Television advertisement

A television advertisement is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization. It conveys a message promoting, aiming to market, a product or service. Advertisers and marketers may refer to television commercials as TVCs. Advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most owned television networks. During the 2010s, the number of commercials has grown though the length of each commercial has diminished. Advertisements of this type have promoted a wide variety of goods and ideas since the early days of the history of television; the viewership of television programming, as measured by companies such as Nielsen Media Research in the United States, or BARB in the UK, is used as a metric for television advertisement placement, for the rates which broadcasters charge to advertisers to air within a given network, television program, or time of day. In many countries, including the United States, television campaign advertisements are commonplace in a political campaign.

In other countries, such as France, political advertising on television is restricted, while some countries, such as Norway ban political advertisements. The first official, paid television advertisement came out in the United States on July 1, 1941, over New York station WNBT before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies; the announcement for Bulova watches, for which the company paid anywhere from $4.00 to $9.00, displayed a WNBT test pattern modified to look like a clock with the hands showing the time. The Bulova logo, with the phrase "Bulova Watch Time", appeared in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute; the first TV ad broadcast in the UK went on air on ITV on September 22, 1955, advertising Gibbs SR toothpaste. In Asia, the first TV ad broadcast appeared on Nippon Television in Tokyo on August 28, 1953, advertising Seikosha; the television market has grown to such an extent that it was estimated to reach $69.87 billion for TV ad spending in the United States for 2018.

Television advertising involves three main tasks: creating a television advertisement that meets broadcast standards, placing the advertisement on television to reach the desired customer and measuring the outcomes of these ads, including the return on investment. To accomplish the first step means different things to different parts of the world depending on the regulations in place. In the UK for example, clearance must be given by the body Clearcast. Another example is Venezuela where clearance is governed by a body called CNAC; the clearance provides guarantee to the broadcasters that the content of the advertisement meets legal guidelines. Because of this, special extended clearance sometimes applies to food and medical products as well as gambling advertisements; the second is the process of TV advertising delivery and incorporates the involvement of a post-production house, a media agency, advertising distribution specialists and the end-goal, the broadcasters. At New York's TV Week in November, 2018 the TV advertising model was described by Turner Broadcasting System as broken.

However, with the emergence of over-the-top media services the Internet itself has become a platform for television, hence TV advertising. TV attribution is a marketing concept whereby the impact television ads have on consumers is measured. Addressable television is where targeted advertising is used on digital platforms, so two people watching the same show receive different ads. After the video cassette recorder became popular in the 1980s, the television industry began studying the impact of users fast forwarding through commercials. Advertising agencies fought the trend by making them more entertaining; the introduction of digital video recorders, such as TiVo, services like Sky+, Dish Network and Astro MAX, which allow the recording of television programs into a hard drive enabled viewers to fast-forward or automatically skip through advertisements of recorded programs. At the end of 2008 22 percent of UK households had a DTR; the majority of these households had Sky+ and data from these homes shows that, once a household gets a DTR, they watch 17 percent more television.

82 percent of their viewing is to normal, broadcast TV without fast-forwarding the ads. In the 18 percent of TV viewing, time-shifted, viewers still watch 30 percent of the ads at normal speed. Overall, the extra viewing encouraged by owning a DTR results in viewers watching 2 percent more ads at normal speed than they did before the DTR was installed; the SkyView evidence is reinforced by studies on actual DTR behaviour by the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board and the London Business School. Other forms of TV advertising include. For example, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition advertises Sears and the Home Depot by using products from these companies, some sports events like the Monster Energy Cup of NASCAR are named after sponsors, race cars are covered in advertisements. Many major sporting venues in North America are named for commercial companies, dating back as far as Wrigley Field. Television programs delivered through new mediums such as streaming online video bring different opportunities to the traditional methods of generating revenue from television advertis

Erigeron vicinus

Erigeron vicinus is a North American species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common names neighbor fleabane and border fleabane. It grows in western Texas in the United States; some of the populations lie inside Big Bend National Park. Erigeron vicinus grows in canyons, it is a perennial herb up to 30 centimeters tall, producing a taproot and a branching woody caudex. It produces 1-2 flower heads per stem; each head contains 60–95 ray florets, each ray white with a lilac stripe along the middle/ The rays surround numerous yellow disc florets. The species was named vicinus, meaning "neighbor", in reference to the close proximity of the international border to the location where the plant was first collected

2008 Vancouver Whitecaps FC season

The 2008 Vancouver Whitecaps season was the club's 23rd year of existence, as well as their 16th as a Division 2 club in the franchise model of US-based soccer leagues. With games against well supported MLS side Toronto FC in the Voyageurs Cup and local rival Seattle Sounders selling 22,000 season tickets for MLS in 2009, the Vancouver Whitecaps were marketed as one of the leading markets for a 2011 MLS expansion side; this included expanding the ownership to include Victoria, BC raised NBA star Steve Nash in July. The Division 1 MLS speculation along with the higher profile that came with public negotiations with Vancouver City Council and the Port of Metro Vancouver to develop the Whitecaps Waterfront Stadium gave a boost to media coverage and game attendances; the financed stadium, first proposed in 2006, appeared to be reaching its final government land use approvals in 2008. The 2008 season started in a strong fashion with two losses in their first ten games as new coach Teitur Thordarson maintained the defensive style of previous coach Bob Lilley to grind out results.

The USL-1 league was a contested affair with eleven points separating 11th and third in the standings. However, the top two teams, the Whitecaps and Puerto Rico were a further ten points clear of third place; the Commissioner's Cup was a contest between the Whitecaps, who finished runner-up by one point, the Puerto Rico Islanders. The Whitecaps squandered a 5-1 aggregate league by letting the Minnesota Thunder back into the second leg of the USL-1 play in round, but held on for a 5-4 aggregate win. In the semi-final series against Montreal Impact they ground out a first leg 1-0 loss after their goal keeper was ejected; the Whitecaps deservedly won the second leg 2-0 at home to go through 2-1 on aggregate to the final against Puerto Rico Islanders. The playoff final was a back and forth game in which the Whitecaps prevailed 2-1 in front of 5,822 at their long time home of Swangard Stadium; this was the first year of the official tournament for the Voyageurs Cup known as the Canadian Championship as CONCACAF designated a Canadian spot in the new champions league structure of the CONCACAF Champions Cup.

The Whitecaps finished third in the 2008 Voyaguers Cup with two losses to Montreal and a draw and a win over Division 1 MLS side Toronto FC. Commissioner's Cup, bye to semifinal round of playoffs First round of playoffs Tie-breaker order: 1. Head-to-head points. Total wins. Goal difference. Goals for. Lottery† Rochester deducted 1 point for use of an ineligible player on August 10, 2008 Last updated: April 26, 2010Source: uslsoccer.comPld = Matches played. Many local long time stalwart veteran players such as Jeff Clarke, Jason Jordan, Steve Kindel, Geordie Lyall, Martin Nash, Alfredo Valente remained on the roster. Leading striker Eduardo Sebrango was back for another year with the new coach; the Whitecaps signed Jamaican striker Nicholas Addlery, US keeper Jay Nolly, Omar Jarun, Japanese international Takashi Hirano, Bolivian youth international Vicente Arze. Head Coach – Teitur Thordarson Assistant Coach – Todd Wawrousek Manager Communications – Nathan Vanstone Director of Professional Teams – Greg Anderson Office Manager – Lindsay Pucklik President – Bob LenarduzziAll stats as of the end of the season.

|} Updated to match played February 20, 2014Source: Updated February 28, 2014 Note this list includes only players that have dressed in the eighteen. Note brackets indicate substitute appearances. Note statistics are for league and playoffs. Voyageurs Cup statistics appear to no longer be available. Official website