Teide Observatory, IAU code 954, is an astronomical observatory on Mount Teide at 2,390 metres, located on Tenerife, Spain. It is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias since its inauguration in 1964 and it became one of the first major international observatories, attracting telescopes from different countries around the world because of the good astronomical seeing conditions. Later the emphasis for optical telescopes shifted more towards Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma, Solar Vacuum Tower Telescope,70 cm diameter. Operated by the Kiepenheuer Institute of Solar Physics, Freiburg, THÉMIS Solar Telescope,90 cm diameter, built 1996, operated by Italy and France. GREGOR Solar Telescope,1.5 m, operated by a German consortium, a node of the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network, operated by the University of Birmingham, UK. Carlos Sánchez Infrared Telescope,152 cm diameter installed by the UK in 1971 Mons reflecting telescope,50 cm diameter, operated by the University of Mons, iAC-80 Telescope,80 cm IAC telescope, installed in 1991.
OGS Telescope,1 m European Space Agency optical ground station for satellite communications, STARE Telescope,10 cm Stellar Astrophysics & Research on Exoplanets. Bradford Robotic Telescope,35 cm Telescope for educational use, STELLA Telescopes robotic telescopes,120 cm STELLA is an abbreviation of STELLar Activity, operated by Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics with the collaboration of the IAC, put in operation 2006. SLOOH, US robotic telescopes, built in 2004, the 33 GHz interferometer The COSMOSOMAS Experiment The Very Small Array QUIJOTE CMB Experiment The observatory has a visitors centre and a residencia for astronomers. Brian May helped construct a building there to study interplanetary dust, the Minor Planet Center credits the discovery of several minor planets directly to the observatory. The position where the observatory is situated has a mediterranean climate and this renders in warm summers that averages around 23 °C with light frosts being possible and sometimes happening in winter.
Sunshine levels, as typical of the nearby lowland arid climates, are throughout the year. Observatorio del Teide website Discover the Teide Observatory at worldflicks. org
Pico Viejo is a volcano located on the island of Tenerife. It is the second highest peak of Tenerife and the Canary Islands with a height of 3,135 m above sea level, the volcano is part of the Teide volcanic complex, which began forming about 200,000 years ago in the centre of Tenerife. Its crater is one of the craters around El Teide. Pico Viejo can be climbed from several sides, From the road in the west and south-west, there are several different starting points. The shortest approach from the west and south-west side is if you start from the parking Narices del Teide and you will need around three hours from the road to the crater. From the Parador side, the starts at the parking. You can access Pico Viejo from the Teide direction as well, geology of the Teide Pico Viejo - Route description on Mountains for Everybody. Mount Guajara Teide Teide National Park Tenerife Teide National Park - Official Website of Tenerife Tourism Corporation
Argyranthemum is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Asteraceae. Members of this genus are placed in the genus Chrysanthemum. The genus is endemic to Macaronesia, occurring only on the Canary Islands, the Savage Islands, Argyranthemum frutescens is recorded as a food plant of the leaf-mining larva of the moth Bucculatrix chrysanthemella. Varieties and cultivars of Argyranthemum are widely sold as garden plants and they produce prolific single- or double-flowered daisy-like flowers in shades of white, pink and purple throughout summer. They are generally half-hardy, and can be grown from seed or cuttings, the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, - accepted species Argyranthemum
The Canary Islands, known as the Canaries, are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located on the Atlantic Ocean,100 kilometres west of Morocco. The Canaries are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper and it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, the archipelago includes a number of islands and islets, La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este. In ancient times, the chain was often referred to as the Fortunate Isles. The Canary Islands is the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region, the islands have a subtropical climate, with long hot summers and moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation varies depending on location and elevation, green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago.
Due to their location above the inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have built on the islands. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, who came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds. The name Islas Canarias is likely derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning Islands of the Dogs, according to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained vast multitudes of dogs of very large size.
Another speculation is that the dogs were actually a species of monk seal, critically endangered. The dense population of seals may have been the characteristic that most struck the few ancient Romans who established contact with these islands by sea. Alternatively, it is said that the inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the dog-headed ones, who worshipped dogs on an island. Some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the god, Anubis are closely connected
Cedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1, 500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1, 000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean. Cedrus trees can grow up to 30–40 m tall with spicy-resinous scented wood, thick ridged or square-cracked bark, the shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, and short shoots, which carry most of the leaves. The seed cones are barrel-shaped, 6–12 cm long and 3–8 cm broad, green maturing grey-brown, and, as in Abies, disintegrate at maturity to release the winged seeds. The seeds are 10–15 mm long, with a 20–30 mm wing, as in Abies, cone maturation takes one year, with pollination in autumn and the seeds maturing the same time a year later. The pollen cones are ovoid, 3–8 cm long, produced in late summer. Cedars share a similar cone structure with the firs and were traditionally thought to be most closely related to them. L.
libani — Lebanon cedar, mountains of Lebanon, western Syria, cedars are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including pine processionary and turnip moth. Cedars are very popular ornamental trees, widely used in horticulture in temperate climates where temperatures do not fall below about −25°C. The Turkish cedar is slightly hardier, to −30°C or just below, extensive mortality of planted specimens can occur in severe winters where temperatures do drop lower. Cedar wood and cedar oil are known to be a repellent to moths. This specific use of cedar is mentioned in The Iliad, referring to the cedar-roofed or lined storage chamber where Priam goes to fetch treasures to be used as ransom. However, the species used for cedar chests and closets in North America is Juniperus virginiana. Cedar is used to make shoe trees as it can absorb moisture. Many species of trees are suitable for training as bonsai. They work well with many styles, including formal and informal upright, while some naturalized species of cedar can be found in the Americas, no species is native.
Both the Latin word cedrus and the generic name cedrus are derived from Greek κέδρος kédros, ancient Greek and Latin used the same word, kédros and cedrus, for different species of plants now classified in the genera Cedrus and Juniperus. The name was applied to citron and the word citrus is derived from the same root
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and in frigid environments, beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions. The tree line should not be confused with a lower timberline or forest line, at the tree line, tree growth is often sparse and stunted, with the last trees forming densely matted bushes, known as krummholz. The tree line, like other natural lines, appears well-defined from a distance. Trees grow shorter towards the inhospitable climate until they stop growing. The climate above the line of mountains is called an alpine climate. In the northern hemisphere treelines on north-facing slopes are lower than on south-facing slopes because the increased shade on north-facing slopes means the snowpack takes longer to melt and this shortens the growing season for trees. In the southern hemisphere, the slopes have the shorter growing season. The alpine tree line boundary is seldom abrupt, it forms a transition zone between closed forest below and treeless alpine tundra above.
Environmentally dwarfed shrubs commonly forms the upper limit, the decrease in air temperature due to increasing elevation causes the alpine climate. Skin effects and topography can create microclimates that alter the general cooling trend, the number of degree days calculated from leaf temperatures may be very similar in the two kinds of timberlines. A series of warm summers in the 1940s seems to have permitted the establishment of “significant numbers” of spruce seedlings above the treeline in the hills near Fairbanks. Survival depends on a sufficiency of new growth to support the tree, the windiness of high-elevation sites is a potent determinant of the distribution of tree growth. However, snow accumulation in sheltered gullies in the Selkirk Mountains of southeastern British Columbia causes timberline to be 400 metres lower than on exposed intervening shoulders. In a desert, the line marks the driest places where trees can grow. These tend to be called the tree line and occur below about 5,000 ft elevation in the Desert Southwestern United States.
In some mountainous areas, higher elevations above the line or on equator-facing and leeward slopes can result in low rainfall. This dries out the soil, resulting in an arid environment unsuitable for trees
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata, familiar examples of invertebrates include insects, crabs and their kin, clams and their kin, sea-urchins and their kin and worms. The majority of species are invertebrates, one estimate puts the figure at 97%. Many invertebrate taxa have a number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata. Some of the invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the term invertebrate paraphyletic and hence almost meaningless for taxonomic purposes, the word invertebrate comes from the form of the Latin word vertebra, which means a joint in general, and sometimes specifically a joint from the spinal column of a vertebrate. In turn the jointed aspect of vertebra derived from the concept of turning, coupled with the prefix in-, meaning not or without.
The term invertebrates is not always precise among non-biologists since it does not accurately describe a taxon in the way that Arthropoda. Each of these describes an valid taxon, subphylum or family. Invertebrata is a term of convenience, not a taxon, it has very little circumscriptional significance except within the Chordata, the Vertebrata as a subphylum comprises such a small proportion of the Metazoa that to speak of the kingdom Animalia in terms of Vertebrata and Invertebrata has limited practicality. That would at least circumscribe the Chordata, even the notochord would be a less fundamental criterion than aspects of embryological development and symmetry or perhaps bauplan. The following text reflects earlier scientific understanding of the term and of animals which have constituted it. According to this understanding, invertebrates do not possess a skeleton of bone and they include hugely varied body plans. Many have fluid-filled, hydrostatic skeletons, like jellyfish or worms, others have hard exoskeletons, outer shells like those of insects and crustaceans.
The most familiar invertebrates include the Protozoa, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Echinodermata, Arthropoda include insects and arachnids. By far the largest number of described species are insects. The following table lists the number of described extant species for major invertebrate groups as estimated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,2014.3. The IUCN estimates that 66,178 extant vertebrate species have been described, the trait that is common to all invertebrates is the absence of a vertebral column, this creates a distinction between invertebrates and vertebrates
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs, Flowers may facilitate outcrossing or allow selfing. Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization, Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds, the essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts, the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, and the reproductive or sexual parts. A stereotypical flower consists of four kinds of structures attached to the tip of a short stalk, each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the receptacle. The four main whorls are as follows, Collectively the calyx, the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are typically thin and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.
Androecium, the whorl, consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts, a called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis. Gynoecium, the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels, the carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes and these give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl is called a pistil. A pistil may consist of a carpel or a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen, the supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous, although the arrangement described above is considered typical, plant species show a wide variation in floral structure.
These modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species, the four main parts of a flower are generally defined by their positions on the receptacle and not by their function. Many flowers lack some parts or parts may be modified into other functions and/or look like what is typically another part, in some families, like Ranunculaceae, the petals are greatly reduced and in many species the sepals are colorful and petal-like. Other flowers have modified stamens that are petal-like, the flowers of Peonies and Roses are mostly petaloid stamens
Guanches refer to the aboriginal Berber inhabitants of the Canary Islands. It is believed that they migrated to the archipelago around 1000 BC or perhaps earlier, the native term guanchinet literally translated means person of Tenerife. It was modified, according to Juan Núñez de la Peña, though etymologically being an ancient, Tenerife-specific, the word Guanche is now mostly used to refer to the pre-Hispanic aboriginal inhabitants of the entire archipelago. If this account is accurate, it may suggest that the Guanches were not the inhabitants, or the first ones. Strictly speaking, the Guanches were the peoples of Tenerife. The population seems to have lived in isolation up to the time of the Castilian conquest. The name came to be applied to the populations of all the seven Canary Islands. The first reliable account of the Guanche language was provided by the Genoese explorer Nicoloso da Recco in 1341, inscriptions and rock paintings and carvings are quite abundant throughout the islands. Petroglyphs attributed to various Mediterranean civilizations have been found on some of the islands, in 1878 Dr.
René Verneau discovered rock carvings in the ravines of Las Balos that resemble Libyan or Numidian writing dating from the time of Roman occupation or earlier. In other locations, Libyco-Berber script has been identified, the geographic accounts of Pliny the Elder and of Strabo mention the Fortunate Isles but do not report anything about their populations. Among the villagers, one did speak Arabic and asked them where they came from, the king of the village ordered them to bring them back to the continent where they were surprised to be welcomed by Berbers. Apart from the marvelous and fanciful content of history, this account would suggest that Guanches had sporadic contacts with populations from the mainland. Al-Idrisi described the Guanche men as tall and of a reddish-brown complexion, the Castilian conquest of the Canary Islands began in 1402, with the expedition of Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle to the island of Lanzarote. Gadifer would invade Lanzarote and Fuerteventura with ease since many of the aboriginals, faced issues of starvation and poor agriculture.
The other five islands fought back, el Hierro and the Bimbache population were the next to fall, La Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma and in 1496, Tenerife. In the First Battle of Acentejo, called La Matanza, Guanches ambushed the Castilians in a valley, only one in five of the Castilians survived, including the leader of the expedition, Alonso Fernandez de Lugo. Lugo would return to the island with the alliance of the kings of the part of the island. The northern Menceyatos or provinces fell after the Second Battle of Acentejo with the defeat of the successor of Bencomo, Mencey of Taoro – what is now the Orotava Valley – in 1496
In biology, an adaptation, called an adaptive trait, is a trait with a current functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. Adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations enhance the fitness and survival of individuals, organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of insurance or resilience to varying environments. Adaptation is, first of all, a process, to rather be with the animal, an internal parasite can illustrate the distinction, such a parasite may have a very simple bodily structure, but nevertheless the organism is highly adapted to its specific environment. From this we see that adaptation is not just a matter of visible traits, in such parasites critical adaptations take place in the life cycle, however, as a practical term, adaptation often refers to a product, those features of a species which result from the process.
Many aspects of an animal or plant can be correctly called adaptations, by using the term adaptation for the evolutionary process, and adaptive trait for the bodily part or function, one may distinguish the two different senses of the word. Adaptation is one of the two processes that explain the diverse species found in biology, such as the different species of Darwins finches. The other process is speciation, caused by geographical isolation or some other mechanism, a favorite example used today to study the interplay of adaptation and speciation is the evolution of cichlid fish in African lakes, where the question of reproductive isolation is much more complex. Adaptation is not always a simple matter where the ideal phenotype evolves for an external environment. An organism must be viable at all stages of its development and this places constraints on the evolution of development and structure of organisms. However, it is not clear what relatively small should mean, the origin of eukaryotic symbiosis exemplifies a more dramatic example.
All adaptations help organisms survive in their ecological niches, the adaptive traits may be structural, behavioral or physiological. Structural adaptations are features of an organism. Behavioral adaptations are composed of inherited behavior chains and/or the ability to learn, behaviors may be inherited in detail, searching for food, vocalizations. Adaptation, affects all aspects of the life of an organism, the following definitions are mainly due to Theodosius Dobzhansky. Adaptation is the process whereby an organism becomes better able to live in its habitat or habitats. Adaptedness is the state of being adapted, the degree to which an organism is able to live, an adaptive trait is an aspect of the developmental pattern of the organism which enables or enhances the probability of that organism surviving and reproducing
Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is called the Skin of the Earth and interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone. Soil consists of a phase of minerals and organic matter, as well as a porous phase that holds gases. Accordingly, soils are often treated as a system of solids, liquids. Soil is a product of the influence of climate, organisms, Soil continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness soil has been considered as an ecosystem by soil ecologists. Most soils have a dry bulk density between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the particle density is much higher. Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic, Soil science has two basic branches of study and pedology.
Edaphology is concerned with the influence of soils on living things, pedology is focused on the formation and classification of soils in their natural environment. In engineering terms, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose material that lies above the solid geology. Soil is commonly referred to as earth or dirt, technically, as soil resources serve as a basis for food security, the international community advocates its sustainable and responsible use through different types of soil governance. Soil is a component of the Earths ecosystem. The worlds ecosystems are impacted in far-reaching ways by the carried out in the soil, from ozone depletion and global warming, to rainforest destruction. Following the atmosphere, the soil is the next largest carbon reservoir on Earth, as the planet warms, soils will add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to its increased biological activity at higher temperatures. Thus, soil carbon losses likely have a positive feedback response to global warming.
Since soil has a range of available niches and habitats. A gram of soil can contain billions of organisms, belonging to thousands of species, mostly microbial, Soil has a mean prokaryotic density of roughly 108 organisms per gram, whereas the ocean has no more than 107 procaryotic organisms per milliliter of seawater. Since plant roots need oxygen, ventilation is an important characteristic of soil and this ventilation can be accomplished via networks of interconnected soil pores, which absorb and hold rainwater making it readily available for plant uptake
Mount Teide is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain. Its 3, 718-metre summit is the highest point in Spain, if measured from the ocean floor, it is at 7,500 m the highest volcano in the world base-to-peak outside of the Hawaiian Islands. Its elevation makes Tenerife the tenth highest island in the world and it remains active, its most recent eruption occurred in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent on the northwestern Santiago rift. Teide, Pico Viejo and Montaña Blanca form the Central Volcanic Complex of Tenerife, the volcano and its surroundings comprise Teide National Park, which has an area of 18,900 hectares and was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on June 28,2007. Teide is the most visited natural wonder of Spain, the most visited park in Spain and Europe and – by 2015 – the eighth most visited in the world. A major international astronomical observatory is located on the slopes of the mountain, before the 1495 Spanish colonization of Tenerife, the native Guanches called the volcano Echeyde, which in their legends referred to a powerful figure leaving the volcano, which could turn into hell.
El Pico del Teide is the modern Spanish name, Teide was a sacred mountain for the aboriginal Guanches, so it was considered a mythological mountain, as Mount Olympus was to the ancient Greeks. According to legend, Guayota kidnapped Magec and imprisoned him inside the volcano, the Guanches asked their supreme god Achamán for clemency, so Achamán fought Guayota, freed Magec from the bowels of the mountain, and plugged the crater with Guayota. It is said that then, Guayota has remained locked inside Teide. When going on to Teide during an eruption, it was customary for the Guanches to light bonfires to scare Guayota, Guayota is often represented as a black dog, accompanied by his host of demons. The Guanches believed that Teide held up the sky, many hiding places found in the mountains contain the remains of stone tools and pottery. These have been interpreted as being ritual deposits to counter the influence of evil spirits, the Guanches believed the mountain to be the place that housed the forces of evil and the most evil figure, Guayota.
The stratovolcanoes Teide and Pico Viejo are the most recent centres of activity on the island of Tenerife. It has a complex volcanic history, the formation of the island and the development of the current Teide volcano took place in the five stages shown in the diagram on the right. Like the other Canary Islands, and volcanic islands in general. This early shield stage volcanism formed the bulk of the part of Tenerife. The shield volcanoes date back to the Miocene and early Pliocene and are preserved in three isolated and deeply eroded massifs, Anaga and Roque del Conde, each shield was apparently constructed in less than three million years, and the entire island in about eight million years. The initial juvenile stage was followed by a period of 2–3 million years of eruptive quiescence and this cessation of activity is typical of the Canaries, La Gomera, for example, is currently at this stage