Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist; the concertina and bandoneón are related. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds; these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block; the performer plays the melody on buttons or keys on the right-hand manual, the accompaniment, consisting of bass and pre-set chord buttons, on the left-hand manual. The accordion is spread across the world. In some countries it is used in popular music, whereas in other regions it tends to be more used for dance-pop and folk music and is used in folk music in Europe, North America and South America.
In Europe and North America, some popular music acts make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, jazz music and in both solo and orchestral performances of classical music; the piano accordion is the official city instrument of California. Many conservatories in Europe have classical accordion departments; the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning "harmonic, musical". Today, native versions of the name accordion are more common; these names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side". Accordions have many types. What may be technically possible to do with one accordion could be impossible with another: Some accordions are bisonoric, producing different pitches depending on the direction of bellows movement Others are unisonoric and produce the same pitch in both directions; the pitch depends on its size. Some use a chromatic buttonboard for the right-hand manual Others use a diatonic buttonboard for the right-hand manual Yet others use a piano-style musical keyboard for the right-hand manual Some can play in different registers Craftsmen and technicians may tune the same registers differently, "personalizing" the end result, such as an organ technician might voice a particular instrument The bellows is the most recognizable part of the instrument, the primary means of articulation.
Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal, it is used to create pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibrations, applied pressure increases the volume. The keyboard touch is not expressive and does not affect dynamics: all expression is effected through the bellows. Bellows effects include: Volume control and fade Repeated change of direction, popularized by musicians such as Renato Borghete and Luiz Gonzaga, extensively used in Forró, called resfulengo in Brazil Constant bellows motion while applying pressure at intervals Constant bellows motion to produce clear tones with no resonance Using the bellows with the silent air button gives the sound of air moving, sometimes used in contemporary compositions for this instrument The accordion's body consists of two wooden boxes joined together by the bellows.
These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals. Each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, to allow the sound to project better; the grille for the right-hand manual is larger and is shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment; the size and weight of an accordion varies depending on its type and playing range, which can be as small as to have only one or two rows of basses and a single octave on the right-hand manual, to the standard 120-bass accordion and through to large and heavy 160-bass free-bass converter models. The accordion is an aerophone; the manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it: The term accordion covers a wide range of instruments, with varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format. Not all have switches; the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, used for many musical genres.
Another type of accordion is the button accordion, used in several musical traditions, including Cajun and Tejano music and Austro-German Alpine music, Argentinian tango music. Different systems exist for the right-hand manual of an accordion, used for playing the melody; some use a button layout arranged in another, while others use a piano-style keyboard. Each system has different claimed benefits by those, they are used to define one accordion or another as a different "type": Chromatic button accordions and the bayan, a Russian variant, use a buttonboard where notes are arranged chromatically. Two major systems exist, referred to as the B-
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.
Mariachi is a style of music and musical group performance that dates back to at least the 18th century, evolving over time in the countryside of various regions of western Mexico. It has a distinctive instrumentation, musical genre and singing styles, clothing. From the 19th to 20th century, migrations from rural areas into Guadalajara, along with the Mexican government's cultural promotion re-labeled it as Son style, with its alternative name of “mariachi” becoming used for the “urban” form. Modifications of the music include influences from other music such as polkas and waltzes, the addition of trumpets and the use of charro outfits by mariachi musicians; the musical style began to take on national prominence in the first half of the 20th century, with its promotion at presidential inaugurations and on the radio in the 1920s. In 2011 UNESCO recognized mariachi as an Intangible Cultural Heritage, joining six other entries on the Mexican list of that category; the origin of the word is disputed.
One states. Another states that Mariachi comes from the indigenous name of a tree called cirimo. In many Mexican cultures they are called Marietti. Mariachi can refer to the group, or just one musician; the term "Mariachi band" is a redundant term for a Mariachi because the word'Mariachi' itself in Spanish implies a group of musicians playing Mariachi music. The word "mariachi" was thought to have derived from the French word "marriage", dating from the French intervention in Mexico in the 1860s, related to the music's appearance at weddings; this was a common explanation on record jackets and travel brochures. This theory was disproven with the appearance of documents that showed that the word existed before this invasion. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish, indigenous music was played with rattles, drums and conch-shell horns as part of religious celebrations; the Spanish introduced violins, harps, brass instruments, woodwinds, which replaced the native instruments. The Europeans introduced their instruments to use during Mass, but they were adapted to secular events.
Indigenous and mestizo peoples learned to play and make these instruments giving them modified shapes and tunings. In addition to instruments, the Spanish introduced the concept of musical groups—which, in the colonial period consisted of two violins, a harp, various guitars; this grouping gave rise to a number of folk musical styles in Mexico. One of these folk musical styles was the son; this music featured string instruments. Son music divided into various regional varieties—the variety popular in the Jalisco area was called son jalisciense, whose best known song referred to as "the mariachi national anthem," is “La Negra.” Modern mariachi music developed from this son style, with “mariachi” as an alternative name for son jalisciense. Early mariachi players did not look like those of today; those who could play the son jalisciense/mariachi music could find work at haciendas at a higher rate than those who could not. The distinction of mariachi from the older son jalisciense occurred sometime during the 19th century.
The music originated in the center-west of Mexico. Most claims for its origin lie in the state of Jalisco but neighboring states of Colima and Michoacán have claimed it. However, by the late 19th century, the music was centered in Jalisco. Most legends put the origin of the modern mariachi in the town of Jalisco; the distinction from son to modern mariachi comes from the modification of the music. By the end of the nineteenth century, the European art music tradition was transplanted to Mexico, with opera, salon music and more written and performed both by Europeans and Mexicans in the country. One variety was the salon orchestras called orquestas típicas that performed in more rural settings, notably in charro outfits; this use of the charro outfit was repeated with urban mariachi in the 1920s. The Charro outfit was used in the national Orquestra Típica Mexicana, organized in 1884 by Carlo Curti, touring the United States and Mexico as part of a presentation of nationalism for the Mexican president Porfirio Diaz.
Curti's Orquestra Típica Mexicana has been called the "predecessor of the Mariachi."After the Mexican Revolution, many haciendas had to let workers go, including mariachis. Groups began to wander and play for a fee, which obliged them to incorporate other music into their repertoires, including waltzes and polkas, it required them to play in public venues. From the late 19th century to the 1930s, Mariachi groups were semi-professional. In the early 20th century, U. S. record companies began recording rural music in other parts of the world. One of these as a recording called Cuarteto Coculense by Columbia and Victor in 1908 and 1909, recognized as the “first” mariachi recordings; the music gained attention in Mexico City when a wealthy hacienda family brought an early Mariachi from Cocula to play for President Porfirio Díaz in 1905. The common perception of the music and look of mariachi developed in the 20th century, as the music was transformed from a regional rural folk music to an urban phenomenon that came to represent Mexico.
The music was first introduced to Mexico City in 1905. During this time, many farm workers moved to the city, including those from Jalisco, which settled
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
The Mexican Revolution known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution, its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; the origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa.
In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a fair election. Opposition to his regime grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative. Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, were assassinated; the counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces; when the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war. The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare.
Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza. The armed conflict lasted for the better part of a decade, until around 1920, had several distinct phases. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces. Although the conflict was a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles; the United States played an significant role. Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. 1.5 million people died.
Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework. The period 1920–1940 is considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented; this armed conflict is characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century. The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent a neoliberal reform process that started in the 1980s; the Porfiriato is the period in late nineteenth-century Mexican history dominated by General Porfirio Díaz, who became president of Mexico in 1876 and ruled continuously until his forced resignation in 1911.
After the presidency of his ally, General Manuel González, Díaz ran for the presidency again and served in office until 1911. Under his administration, the constitution had been amended to allow unlimited presidential re-election. Díaz had challenged Benito Juárez on the platform of "no re-election." During the Porfiriato, there were regular elections, marked by contentious irregularities. Although Díaz had publicly announced in an interview with journalist James Creelman that he would not run in the 1910 election, setting off a flurry of political activity, he changed his mind and decided to run again at age 80; the contested 1910 election was a key political event. As Díaz aged, the question of presidential succession became important. In 1906, the office of vice president was revived, with Díaz choosing his close ally Ramón Corral from among his Científico advisers to serve in the post. By the 1910 election, the Díaz regime had become authoritarian, opposition to it had increased in many sectors of Mexican society.
In the 19th century, he had been a national hero, opposing the French Intervention in the 1860s and distinguishing himself in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862. Díaz entered politics fo
Norteño called música norteña, is a genre of Mexican music related to polka and corridos. As its names indicates, Norteño is a musical expression from Northern Mexico; the accordion and the bajo sexto are norteño. Norteño music developed in the late 19th century, as a mixture between German folk music, local Northern Mexican music; the genre is popular in both Mexico and the United States among the Mexican and Mexican-American community, it has become popular in many Latin American countries as far as Chile and Colombia and in Spain. Though originating from rural areas, norteño is popular in both rural areas; some popular norteño artists include Ramón Ayala, Los Invasores de Nuevo León, Los Cadetes de Linares, Los Alegres de Terán, Los Tigres del Norte, Los Huracanes del Norte, Los Rieleros del Norte, La Leyenda, Los Tucanes de Tijuana. Local radio stations have continued to be a major influence in popularizing norteño in the Mexican-American community. A conjunto norteño is a type of Mexican folk ensemble.
It includes diatonic accordion, bajo sexto, electric bass or double bass, drums, sometimes saxophone. The norteño repertoire covers canción ranchera, balada, huapango norteño, polka and chotís. Examples: Vocal: Ranchera polka – "Carta Abierta" Ranchera vals – "Tragos amargos" Corrido polka – "Contrabando y traición" Corrido vals – "Gerardo González" Corrido mazurka – "Catalino y los rurales" Bolero - "Mi tesoro"Instrumental: Huapango norteño – "El texanito", "El Mezquitón" Polka – "El Circo" Chotis – "El Cerro de la Silla" Redova – "De China a Bravo" Emperor Maximilian I was the first to bring the music of Middle Europe to México. By 1864 he had accumulated marching musicians to entertain him; when Maximilian's empire was defeated, many of his former army and fellow countrymen fled north and dispersed into what is now the southwestern United States. Norteño music developed from a blending of Mexican and Spanish oral and musical traditions, military brass band instrumentation, Germanic musical styles such as polka and waltz.
European immigrants from Germany, Poland, & Czech Republic to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States brought dance traditions such as the varsovienne. The focus on the accordion in the music of their home countries was integrated into Mexican music, the instrument is essential in the genre today, it was called norteño. The late 1910s and 1920s were the golden age of a form of ballad. Mexicans on both sides of the border came to Texas, to record in hotels, their songs memorialize the Mexican political revolution of the time. Los Alegres de Terán was among the first norteño bands. In the century the genre became more commercial with the works of Los Relámpagos del Norte and other groups. More recent bands such as Intocable integrate elements of other popular styles. In the 1950s, the heavy influence of norteño on the traditional music of Mexican-Americans in southern Texas gave rise to a new form of popular music called Tejano or "Tex-Mex", it was influenced by American roll and swing.
Tejano music includes English lyrics and may sound much more like American rock and country music, but is a broad genre incorporating many different styles. Because Tejano music is derived from norteño, the two are confused. Tejano is more influenced by American music styles such as country and jazz, while norteño is less Americanized with a rural, traditional sound. A different regional Mexican genre confused with Norteño is Sierreño, it was invented and popularized in the Mexican state of Sinaloa in the 1980’s and its popularity spread throughout Mexico. There are one from Guerrero; the main instruments in Sinaloa-style Sierreño include an acoustic twelve-string guitar, acoustic six-string guitar, acoustic or electric bass. It can include an accordion and/or saxophone, but the main and most distinctive instrument in this genre is the acoustic twelve-string guitar. Unlike Norteño, Sierreño does not include drums. A tololoche can be used instead of a bass. Guerrero-style Sierreño includes a requinto instead of a twelve-string guitar.
In recent years, a number of Norteño artists have included a sousaphone to play the bass notes in their music instead of an electric bass or tololoche, thus creating the fusion sub genre of Norteño-Banda. The same has been done with many Sierreño artists who use a sousaphone instead of a bass or tololoche, thus creating the fusion subgenre of Sierreño-Banda. Modern norteño has diverged from more original "oldie" norteño of pre-1950s artists such as Narciso Martínez. Since the 1970s and 1980s, electric bass guitars and a modern drum set have been added; the traditional bajo sexto-accordion style of Los Alegres de Terán and Antonio Aguilar transformed into the modern style typical to that of Los Tigres del Norte, Intocable and Los Tucanes De Tijuana. Current songs may feature saxophone, or an electronic keyboard. In 2014 Los Tigres del Norte released the album Realidades, which contains the song “Era Diferente” about a lesbian teenager who falls in love with her best friend. Genres similar to norteño include duranguense.
These bands employ brass instruments instead of accordions and guitars, but may perform the same son
Bolero refers to two distinct genres of slow-tempo Latin music and their associated dances. The oldest type of bolero originated in Spain during the late 18th century as a form of ballroom music, which influenced art music composers around the world, most famously Maurice Ravel's Boléro, as well as a flamenco style known as boleras. An unrelated genre of sung music originated in eastern Cuba in the late 19th century as part of the trova tradition; this genre gained widespread popularity around Latin America throughout the 20th century and continues to thrive. The original Spanish bolero is a 34 dance that originated in Spain in the late 18th century, a combination of the contradanza and the sevillana. There are many so-called boleros in art music, which are inspired in the original Spanish genre of the same name. Ravel's Boléro is one of his most famous works written as a ballet score commissioned by Ida Rubinstein, but now played as a concert piece, it was called Fandango but has rhythmic similarities with the Spanish dance form as described in this article, being in a constant 34 time with a prominent triplet on the second beat of every bar.
Chopin wrote a bolero for solo piano. He was a close friend of Pauline Viardot, the daughter of the famed Spanish tenor Manuel García, who had introduced the bolero to Paris Debussy wrote a bolero in La Soirée dans Grenada Bizet wrote a bolero in Carmen Saint-Saëns wrote a bolero, El desdichado, for 2 voices and orchestra Moszkowski's first set of Spanish Dances ends with a bolero. Lefébure-Wély wrote Boléro de Concert for organ The bolero from Hervé's Chilpéric has been immortalized in Toulouse-Lautrec's famous painting. Friedrich Baumfelder wrote Op. 317, for piano. Richard Aaker Trythall wrote a bolero for four percussionists based on the rhythm and structure of the traditional bolero dance. Trythall imagined the four percussionists as four dancers, intertwining their solos and trios with moments of group ensemble work in the same way a choreographer might have done. Charles-Auguste de Beriot wrote a bolero in his concerto "Scene de Ballet" for piano. English banjo composer Joe Morley wrote a bolero titled "El Contrabandista" after noted banjoist and composer Alfred Cammeyer published a bolero in 44 time for banjo.
Morley composed his as a true bolero in 34 time. John Serry Sr. composed his African Bolero for accordion and flute in 1950. Fumio Hayasaka composed a bolero for the Akira Kurosawa film Rashomon in 1950. Keith Emerson composed his Abaddon's Bolero for Orchestra and Synthesizer in 1972. In some art music boleros, the root lies not in the bolero but in the habanera, a Cuban precursor of the tango, a favourite dance rhythm in the mid-19th century, occurs in French opera and Spanish zarzuela of the 19th and 20th centuries. In Cuba, the bolero was the first great Cuban musical and vocal synthesis to win universal recognition. In 24 time, this dance music spread to other countries, leaving behind what Ed Morales has called the "most popular lyric tradition in Latin America"; the Cuban bolero tradition originated in Santiago de Cuba in the last quarter of the 19th century. In the 19th century there grew up in Santiago de Cuba a group of itinerant musicians who moved around earning their living by singing and playing the guitar.
Pepe Sanchez is known as the creator of the Cuban bolero. Untrained, but with remarkable natural talent, he composed numbers in his head and never wrote them down; as a result, most of these numbers are now lost, but two dozen or so survive because friends and students wrote them down. He was the teacher for the great trovadores who followed; the bolero first spread from the east of Cuba to the Dominican Republic in the year 1895, thanks to trovador Sindo Garay, who had brought the criolla "La Dorila" to Cuba, giving rise to a lasting interchange of lyrical styles between both islands. In the early 20th century the bolero reached Puerto Rico and Mexico, where it was popularized by the first radio stations around 1915. By the 1930s, when Trío Matamoros made famous their mix of bolero and son cubano known as bolero-son, the genre was a staple of the musical repertoire of most Latin American countries. In Spain, Cuban bolero was incorporated into the copla repertoire with added elements from Andalusian music, giving rise to the so-called bolero moruno, made famous by composers such as Carmelo Larrea and Quintero, León y Quiroga.
Some of the bolero's leading composers have come from nearby countries, as in the case of the prolific Puerto Rican composer Rafael Hernández and the Mexican composers: Agustín Lara and María Grever. Some Cuban composers of the bolero are considered trovadores. Several lyric tenors contributed to the popularization of the bolero throughout North and South America during the 1930s and the 1940s through live concerts and performances on international radio networks. Included in this group were the Mexican operatic tenors: Juan Arvizu and Nestor Mesta Chayres, their collaborations in New York City with such musicians as Alfredo Antonini, Terig Tucci, Elsa Miranda and John Serry Sr. on the CBS radio show Viva América introduced the bolero to millions of listeners throughout the United States. Noteworthy during the 1940s and 1950s were the performances of Trio Los Panchos, which featured the artistry of musicians from Mexico and Puerto Rico including: Chucho Navarro, Alfredo Gil and Hernando Avilés.
Boleros saw a resurgence in popularity during the 1990s when Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for reviving interest in the bole