SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Telefónica

Telefónica, S. A. is a Spanish multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Spain. It is mobile network providers in the world, it provides fixed and mobile telephony and subscription television, operating in Europe and the Americas. As well as the Telefónica brand, it trades as Movistar, O2 and Vivo; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. As of May 2017, Telefónica was the 110th largest company in the world, according to Forbes; the company was created in Madrid in 1924 as Compañía Telefónica Nacional de España with ITT as one of its major shareholders. In 1945, the Estate acquired by law a share of 79.6% of the company. This stake was diluted by a capital increase in 1967; until the liberalisation of the telecom market in 1997, Telefónica was the only telephone operator in Spain it still holds a dominant position. Nowadays, Telefónica is present in more than 20 countries around Europe and America, generating thousands of job opportunities. Telefónica is a 100% listed company with more than 1.5 million direct shareholders.

Its share capital comprises 4.563.996.485 ordinary shares traded on the Spanish Stock Market and on those in London, New York and Buenos Aires. The five major stockholders include: BlackRock: 6.702% Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria: 6.072% Société Générale: 5.774% CaixaBank: 5.251% Norges Bank: 1.355% Telefónica is the second largest corporation in Spain, behind the Santander Group. It owns Telefónica de España, the largest fixed phone and ADSL operator in Spain, Telefónica Móviles, the largest mobile phone operator in Spain, Terra Networks, S. A. an Internet subsidiary. Spain now has the most expensive fibre-to-home network in Europe, as of April 2016. Telefónica was the parent of Telefónica Deutschland; the two ISPs, mediaWays and HighwayOne merged in January 2003 after having been purchased by Telefónica in 2001 and February 2002 respectively. On 26 January 2006 Telefónica completed its £17.7 billion acquisition of the UK-based operator O2 which provided mobile phone services in Germany under the O2 brand.

Following the purchase, Telefónica merged Telefónica Deutschland and O2 Germany to form the current business Telefónica Germany. Telefónica Germany, purchased competitor E-Plus on 1 October 2014; as part of the purchase, Telefónica reduced its stake in its subsidiary to 62.1%. Integration continues as of August 2015, but the now merged network is Germany's largest in customers. On 31 October 2005, O2 agreed to be taken over by Telefónica, with a cash offer of £17.7 billion, or £2 per share. According to the merger announcement, O2, which provided mobile phone services in the UK, Ireland and the Isle of Man, retained its name and continued to be based in the United Kingdom, keeping both the brand and the management team; the merger became unconditional on 23 January 2006 and O2 became a wholly owned subsidiary of Telefónica. Manx Telecom was sold by Telefónica Europe in June 2010. In January 2015, Li Ka-shing entered into talks with Telefónica to buy O2 for around £10.25 billion, aiming to merge it with his subsidiary Three.

The acquisition was blocked by the European Commission on 11 May 2016, which argued that the merger would reduce consumer choice and lead to a higher cost of services Telefónica began to seek a stock market flotation of the business instead. In France, since 2011, Telefónica has a joint venture with the French telecommunications company Bouygues Telecom, part of the Bouygues group, to offer global telecommunication services packages to multinational companies; this cooperation was expanded in June 2015 through the creation of a separate joint venture company named Telefónica Global Solutions France, with its own marketing and sales teams offering Telefónica and Bouygues Telecom services packages to corporations. Telefónica operates the Movistar mobile phone brand throughout Latin America. In Mexico it occupies a distant second place and it is the largest in Chile, Venezuela and Peru. Telefónica owns Telefónica de Argentina, the largest fixed-line operator in the country, it provides broadband and long distance telephone services in southern part of the country as well as the Greater Buenos Aires area.

The Telefónica Group has been in the country since 1990. The mobile business is run by Telefónica Móviles through a local subsidiary. Telefónica's largest fixed-line operation in South America is in Brazil, where it provides broadband and long distance telephone services in the aforementioned state, which alone represents the highest GDP of South America, it owns a majority stake in the Brazilian mobile operator Vivo, having agreed on 28 July 2010 to buy Portugal Telecom's stake in the firm for €7.5 billion, after increasing its original offer by €1.8 billion over three months of incident-rich negotiations. The Telefónica group has been in the country since 1996 when it acquired CRT, a fixed-line and mobile operator in the southern part of the country; the landline division is part of Brasil Telecom. In July 1998 acquired Telesp, the telephony operator of the Telebrás system in the state of São Paulo, forming Telefônica Brasil. In 2009, after four big "blackouts" on Telefónica's broadband "Speedy", ANATEL ordered Telefónica to stop sales of its broadband service until improvements were made on the infrastructure to provide better-quality service.

After the release of sales of broadband internet in August 2009, ANATEL expects the company's service investments to keep on

Gamo Gofa Zone

Gamo is a Zone in the Ethiopian Southern Nations and Peoples' Region. It is named for whose homelands lie in this Zone. Gamo is bordered on the south by the Dirashe special woreda, on the southwest by Debub Omo and the Basketo special woreda, on the northwest by Konta special woreda, on the north by Dawro and Wolayita, on the northeast by the Lake Abaya which separates it from the Oromia Region, on the southeast by the Amaro special woreda; the administrative center of Gamo is Arba Minch. Gamo has 431 kilometers of all-weather roads and 122 kilometers of dry-weather roads, for an average road density of 45 kilometers per 1000 square kilometers; the highest point in this Zone is Mount Gughe. The Lake Chamo is located at the southeastern part of Gamo just south of Lake Abaya; the Nechisar National Park is located between these two lakes. Gamo was part of the Semien Omo Zone, the 1994 national census counted its inhabitants as part of that Zone; however friction between the various ethnic groups in Semien Omo, blamed on the Welayta for "ethnic chauvinism" and despite the efforts of the ruling party to emphasize the need to co-ordinate and unify the smaller ethnic units to achieve the "efficient use of scarce government resources" led to the division of the Zone in 2000, resulting with the creation of not only the Gamo Gofa, but the Dawro and Wolayita Zones and two special woredas.

Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this Zone has a total population of 1659310 of whom 779332 are men and 879782 women. While 157,446 or 9.88% are urban inhabitants, a further 480 or 0.03% are pastoralists. A total of 337,199 households were counted in this Zone, which results in an average of 4.72 persons to a household, 324,919 housing units. The largest ethnic groups reported in this Zone included the Gamo, the Gofa, the Oyda, the Amhara, the Welayta, the Basketo. Gamo is spoken as a first language by 63.75% of the inhabitants, 22.01% Gofa, 3.47% Amharic, 2.31% Basketo, 1.83% Oyda, 1.74% Welayta. 53.41% of the population said they were Protestants, 31.54% practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 11.13% observed traditional religions. Current woredas are: Arba Minch Town Arba Minch Zuria Bonke Boreda Chencha Demba Gofa Dita Deramalo Geze Gofa Kemba Kucha Melokoza Mirab Abaya Oyda Sawla Town Uba Debretsehay Zala Geresse woreda Gacho Baba woreda Kogota WoredaFormer woredas are: Boreda Abaya Dita Dermalo Gofa Zuria Zala Ubamale Desalegn Kebede Kaza, The Enforcement of Rights of Gamo People of Ethiopia: An Approach for Indigenous People's Self-Determined Development

Sigurd Lewerentz

Sigurd Lewerentz was a Swedish architect. Lewerentz was born at Sandö in the parish of Bjärtrå in Sweden, he was the son of Hedvig Mathilda Holmgren. He trained as a mechanical engineer at the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, he took up an architectural apprenticeship in Germany. He first opened his own architectural office in Stockholm in 1911 and became associated with the architect Gunnar Asplund. Together they made a winning entry for the Stockholm South Cemetery competition of 1914–15; this project was implemented by both architects, the latter stages were done by Asplund alone. He and Asplund were appointed as the main architects for the Stockholm International Exhibition but afterwards Lewerentz became disillusioned, Lewerentz turned away from architecture for many years, from 1940 he ran a factory producing windows and other architectural fittings of his own design. Sigurd Lewerentz, together with his colleagues Erik Lallerstedt and David Helldén, created between 1933 and 1944 what is regarded of one of the masterpieces of functionalist architecture, Malmö Opera and Music Theatre.

The foyer is considered of particular beauty, with its open surfaces and beautiful marble staircases and it is adorned with a number of works of art by artists such as Carl Milles and Isaac Grünewald. He was awarded the Prince Eugen Medal for architecture in 1950. In the last decade of his life he designed two churches, St. Mark's at Björkhagen in Stockholm and St. Peter's at Klippan in Scania, that revived his career in architecture, he continued to work at competition proposals and furniture designs until shortly before his death in Lund, Sweden during 1975. Klippan is a small town in western Sweden. St. Peter's at Klippan sits in a suburban setting on the periphery of the town; the orientation of the Church is correct, with the altar standing opposite the west doors. It is square in shape, suggesting a more intimate ritual in the tradition of circonstantes, which harkens back to early Christianity; this was the religious equivalent of the search for the essential and the primitive evident in both of Lewerentz's churches.

These characteristics are expressed beautifully in the detailing of the buildings, the choice of materials, the quality of light and the spatial articulation. Janne Ahlin Sigurd Lewerentz, Architect ISBN 978-3906027487 Peter Blundell Jones Modern Architecture through case studies ISBN 978-0750638050 Campo Ruiz, Ingrid. Lewerentz in Malmo: Intersections between Architecture and Landscape. Doctoral Thesis, Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. St. Mark's, Björkhagen