Tempera known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium glutinous material such as egg yolk. Tempera refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are long-lasting, examples from the first century AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint consisting of pigment and binder used in the United States as poster paint is often referred to as "tempera paint," although the binders in this paint are different from traditional tempera paint; the term tempera is derived from the Late Latin distemperare. Tempera painting has been found on early Egyptian sarcophagi decorations. Many of the Fayum mummy portraits use tempera, sometimes in combination with encaustic. A related technique has been used in ancient and early medieval paintings found in several caves and rock-cut temples of India. High-quality art with the help of tempera was created in Bagh Caves between the late 4th and 10th centuries and in the 7th century in Ravan Chhaya rock shelter, Orissa.
The murals of the 3rd century Dura-Europos synagogue were created in tempera. The art technique was known from the classical world, where it appears to have taken over from encaustic painting and was the main medium used for panel painting and illuminated manuscripts in the Byzantine world and Medieval and Early Renaissance Europe. Tempera painting was the primary panel painting medium for nearly every painter in the European Medieval and Early renaissance period up to 1500. For example, most surviving panel paintings attributed to Michelangelo are executed in egg tempera, an exception being his Doni Tondo which uses both tempera and oil paint. Oil paint, which may have originated in Afghanistan between the 5th and 9th centuries and migrated westward in the Middle Ages superseded tempera. Oil replaced tempera as the principal medium used for creating artwork during the 15th century in Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe. Around 1500, oil paint replaced tempera in Italy. In the 19th and 20th centuries, there were intermittent revivals of tempera technique in Western art, among the Pre-Raphaelites, Social Realists, others.
Tempera painting continues to be used in Greece and Russia where it is the traditional medium for Orthodox icons. Tempera is traditionally created by hand-grinding dry powdered pigments into a binding agent or medium, such as egg yolk, milk and a variety of plant gums; the most common form of classical tempera painting is "egg tempera". For this form most only the contents of the egg yolk is used; the white of the egg and the membrane of the yolk are discarded. Egg yolk is used by itself with pigment; some agent is always added, in variable proportions. One recipe calls for vinegar, but only in small amounts. A few drops of vinegar will preserve the solution for a week. (1:3, 3 parts water, 1 part yolk. Some schools of egg tempera use various mixtures of egg water. Powdered pigment, or pigment, ground in distilled water, is placed onto a palette or bowl and mixed with a equal volume of the binder; some pigments require more binder, some require less. When used to paint icons on church walls, liquid myrrh is sometimes added to the mixture to give the paint a pleasing odor as worshipers may find the egg tempera somewhat pungent for quite some time after completion.
The paint mixture has to be adjusted to maintain a balance between a "greasy" and "watery" consistency by adjusting the amount of water and yolk. As tempera dries, the artist will add more water to preserve the consistency and to balance the thickening of the yolk on contact with air. Once prepared, the paint cannot be stored. Egg tempera is not waterproof. Different preparations use the egg white or the whole egg for a different effect. Other additives such as oil and wax emulsions can modify the medium. Egg tempera requires stiff boards. Adding oil in no more than a 1:1 ratio with the egg yolk by volume produces a water-soluble medium with many of the color effects of oil paint, although it cannot be painted thickly; some of the pigments used by medieval painters, such as cinnabar, orpiment, or lead white are toxic. Most artists today use modern synthetic pigments, which are less toxic but have similar color properties to the older pigments. So, many modern pigments are still dangerous unless certain precautions are taken.
Tempera paint dries rapidly. It is applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers. Tempera painting allows for great precision when used with traditional techniques that require the application of numerous small brush strokes applied in a cross-hatching technique; when dry, it produces a smooth matte finish. Because it cannot be applied in thick layers as oil paints can, tempera paintings have the deep color saturation that oil paintings can achieve because it can hold less pigment. In this respect, the colors of an unvarnished tempera painting resemble a pastel, although the color deepens if a varnish is applied. On the other hand, temp
WeDo Technologies was a multinational software corporation headquartered in Lisbon, that provided risk management and business management software as well as expert consulting and analytics to telecom and technology organizations worldwide. In 2019 it was acquired by Mobileum; the company was co-founded by Rui Paiva, Fernando Videira and João Moita on February 7, 2001. At the time of its acquisition, the company had over 200 customers, spread across 108 countries and around 600 employees, with offices in 15 countries, its worldwide annual revenue in 2018 was around €60 million. In August 2019, Mobileum announced the acquisition of WeDo Technologies. In 2018, WeDo Technologies was named a'Vendor to Watch' in industry analysts Gartner's "Market Trends: Maximizing the Value of Analytics, Artificial Intelligence and Automation in CSP Fraud Management" report, Frost & Sullivan awarded WeDo Technologies with the 2018 Global Market Leadership Award. WeDo Technologies’ RAID software is an end-to-end Revenue Assurance, Fraud Management and Business Control management platform that delivers Risk Management solutions, on premise or through the cloud.
It monitors and manages risks arriving from the release of traditional services such as data voice and SMS as well as new business offers such as 5G, Internet of Things connectivity, mobile payments. WeDo Technologies’ RAID software platform collects and integrates information from different business support sources into a central database, it applies business validation methods which are supported by a combination of machine learning and error detection pre-configuration comparison rules, which alert and detect mistakes and inconsistencies, whilst delivering lifecycle management through case management, with different KPIs and reporting. RAID revenue assurance incorporates several functional modules, such as: Provisioning assurance – Addresses leakage arising during order management and activation of customers and services Usage assurance – Identifies problem capturing, correlating and billing individual usage events Prepaid balance validation – Validation of prepaid balance functionality Rating validation – Monitoring and control of revenue leakage due to rating process errors Billing validation – End-to-end approach for monitoring and control revenue leakage in complex environments due to billing and invoicing errors RAID fraud management has several modules to target specific fraud types, utilizes machine learning to identify new threats.
The available modules include: Roaming fraud Sim box fraud International revenue share fraud High usage fraud Subscription fraud / synthetic identity theft Assets misappropriation fraud PBX hacking fraud Pre-paid fraud Wholesale fraud Dealers' fraud WeDo Technologies was a Gold level member of the Oracle PartnerNetwork. This relationship allowed both companies to develop a continuous collaborative innovation process that culminated in the Exadata optimized process for WeDo Technologies' enterprise business assurance software, RAID. WeDo Technologies' RAID software, running on Oracle Exadata Database Machine, achieved a processing throughput of up to 1 billion call records per hour during loading enrichment and aggregation, reducing space requirements for storing detailed call data by 13-fold when compared with raw data, by 8-fold when compared with Oracle standard compression. WeDo Technologies worked with IBM on a set of technical enablement plans in the telecom industry. In June 2012, WeDo Technologies’ RAID received certification for compliance with the Business Process Framework and the Information Framework components of TM Forum's Frameworx suite of standards.
WeDo Technologies had its global headquarters in Lisbon and its software house in Braga, Portugal. WeDo Technologies had offices in Spain, Ireland, United Kingdom, Mexico, Malaysia, US and Australia. WeDo Technologies Blog
The 39th Airlift Squadron is a United States Air Force unit based at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas. The unit flies the Lockheed C-130J Super Hercules, it is tasked to transport cargo and personnel, where circumstances require, airdrop them. It fought in the Pacific during the Second World War; the 39th conducted paratroop drops on Noemfoor, Luzon, as well as aerial transport in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II during World War II. The squadron participated in the Berlin Airlift in 1948, it was the squadron that provided disaster relief for the Peruvian earthquake in June 1970 conducting numerous missions to the people of Peru. It was part of airlift missions to Grenada, in October 1983, to Panama, December 1989 – January 1990, to Southwest Asia, August 1990 – March 1991. Operation Desert Storm Operation Southern Watch Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation New Dawn Operation Enduring Freedom Constituted as the 39th Transport Squadron on 2 February 1942Activated on 22 February 1942 Redesignated 39th Troop Carrier Squadron on 4 July 1942 Redesignated 39th Troop Carrier Squadron, Heavy, on 21 May 1948 Inactivated on 14 September 1949Redesignated 39th Troop Carrier Squadron, Medium on 3 July 1952Activated on 14 July 1952 Redesignated 39th Troop Carrier Squadron on 1 March 1966 Redesignated 39th Tactical Airlift Squadron on 1 May 1967 Inactivated on 31 July 1971Activated on 31 August 1971Redesignated 39th Airlift Squadron on 1 January 1992 Inactivated on 1 June 1992Activated on 1 October 1993 Douglas C-47 Skytrain Curtiss C-46 Commando Douglas C-54 Skymaster Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar Lockheed C-130 Hercules This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Ravenstein, Charles A.. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947–1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. Retrieved 17 December 2016