Television in the United Kingdom

Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service, free of advertising. The United Kingdom has a collection of free-to-air, free-to-view and subscription services over a variety of distribution media, through which there are over 480 channels for consumers as well as on-demand content. There are six main channel owners. There are 27,000 hours of domestic content produced a year at a cost of £2.6 billion. Since 24 October 2012, all television broadcasts in the United Kingdom have been in a digital format, following the end of analogue transmissions in Northern Ireland. Digital content is delivered via terrestrial and cable, as well as over IP; as of 2003, 53.2% of households watch through terrestrial, 31.3% through satellite, 15.6% through cable. Free-to-air, free-to-view and subscription providers operate, with differences in the number of channels, capabilities such as the programme guide, video on demand, high-definition, interactive television via the red button, coverage across the UK.

All providers make available the UK's five most-watched channels: BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4 and Channel 5. Broadcast television is distributed as radio waves via terrestrial or satellite transmissions, or as electrical or light signals through ground-based cables. In the UK, these use the Digital Video Broadcasting standard. Most TVs sold in the UK come with a DVB-T tuner for Freeview – a rare thing in Europe. Set-top boxes are used to receive channels from other providers. Most services have integrated their broadcast TV services with additional video streams distributed via the Internet, or through their own Internet Protocol network. Digital terrestrial television launched in 1998. Since October 2002 the primary broadcaster has been Freeview, free-of-charge to view. YouView is distinctly marketed although it provides the same free channels as Freeview as it uses the same transmitter network; the TV channels are transmitted in bundles, called multiplexes, the available channels are dependent on how many multiplexes are transmitted in each area.

Three multiplexes, carrying channels from BBC, ITV, Channel 4, S4C, Channel 5 as well as radio, are available to 98.5% of the population from 1,154 transmitters. A further 3 multiplexes transmit to 90% of homes from 80 transmitters, another 2 multiplexes are available to 76% of homes from 30 transmitters; the terrestrial service consisting of just the 3 public service multiplexes, available to 8.5% of the population, is informally called'Freeview Light' by some websites. In Northern Ireland, a multiplex carrying channels from the Republic of Ireland can reach 90% of Northern Irish homes from 3 transmitters. Local TV and radio is available from an additional multiplex at 42 transmitters. Catch-up TV services such as BBC iPlayer are available via the broadband connection of both Freeview and YouView receivers. On YouView, subscription-TV services from BT, TalkTalk and global-streaming services can be received via the broadband connection. SureTV offers a similar service in Guernsey and the Isle of Man.

Many regional companies developed cable-television services in the late 1990s. As of 2020 they have amalgamated in Virgin Media, available to 55% of households. Cable TV is a subscription service bundled with a phone line and broadband. WightFibre operates on the Isle of Wight, however it acts as a distributor for Sky and YouView instead of having an integrated TV service. There are three distinctly-marketed direct-broadcast satellite services. Sky TV is a subscription service operated by Sky Ltd, owned by Comcast, which launched in 1998 as SkyDigital. Compared to the previous analogue service, it provided more channels, interactive TV and a near video-on-demand service using staggered start times for pay-per-view content. Innovations since have included high definition, 3D TV, a digital video recorder, the ability to view recordings on other devices, remote operation via the Internet to add recordings, on-demand content via the satellite-receiver's broadband connection of both Sky and third-party TV.

The Sky subscription includes access to Sky Go, which allows mobile devices and computers to access subscription content via the Internet. Freesat from Sky is a free satellite-service owned by Sky Ltd. Existing Sky TV customers can end their ongoing subscriptions and opt for the Free-To-View viewing-card, which gives them the Freesat from Sky service. Freesat from Sky does not provide digital video-on-demand. Freesat from Sky has more channels than Freesat, which are international or shopping channels; the on-screen programme guide lists subscription channels thought they can't be viewed. Freesat is a free satellite-service developed jointly by the BBC and ITV. In contrast to Freesat from Sky, it does not need a viewing card. Like Sky, it provides high-definition content, digital recording and video-on-demand via the broadband connection; the on-screen programme guide lists the available channels, rather than encrypted channels which need a subscription to view. Freesat, Freesat from Sky and Sky TV transmit from SES Astra satellites at 28.2° east.

As the satellites are in geostationary orbit, they are positioned above the earth's equator 35,786 km above mean sea level. TV via the Internet can be streamed or downloaded, con

Shift (rapid transit)

Shift is the name of a proposed bus rapid transit network in London, consisting of two BRT corridors that meet at a central hub in downtown London. Construction is anticipated to begin in 2019; the project received C$170 million in funding from the Ontario government on January 15, 2018. The City of London updated its Transportation Master Plan in May 2013, providing a strategy for transportation and land use decisions to 2030 and beyond. One of its targets was to increase transportation mode share in the city from 12.5% to 20% by 2030, a key objective to achieve, to implement a BRT network. The proposed network consisted of an east-west corridor and a north-south corridor, both of which met in the downtown core; the city initiated planning for a rapid transit project in September 2014, branded it as "Shift" in January 2015. By November 2015, the envisioned network had changed the corridors to west-south. Overall, the network's two routes will be 24 kilometres long, have 34 stations. Stations will be spaced 600 to 800 metres apart.

One route will serve the north and east areas of the city, while the other will serve the west and south areas, both which meet at a central transit hub at Wellington and King streets in the downtown. The North-East Route's termini will be Fanshawe Park Road at Richmond Street, Second Street at Oxford Street East; the route will be aligned with Richmond Street and Dundas Streets, Highbury Avenue and Oxford Street East. The West-South Route's termini will be Fanshawe Park Road at Wellington Road south of Bradley Avenue, Wonderland Road and Oxford Street West; the route will be aligned with Wellington Street, Queens Avenue, Oxford Street West

Large White Ulster pig

The Large White Ulster, or Ulster White, was a breed of domestic pig. Bred for bacon production, it was the favoured breed of farmers in the north of Ireland up until the mid 20th century; the breed has been extinct since c.1960, with the last boar registered in 1956. By the end of the 19th century, the breed of pig seen in the northern counties of Ireland was of consistent type and differed from the crosses favoured in the south. A number of potential origins have been suggested for this breed. Up until the 1870s, the Berkshire pig had been the most popular breed in Ireland, but in the latter half of the century'improvement' efforts were concentrated on white-skinned Yorkshire types the Middle White, it is probable that the Ulster White was the result of such crosses with local strains; some authors asserted that it had some ancestry from the "Old Irish" or "Greyhound Pig" landrace of earlier times. The latter had been a long-legged, coarse-haired pig with white skin, it has been suggested that the Ulster White was either the direct product of selective breeding of the Old Irish or of early 19th century crosses between it and the Berkshire.

Whatever its exact origins, the Ulster White bred true to type. It was a medium-large sized pig and deep in the body, with distinctively pendulous ears and white, rather thin skin, it was finer-boned and haired, shorter legged, than the comparable Large White pig of England. It was popular with farmers as it was prolific and easy to look after, with the sows making good mothers; the breed put on weight and had a tendency to run to fat: it produced fat bacon, prized for its rich aroma when cooked. By the early years of the 20th century, the breed's characteristics had been refined and standardised; the Large White Ulster remained by far the most common breed in Northern Ireland until the 1940s, was prevalent in Donegal and Monaghan. At that time both the UK and Irish governments began to recommend standardisation of pig breeds: the Large White Ulster fell out of favour due to a demand for leaner bacon and due to the fact that the breed's thin skin made it unsuitable for live export; as bruising meant the meat would not be fit for the curing process, it was necessary for slaughter of the Large White Ulster breed to take place on the farm itself.

While, for a variety of historical reasons, a practice of farm slaughter was prevalent in Ulster well into the 20th century, the government desired to both encourage export and eliminate waste. In 1934, the Northern Irish government, concerned about lack of growth in the bacon and ham trade, decided not to license boars of the Ulster White breed. A 1947 report of the Agricultural Enquiry Committee for Northern Ireland stated "From the time, that the live pig market in the form of the shipping and Wiltshire trades was created it became evident that the Large White Ulster pig would have to be replaced"; the breed was supplanted by the Large White, became extinct by the early 1960s