north west and County Durham to the north, with the North Sea to the east.
The geology of North Yorkshire is reflected in its landscape. Within the county are the North York Moors and most of the Yorkshire Dales. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbray and York; the Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast; the highest point is Whernside, on the Cumbrian border, at 736 metres. The two major rivers in the county are the River Ure; the Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows into the Humber Estuary. The River Tees forms part of the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdale through Middlesbrough and Stockton and to the coast. North Yorkshire contains a small section of green belt in the south of the county, just north of Ilkley and Otley along the North and West Yorkshire borders, it extends to the east to cover small communities such as Huby, Kirkby Overblow, Follifoot before covering the gap between the towns of Harrogate and Knaresborough, helping to keep those towns separate.
The belt meets with the Yorkshire Dales National Park at its southernmost extent, forms a border with the Nidderdale AONB. It extends into the western area of Selby district, reaching as far as Balne; the belt was first drawn up from the 1950s. The city of York has an independent surrounding belt area affording protections to several outlying settlements such as Haxby and Dunnington, it too extends into the surrounding districts. North Yorkshire was formed on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, covers most of the lands of the historic North Riding, as well as the northern half of the West Riding, the northern and eastern fringes of the East Riding of Yorkshire and the former county borough of York. York became a unitary authority independent of North Yorkshire on 1 April 1996, at the same time Middlesbrough and Cleveland and areas of Stockton-on-Tees south of the river became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes, having been part of Cleveland from 1974 to 1996.
The non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire is administered by North Yorkshire County Council, a cabinet-style council. The full council of 72 elects a council leader, who in turn appoints up to 9 more councillors to form the executive cabinet; the cabinet is responsible for making decisions in the non-metropolitan county. The county council have their offices in the County Hall in Northallerton. Certain areas within the ceremonial county are administered independently of the county council and have their own unitary authority councils: the City of York Council and Cleveland Borough Council, Middlesbrough Borough Council, Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council; the county has above average house prices. Unemployment is below average for the UK and claimants of Job Seekers Allowance is very low compared to the rest of the UK at 2.7%. Agriculture is an important industry, as are power generation; the county has prosperous high technology and tourism sectors. Tourism is a significant contribut
Ingleby Barwick is a large private residential housing estate and civil parish built on what was the southern perimeter of Thornaby airfield in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. In 2011, the population was 21,045; the estate is enclosed by water to the west and east. It was opened in 1981 by the mayor of Langbaurgh. Although the development of Ingleby Barwick, as the housing estate, present today, did not start until the late 1970s, the land has been occupied for thousands of years. Ingleby Barwick has a ceremonial Coat of Arms; the arms contain a representation of the three rivers. It depicts mill-rinds which are an historical link to the Turner family, who used to own the land which now forms Ingleby Barwick; the crest shows a Teal bird which refers to a horse named Teal, trained at Middleham by Captain Neville Crump, which won the Grand National in 1952. There are traces of human occupation from as far back as the Stone Age. Work at Quarry farm has discovered prolific concentrations of multi period flintwork along the South Bank of the River Tees in this area.
Traces of Iron Age field patterns were discovered at Quarry Farm. A salvage excavation was carried out in the Windmills Fields area of the town at the end of 1996. Five individual burials were found along with a wooden cist, these finds were accompanied by objects containing stone and copper alloy of high status; this site was considered of European significance as it threw new light on the settlement of the area in the Bronze age and highlighted a change in tradition of burial traditions and trade networks at this time. Roman settlement is apparent in the town and a Roman Villa circa 200 AD the most northerly in UK, was excavated in part; this has been preserved as a grassed area in The Forum area of Ingleby Barwick. The "official" report on the excavation was published in 2013 with the title "A Roman Villa at the Edge of Empire" The name Ingleby Barwick is derived from both Viking and Saxon place names. Ingleby is derived from Old Norse Englar+by and means'farmstead or village of the English man', Barwick is Saxon in origin, Bere is Saxon for barley and Wick means farm.
This suggests. It may have been that until the 17th century and Barwick were two separate places. After the Norman invasion The Manor of Barwick was given to Robert Malet the son of William Malet, King William's great chamberlain. In the 13th century the land was owned by the Priors of Guisborough & Jervaulx until the dissolution of monasteries. Between the 14th and 16th centuries landowners included the Percys of Northumberland and the Parrs of Nottingham; the Middle Ages are considered to have ended with the Renaissance in the mid 15th century In the 17th century the Manor of Barwick was sold to Sir Thomas Lynch, Governor of Jamaica and to Sir William Turner of Kirkleatham. The land remaining in the ownership of the Turner's, with profits from the land used to support the free school and hospital at Kirkleatham, until it was sold in the 19th century. Ingleby Barwick is listed as being a township in the parish of Stainton in 1887, its population was given as 132. During this time the land was sold off by the Turner estate.
During the Second World War Ingleby Barwick stood near to the south-western perimeter of Thornaby Airfield and a number of aircraft crashed where Ingleby Barwick housing estate now stands. On 11 June 1940 a Coastal Command Lockheed Hudson crashed at Quarry Farm killing the four crew after the bomb load exploded on crashing. On 28 April 1941 a Bristol Blenheim crashed at Barwick Lane killing all three crew. On 18 December 1941 a Lockheed Hudson stalled soon after take off and crashed into Quarry Farm killing the five crew and four civilians. On 4 September 1942 a Lockheed Hudson crashed at Myton House Farm killing the four crew; the last aircraft accident was a Photo Reconnaissance de Havilland Mosquito, attempting to land at Thornaby on one engine and crashed into land, now home to Ingleby Mill School on 11 November 1943 killing both crew members. In 1969 Yarmside Holdings bought land for housing and the first houses were built at Lowfields in the late 1970s. Since there has been a major undertaking to build new housing and at one time Ingleby Barwick was reputed to be the largest private housing estate in Europe.
It is the home to one of the Olympic Golden Postboxes in honour of Kat Copeland's rowing gold at the 2012 London Olympics. The post box is located at the end of Apsley Way in The Rings. There are still a number of features that pre-date the 1980s-onward development: The route of the original Barwick Lane, which gave access to much of the original farmland remains accessible, its origin remains to the east of the Fox Covert Inn on Low Lane. This becomes a cycle path, whose route can be navigated through Sober Hall, crossing Sober Hall Avenue, Pennine Way and Blair Avenue, passing close by Barley Fields Primary School and the Myton Road shops before crossing Blair Avenue's northern loop and terminating at the Myton Way/The Rings roundabout. Another original road route is preserved in the cycle path that runs in a westerly direction starting from the Teal Arms / Ingleby Barwick Post Office complex, this being the approximate former site of Low Farm; this route continues to the west of Myton Way, leading to Barwick Farm.
Low Farm. One of the buildings is incorporated in the Teal Arms pub. Black Mill on Raydale Beck is the remnant of a corn mill built on the original Sober Hall Farm, now residential; the Old Mill at the southern end of Barwick Lane is now a bed and breakfast Cleveland View on Barw
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K