SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Teleology

Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something as a function of its end, purpose, or goal. Its name is derived from two Greek words: logos. A purpose, imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial today, contends that natural entities have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a grown oak tree. Though ancient atomists rejected the notion of natural teleology, teleological accounts of non-personal or non-human nature were explored and endorsed in ancient and medieval philosophies, but fell into disfavor during the modern era. In the late 18th century, Immanuel Kant used the concept of telos as a regulative principle in his Critique of Judgment. Teleology was fundamental to the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel. Contemporary philosophers and scientists are still discussing whether teleological axioms are useful or accurate in proposing modern philosophies and scientific theories.

An example of the reintroduction of teleology into modern language is the notion of an attractor. For another instance in 2012, Thomas Nagel, not a biologist, proposed a non-Darwinian account of evolution that incorporates impersonal and natural teleological laws to explain the existence of life, consciousness and objective value. Regardless, the accuracy can be considered independently from the usefulness: it is a common experience in pedagogy that a minimum of apparent teleology can be useful in thinking about and explaining Darwinian evolution if there is no true teleology driving evolution, thus it is easier to say that evolution "gave" wolves sharp canine teeth because those teeth "serve the purpose of" predation regardless of whether there is an underlying nonteleologic reality in which evolution is not an actor with intentions. In other words, because human cognition and learning rely on the narrative structure of stories, some minimal level of teleology might be recognized as useful or at least tolerable for practical purposes by people who reject its cosmologic accuracy.

Its accuracy is upheld by Barrow and Tippler in their 1986 treatise published by Oxford University Press "The Anthropic Cosmological Principle". The citings of teleologists such as Max Plank and Norbert Wiener cannot be ignored in any truthful scientific endeavor; the word teleology builds on the Greek τέλος, telos and -λογία, logia, "speak of, study of, a branch of learning". The German philosopher Christian von Wolff coined the term in 1728 in his work Philosophia rationalis, sive logica. In western philosophy, the term and concept of teleology originated in the writings of Plato and Aristotle. Aristotle's Four Causes give special place to each thing's telos or "final cause." In this, he followed Plato in seeing purpose in both sub-human nature. In the Phaedo, Plato through Socrates argues that true explanations for any given physical phenomenon must be teleological, he bemoans those who fail to distinguish between a thing's necessary and sufficient causes, which he identifies as material and final causes: Imagine not being able to distinguish the real cause, from that without which the cause would not be able to act, as a cause.

It is. That is why one man surrounds the earth with a vortex to make the heavens keep it in place, another makes the air support it like a wide lid; as for their capacity of being in the best place they could be at this time, this they do not look for, nor do they believe it to have any divine force, but they believe that they will some time discover a stronger and more immortal Atlas to hold everything together more, they do not believe that the good and'binding' binds and holds them together. Plato here argues that while the materials that compose a body are necessary conditions for its moving or acting in a certain way, they cannot be the sufficient condition for its moving or acting as it does. For example, if Socrates is sitting in an Athenian prison, the elasticity of his tendons is what allows him to be sitting, so a physical description of his tendons can be listed as necessary conditions or auxiliary causes of his act of sitting. However, these are only necessary conditions of Socrates' sitting.

To give a physical description of Socrates' body is to say that Socrates is sitting, but it does not give us any idea why it came to be that he was sitting in the first place. To say why he was sitting and not not sitting, we have to explain what it is about his sitting, good, for all things brought about are brought about because the actor saw some good in them. Thus, to give an explanation of something is to determine what about it is good, its goodness is its actual cause—its purpose, telos or "reason for which". Aristotle argued that Democritus was wrong to attempt to reduce all things to mere necessity, because doing so neglects the aim, "final cause", which brings about these necessary conditions: Democritus, neglecting the final cause, reduces to necessity all the operations of nature. Now, they are necessary, it is true, but yet they are for a final cause and for the sake of what is best in each case, thus nothing prevents the teeth from being shed in this way.

List of ecclesiastical basilicas in Rome

The following is a List of Basilicas in Rome. An ecclesiastical basilica is a Roman Catholic church building, granted special status by the Pope. There are 66 such churches in Rome, more than any other city, more than 125 of the 131 countries in the world that have basilicas. There are four major basilicas of the Catholic Church: All four are in Rome, are distinguished by their having a holy door and for being prescribed as destinations for visits as one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee, they are signified by an Umbraculum and a Tintinnabulum. The four are designated Papal basilicas, so that only the Pope or his delegate may celebrate Mass at the high altar. Several minor basilicas are designated as papal basilicas, they are also sites of pilgrimage. Minor basilicas are marked by the tintinnabulum and umbraculum, though for a minor basilica this is of yellow and red silk. List of all Minor Basilicas from GCatholic

Oriental Brewery

Oriental Brewery or OB is a South Korean brewery owned by AB InBev, founded by Doosan Group. Established by the Doosan Group in 1952, it was purchased by InBev in 1998. In July 2009, it was sold by Anheuser-Busch InBev, it was sold to an affiliate of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.. Anheuser-Busch InBev has retained the right to purchase OB five years from its sale, at predetermined financial terms. In April 2014, AB Inbev executed its right to repurchase OB. OB became a subsidiary of AB Inbev again. Today OB produces several of Korea's most popular beverages including the OB, Cass and Cafri lager brands. All OB beers are brewed from rice, rather than the malted barley familiar to Western beer drinkers. In March 2001, the company merged Cass Beer with the production capacity of 1,120,000 KLE per year, produced red rock, OBE, KaprI, etc. In July 2002, it was the first beer industry to obtain the ISO 9001 certification from the Korea Standards Association, it became a foreign company when it was taken over by Dutch beer company Molte Industries in September 2010 and became a subsidiary of Belgian beer company Anheuser-Bush Inversh in April 2014.

The 4th top selling beer in Korea. OB Lager is a pale, 4.4% A. B. V. Pale lager available in cans and bottles, served on draft in Korea. Brewed in 1948; the name changed to OB Blue in June 2006 with another slight recipe tweak. It is an OB Lager with 30% lower calories with 4.2% ABV. Dunkel/Tmavý Style. Rich taste with German noble hop; the premier OB Pilsner. Premium all malt beer. Pale lager style. German Hefeweizen style. A pale-golden pale lager with a 4.5% ABV. Brewed by the Cass Brewery, the brand had been taken over by Jinro-Coors, one of the country's leading brewers. After having around 70% of the Korean lager market in the 1980s, by 1994 Cass had fallen behind Hite as Korea's top selling lager. Oriental Brewery bought the Cass brand from Jinro-Coors in 1999 and built it up again, with OB declaring a 51% market share in 2000. In 2007, the higher alcohol Cass Red was introduced. In 2011 Cass Lager became South Korea's number one selling brand; the beer became notable after an endorsement by British celebrity chef Gordon Ramsay who described it as "not pretentious", "easy" and "fresh".

His appearance in several of the beer's adverts caused much derision from viewers who found Ramsay's preference for the beer —, considered to be poor in quality — offending despite his status as a chef scrutinizing of his food palate. Non-alcoholic look-alikes of Cass can be found with brand names such as "Cars" and "Cdss"; some norae-bang establishments have been known to try to pass off these imitations as the real thing, as Korean law prohibits noraebangs marked as such from selling alcoholic drinks within its premises. Cass Light is a low-carb pale lager with 4.0% ABV. Pale lager style. Cass 2X is 2.9% ABV. A pale lager with 6.9% ABV, this lager contains higher amount of alcohol. New from OB since 2015. Refreshing beer containing natural lemon juice. ABV 6.9%. Containing natural lemon juice, Cass Lemon provides more a refreshing taste of beer. Cafri is the lightest of all mainstream Korean beers, it is available in clear 330 ml long-neck bottles but falls behind OB, Cass and Hite in popularity.

Porter style British style beer. Brewed with noble hops & pale malt. Discount beer brewed by the Oriental Brewery for the Japanese Daiei Supermarket chain; the Korean "Bergen bräu" is not the same as the Belgían "Bergenbräu". Brewed by the Oriental Brewery for the Japanese Daiei Supermarket chain. Korean "Bergen brau" is not to be confused with the Belgium brand "Bergenbräu". A beer with no sugar. Brewed by the Oriental Brewery for the Japanese Daiei Supermarket chain; the Korean Bergen bräu brand is not to be confused with the Bergenbräu from Belgium. Alcoholic Contents: 4.5% alc./vol. There is a 5% version, produced for sale in Hong Kong and Taiwan and, listed separately; this is the 5%-Version, sold in HongKong and Taiwan only. Brewed by/for Jebsen Beer. Retired from the market. Jebsen Beer and brewed at Oriental Brewery Pale Lager. Dester beer brewed with 100% Malt. At the moment only exported to Singapore. Pale lager style. Guam USA Beer Company Island Lager. Pale lager stye. Non pasteurized fresh premium red beer.

Amber Lager/Vienna Style. Pilsner lager beer. Pale lager style. A deep pilsener beer. Original from Suntory Holdings Limited Budweiser is an American-style pale lager produced by American brewer Anheuser-Busch, a part of multinational corporation Anheuser–Busch InBev. Introduced in 1876 by Carl Conrad & Co. of St. Louis, Missouri, it has grown to become one of the highest selling beers in the United States, is available in over 80 markets worldwide—though, due to a trademark dispute, does not do so under the Budweiser name, it is made with up to 30 % rice in addition to barley malt. Produced in various breweries around the world, Budweiser is a filtered beer available in draft and packaged forms. Introduced in 1994 as "Ice by Budweiser", it has more alcohol than Budweiser, it is best known for an advertising campaign that involved a malevolent penguin that stalked Bud Ice drinkers and stole their beer, announcing its presence by singing the "doo-be-doo-be-doo" phrase from "Strangers in the Night