A temple is a building reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not used in English; these include Hinduism and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion. The form and function of temples is thus variable, though they are considered by believers to be in some sense the "house" of one or more deities. Offerings of some sort are made to the deity, other rituals enacted, a special group of clergy maintain, operate the temple; the degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly. Temples have a main building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings, or may be a dome shaped structure, much like an igloo; the word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur.
It has the same root as the word "template", a plan in preparation of the building, marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa became associated with the dwelling places of a god or gods. Despite the specific set of meanings associated with the word, it has now become used to describe a house of worship for any number of religions and is used for time periods prior to the Romans; the temple-building tradition of Mesopotamia derived from the cults of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion. It spanned several civilizations; the most common temple architecture of Mesopotamia is the structure of sun-baked bricks called a Ziggurat, having the form of a terraced step pyramid with a flat upper terrace where the shrine or temple stood. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion of a god". A god's presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual.
These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were, therefore, a key part of the maintenance of maat, the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. Ancient Egyptian temples were of economic significance to Egyptian society; the temples stored and redistributed grain and came to own large portions of the nation's arable land. In addition, many of these Egyptian temples utilized the Tripartite Floor Plan in order to draw visitors to the center room. Though today we call most Greek religious buildings "temples," the ancient Greeks would have referred to a temenos, or sacred precinct, its sacredness connected with a holy grove, was more important than the building itself, as it contained the open air altar on which the sacrifices were made. The building which housed the cult statue in its naos was a rather simple structure, but by the middle of the 6th century BCE had become elaborate.
Greek temple architecture had a profound influence on ancient architectural traditions. The rituals that located and sited Roman temples were performed by an augur through the observation of the flight of birds or other natural phenomenon. Roman temples faced east or toward the rising sun, but the specifics of the orientation are not known today. In ancient Rome only the native deities of Roman mythology had a templum; the Romans referred to a holy place of a pagan religion as fanum. Medieval Latin writers sometimes used the word templum reserved for temples of the ancient Roman religion. In some cases it is hard to determine whether a temple was an outdoor shrine. For temple buildings of the Vikings, the Old Norse term hof is used. A Zoroastrian temple may be called a Dar-e-mehr and an Atashkadeh. A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form, their temples contains an eternal flame, with Atash Behram as the highest grade of all, as it combines 16 different types of fire gathered in elaborate rituals.
In the Zoroastrian religion, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies is regarded as the basis of ritual life," which, "are the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple fire is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". Hindu temples are known by many different names, varying on region and language, including Alayam, Mandira, Gudi, Koil, Kovil, Déul, Devasthana, Deva Mandiraya and Devalaya. A Hindu temple is the seat and dwelling of Hindu gods, it is a structure designed to bring human gods together according to Hindu faith. Inside its Garbhagriha innermost sanctum, a Hindu temple contains a Hindu god's image. Hindu temples are magnificent with a rich history. There is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age and during the Indus Valley Civilization. Outside of the Indian subcontinent (India
Gunnar Örn Örlygsson is an Icelandic politician and former basketball player. Gunnar was a member of Alþingi for the Liberal Party from 2003 until he split from the party in 2005 and joined the Independence Party for whom he served as a parliamentarian until 2007. Gunnar played 11 seasons in the Icelandic top-tier Úrvalsdeild karla, he was the chairman of Ungmennafélag Njarðvíkur basketball department from 2014 to December 2016. In 1991, he won the three-point shooting contest at the Icelandic All-Star game. In 2000, Gunnar's driving license was suspended three times after drunk driving. In 2003, Gunnar was sentenced to 6 months in prison for falsifying accounting records, he was released from prison to a halfway house in September 2003. Gunnar is the brother of former Icelandic national team players Sturla Örlygsson and Teitur Örlygsson, he is uncle of Örlygur Aron Sturluson and Margrét Kara Sturludóttir who both played for the Icelandic national teams. Althing biography Úrvalsdeild karla statistics at kki.is
Costas N. Papanicolas is a Nuclear and Particle Physicist with over 35 years of experience as a researcher, an educator and a scientific administrator, he received his B. Sc. in Physics and PhD in Nuclear Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA. His research interests lie on the fields of Hadronic Physics, in Solar Energy and Energy Policy. Papanicolas has held positions at the French Atomic Energy Commission and has served as Professor of Physics at the University of Illinois, at the University of Athens, he has served as the Founding Director of the Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications in Greece. Since 2008 he holds the positions of President of The Cyprus Institute and of CEO of the Cyprus Research and Educational Foundation. In 2019 he was appointed as advisor to the President of the Republic of Cyprus and Special Envoy on Climate Change. During his career he held a numerous positions in various organizations, he has served as member of the National Advisory Council for Research and the National Council for Research and Technology of Greece.
He was Chair of the Cyprus-CERN Committee, Vice-Chair of the Cyprus Scientific Council, the senior advisory scientific body to the Cyprus Government, member of the National Research Council of Cyprus, chaired by the President of the Republic of Cyprus. Prof. Papanicolas has over 120 publications in peer-reviewed journals, numerous conference proceedings and holds two patents, he is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and a member of Academia Europaea, a member of the Silk Road Academy of Sciences, a founding member of the Cyprus Academy of Sciences and the Arts. He has received numerous awards, including the bestowment of “Medal of Excellence for Service to the Cyprus Republic” and the decoration as “Commendatore dell’Ordine della Stella d’Italia”
Townes–Brocks syndrome is a rare genetic disease, described in 200 cases in the published literature. It affects both females equally; the condition was first identified in 1972. By Philip L. Townes, at the time a human geneticists and Professor of Pediatrics, Eric Brocks, at the time a medical student, both at the University of Rochester. TBS patients may have the following symptoms: Abnormalities of the external ears, dysplastic ears, lop ear, preauricular tags or pits. Anorectal malformations, including imperforate anus/absence of an anal opening, rectovaginal fistula, anal stenosis, unusually placed anus. Renal abnormalities, sometimes leading to impaired renal function or renal failure, including hypoplastic kidneys, multicystic kidneys, dysplastic kidneys. Heart abnormalities, including tetralogy of fallot and defects of the ventricular septum. Hand and foot abnormalities, such as hypoplastic thumbs, fingerlike thumbs, fusion of the wrist bones, overlapping foot and/or toe bones. Learning difficulties have been reported in some children with TBS.
For others, intelligence is within the normal range. These abnormalities, which are present prenatally, can range from minor to severe, as with similar disorders, most individuals with this condition have some, but not all, of these traits. TBS is an autosomal dominant involving the a mutation of the gene SALL1, which encodes a transcriptional repressor which interacts with TRF1/PIN2 and localizes to pericentromeric heterochromatin; the clinical features of TBS overlap with VATER and VACTERL associations, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, branchio-oto-renal syndrome, Fanconi anemia and other'anus-hand-ear' syndromes. Although some symptoms can be life-threatening, many people diagnosed with Townes-Brocks Syndrome live a normal lifespan. GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Townes-Brocks Syndrome
The 1981 NCAA Division II football season, part of college football in the United States organized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division II level, began in August 1981, concluded with the NCAA Division II Football Championship on December 12, 1981, at McAllen Veterans Memorial Stadium in McAllen, Texas. During the game's five-year stretch in McAllen, the "City of Palms", it was referred to as the Palm Bowl. Southwest Texas State defeated North Dakota State in the championship game, 42–13, to win their first Division II national title. Prior to the 1981 season, the Mid-Continent Conference was shifted from Division II to Division I-AA. Northern Michigan and Youngstown State, members of the Mid-Continent the previous season, departed the league before the shift. NMU remained in Division II while YSU departed for the Ohio Valley Conference in Division I-AA; the 1981 NCAA Division II Football Championship playoffs were the ninth single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division II college football.
The championship game was held at McAllen Veterans Memorial Stadium in McAllen, for the first time. 1981 NAIA Division I football season 1981 NAIA Division II football season
Finnieston railway station was located in Glasgow and served the Finnieston area of that city. On the Glasgow City and District Railway it was located on the modern North Clyde line close to where it emerges from west end of Finnieston Tunnel from Charing Cross near Argyle Street and Finnieston Street. In June 2018, it was revealed that the local community council was considering reopening the station. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. Picture at RCAHMS