Tehran or Teheran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city, it was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1786, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, to avoid the vying factions of the ruling Iranian dynasties; the capital has been moved several times throughout history, Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
Large-scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower, completed in 2007; the Tabiat Bridge, a newly built landmark, was completed in 2014. The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran has an international airport, a domestic airport, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907. There are various theories pertaining to the origin of the name Tehran. One plausible theory is that the word "Tehran" is derived from Tiran/Tirgan, "The Abode of Tir"; the ancient Parthian town of Tiran was a neighbour to the town of Mehran. Both of these were mere villages in the suburbs of the great city of Ray/Rhages. Mehran is still extant and forms a residential district inside the Greater Tehran, as is Ray—which forms the southern suburbs of Tehran.
Another theory is that Tehran means "a warm place", as opposed to "a cool place" —a cooler district in northern Tehran. Some current texts in this regard claim that the word Tehran in Persian means "warm mountain slope"; the official City of Tehran website says that "Tehran" comes from the Persian words "Tah" meaning "end or bottom" and "Ran" meaning " slope"—literally, bottom of the mountain slope. Given Tehran's geographic position at the bottom of the slope of the Alborz Mountains, this appears to be the most plausible explanation of the origin of the name of the city; the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages. In the Avesta's Videvdat, Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province. From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, putting down the rebellion in Parthia.
In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem, based on the ancient legends of Iran, it appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk, the place where Arash shot his arrow from. During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan. Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran; because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebu
Nicole Tully is an American middle- and long-distance runner. She holds best of 15:05.58 minutes for the 5000 meters. She was the American national champion over the latter distance in 2015, she ran middle-distance for Villanova University and was an NCAA All-American in 2011. She represented the United States at the Universiade in 2013. Born to Ken Schappert and Jane Ackerman, Tully grew up in a sporting family, her father has competed nationally in middle-distance running and for Villanova University, while was an NCAA finalist for the school in swimming. Tully grew up in Delray Beach and won state titles in running while attending Pope John Paul II High School attended Wake Forest University but, dissatisfied with her running development, transferred to her parent's alma mater, she began a business and marketing major at Villanova and met her future husband, Sean Tully, on the Villanova Wildcats track team. Running for the Villanova Wildcats under coach Gina Procaccio, in her freshman year Tully placed sixth in the 1500 meters at the Atlantic Coast Conference championships.
She was in the top thirty at the 2009 NCAA Women's Division I Cross Country Championship and was fifth in the Big East Conference championships over 1500 m. She enjoyed her most successful collegiate season during her last year at Villanova in 2011, she was twice runner-up in Big East competition and came sixth at the 2010 NCAA Women's Division I Indoor Track and Field Championships over 3000 meters. After graduation, Nicole began studying for a masters in communication at Rutgers University and continued running. In 2011 she improved her 1500 m best to 4:10.02 minutes and had her first national placing at the United States 5K Championships, coming seventh. A new best in the mile run came in 2012 and her time of 4:30.65 to win at the Morton Games ranked her in the top ten globally. She ranked tenth nationally in the 1500 m at both the USA Indoor Track and Field Championships and the United States Olympic Trials. By the end of the season she had knocked three seconds off her best, recording 4:06.87 minutes in Italy.
Nicole failed to make the national finals in 2013 but made her international debut at the Summer Universiade and made the 1500 m final, placing eighth. In her first appearance on the major international track circuit, she set a 3000 m best of 8:55.48 minutes to place tenth at the adidas Grand Prix in New York. At the 2014 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships, Nicole Schappert placed 17th on 1500 meters representing Hoka 1 1/NYAC in a time of 4:13.47. Working with Frank Gagliano at NJNY Track Club, she began to run over longer distances in 2015, starting with a fourth-place finish over two miles at the 2015 USA Indoor Track and Field Championships. Nicole ran 4:11.65 in the 1500 m beating Marielle Hall in Princeton. She ran her first 5000 meters at the Payton Jordan Invitational in May and surprised by taking third in a time of 15:05.58 minutes – this met the qualifying standard for the national team and was over 25 seconds faster than she anticipated before the race. In her second outing over the distance she won the national title at the 2015 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships, beating much favoured opposition.
Tully ran 2016 Olympic standard in 1500 metres in Heusden, Belgium 18 July 2015. Tully finished the 2015 year ranked 25th in the world in 5000 metres after finishing 14th in the 5000 m 2015 IAAF World Championships. On 1 May 2016, Nicole improved her personal best in 5000 m to 15:04.08. Nicole made the 5000 m final at 2016 US Olympic Trials. Nicole ran a personal best mile at 2016 Sir Walter Miler hosted by Meredith College in 4:29.78. Outdoor800 meters – 2:02.86 min 1500 meters – 4:05.89 min Mile run – 4:29.78 min 3000 meters – 8:55.48 min 5000 meters – 15:04.08 min Indoor1500 meters – 4:12.33 min Mile run – 4:31.34 min 3000 meters – 9:00.84 min Two miles – 9:39.38 min USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships 5000 meters: 2015 Nicole Tully at World Athletics Nicole Tully on Twitter
The Felix Dzerzhinsky Political-Military Academy – was a Soviet style military academy, established by the communist government, in the People's Republic of Poland. It operated in Warsaw from 1951 until 1990, was an institution with high school status, founded for indoctrination of higher command of military forces of Communist Poland; the alumni of the Political-Military Academy became political commissars in the Army. The Academy was opened on March 22, 1951, in the campus, used by the Academy of Political Officers at Rembertow. On July 18, 1951 it was named after Felix Dzerzhinsky. Soon afterwards, it was moved to former Europejski Hotel in the center of Warsaw, in 1954 it was moved again, to the campus of Academy of Polish Army Headquarters, located on Opaczewska Street; the Academy’s structure was based on Moscow’s V. I. Lenin Political-Military Academy, as its founder, Colonel Jan Hoffman was its graduate. Most of its staff were officers of the former Academy of Political Officers, as well as a group of Red Army political officers.
Among lecturers were Jerzy Wiatr, Tadeusz Kotarbinski, Stefan Michnik, Stanislaw Kania. In the first years of existence, the Academy had eight faculties: History of Poland and Polish Workers’ Movement, History of the World and International Workers’ Movement, History of Wars and Warfare, History of Tactics and Headquarters, History of War Geography, History of Political Economics, History of Marxism–Leninism, History of Party and Political Work. In 1954, the Military-Legal Faculty was added. In December 1958, the faculties of History and Pedagogy were added, in early 1961, the Military Legal Institute was opened within the Academy. In 1966, the Center of Social Studies was opened; the Academy was dissolved on May 21, 1990, most of its campus was transferred to Warsaw University. Czesław Madajczyk Julian Polan-Haraschin Stanisław Herbst Jerzy Wiatr Jan Szczepański Janusz Reykowski Stanisław Kwiatkowski Tadeusz Dziekan Kazimierz Ochocki Józef Borgosz Rudolf Dzipanov Edward Barszcz Ryszard Ratajczyk Zbigniew Chądzyński Ludwik Bazylow Marian Leszczyk Bolesław Krasiewicz Edward Krawczyk Janusz Teleszyński Emanuel Halicz Michał Pirko Stanisław Józef Sokołowski